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Reducing Composite Defects in Blade Manufacturing

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3M has been the pioneer in developing process aids (eg. Dry Lay Up Adhesive – DLUA) to reduce defects such as waves, wrinkles, fiber misalignment etc. 3M’s proven solution has been used successfully in the market for more than a decade.

3M’s introduces the innovative Dry Lay Up Adhesive 2.0 which has revolutionized the spray adhesive solution for composites. DLUA 2.0 is a low VOC spray adhesive (can be used in all 50 states), which is compatible with the most commonly used resin systems and has innovative color changing technology which helps to control the application without affecting the aesthetics of the final part.

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Reducing Composite Defects in Blade Manufacturing

  1. 1. #WindWebinar Reducing Composite Defects in Blade Manufacturing
  2. 2. #WindWebinar q  This webinar will be available afterwards at www.windpowerengineering.com & email q  Q&A at the end of the presentation q  Hashtag for this webinar: #WindWebinar Before We Start
  3. 3. #WindWebinar Paul Dvorak Editorial Director - Moderator Windpower Engineering & Development Santhosh Chandrabalan Technical Business Development Leader – Wind Energy 3M Wind Energy Reducing Composite Defects in Blade Manufacturing Featured Speaker…
  4. 4. 3M Deutschland GmbH 4 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M Dry Lay Up Adhsive 2.0 Effective Innovation Santhosh K Chandrabalan 3M Renewable Energy Division
  5. 5. 3M Deutschland GmbH 5 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M
  6. 6. 3M Deutschland GmbH 6 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M 3M Renewable Energy Division – Wind Energy §  3M enabling more efficient and reliable Wind Turbine Rotor Blades produced and maintained faster and safer §  Leveraging 3M’s core competencies in the field of films, adhesives, tapes, coatings and the inventive power of 40+ additional corporate technology platforms Bi Biotech Ce Ceramics Dd Drug Delivery Di Display Do Dental & Orthodontic Materials Ec Energy Components Em Electronic Materials Fc Flexible Converting & Packaging Fe Flexible Electronics Fs Filtration, Separation, Purification Fi Films Im Imaging Fl Fluoromaterials In Inspection & Measurement Is Integrated Systems Design Lm Light Management Md Medical Data Management Me Metal Matrix Composites Mf Mechanical Fasteners Mi Microbial Detection & Control Mo Molding Mr Microreplication Pe Predictive Engineering & Modeling Nt Nanotechnology Nw Nonwoven Materials Rp Radiation Processing Se Sensors Po Porous Materials & Membranes Pm Polymer Melt Processing Wo Wound Management Vp Vapor Processing Su Surface Modification Sm Specialty Materials Op Optoelectronics Pd Particle & Dispersion Processing Pr Process Design & Control Pp Precision Processing Tt Track and Trace We Accelerated Weathering Ab Abrasives Ac Acoustics Ad Adhesives Am Advanced Materials An Analytical As Application Software
  7. 7. 3M Deutschland GmbH 7 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M Innovative Solutions for the Wind Industry Rotorblade Surface Rotorblade Structure Rotorblade Process Vortex Generators Aerodynamic Optimization of Installed Wind Turbines with customized enhancement solutions Blade Bonding Adhesive offering long pot life and s=ll 50% faster cure - addi=onally increasing crack resistance/fa=gue behaviour Dry Layup Adhesive Red colored spray adhesive to efficiently fix the fiber mats during dry layup Erosion Protec9on Solu9ons Tapes and new coa=ng offering best-in-class erosion resistance and interes=ng process-related advantages in the blade produc=on §  Reduce cycle =me §  Lower blade costs §  Faster, efficient blade throughput §  Increase strength §  Decrease weight §  Lower blade costs §  Reduce cycle =me §  Enhance mechanical proper=es §  Improve laminate quality §  Improve resistance to erosion §  An=-Icing and An=-Fouling §  Reduce cycle =me §  Improve aerodynamics §  Reduce interference with radar §  Easier to maintain Nano Matrix Resin Innova=ve resins significantly increasing many mechanical proper=es including compression strength of CFRP spar caps Wind Repair Fillers Easy and fast to apply filler offering significant =me savings before sanding
  8. 8. 3M Deutschland GmbH 8 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M 3M™ W7900 – Revolutionary composite spray adhesive Problem §  Holding fiberglass on vertical surface is a challenge in the wind blade lay up process §  Traditional method to tack fiberglass layers is very time consuming §  Traditional method to tack layers of fiberglass is labor intensive and operator dependent §  Fiberglass movement can cause wrinkles and waves in the final laminate §  Need to be an EHS safe solution §  Need a visual control without sacrificing end part quality §  Not to have minimum intrusion to Composite Mechanical properties Features §  Meeting most stringent EHS regulations (Meet's California's EHS Requirements) §  Non particle based sprayable system – Less hindrance on mechanical properties §  Fast tacking with a long work time range from 15 seconds to 30 minutes §  Green color providing visual application control §  Innovative color changing feature has little to no effect on final visual part quality §  Robotic application possible Advantages §  Reduce the amount of time required for dry layup
  9. 9. 3M Deutschland GmbH 9 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M Fiber Glass Lay Up Aids Past Present - Spray Future – DLUA 2.0 4X Application Past - Spray DLUA Green to Clear w Epoxy
  10. 10. 3M Deutschland GmbH 10 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M DLUA 2.0 Product Overview
  11. 11. 3M Deutschland GmbH 11 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M W7900 Color Changing Effect – In Infusion Visual Application Control No Impact on Final Part Appearance
  12. 12. 3M Deutschland GmbH 12 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M Standard Spray Adhesives vs DLUA 2.0 3M DLUA 2.0Standard Particle Spray § Particle based bonding § Red color § Minimum intrusion to infusion § Minimum effect on Composites mechanical § Designed to provide process and quality benefits § Chemical bonding § Green to clear § Little to no intrusion to the infusion process § Expected to have least effect on Composites mechanical § Designed to provide process and quality benefits combined with final aesthetics Standard Lace Spray § Contact adhesive – Designed to bond to itself § Higher product concentration needed for adequate bonding § Intrusive for infusion process due to lace patterns § Residual stress and loss in mechanical properties due to lace pattern
  13. 13. 3M Deutschland GmbH 13 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M ** Per John Mandell and David Miller, PhD, the delamination load is approximately proportional to the square root of the delamination energy values, GIC & GIIC * As per MSU Testing Property Control DLUA Typical Application Level (2010) DLUA 2.0 Typical Application Level (2015) 0 g/m2 ~ 0.5 g/ft2 ~ 0.5 g/ft2 Fatigue --- No change No change Tensile Strength - Longitudinal --- No change No change Tensile Strength - Transverse --- No change No change Compression Strength - Longitudinal --- No change No change Compression Strength - Transverse --- No change No change Short Beam Shear Strength --- -15% No change ENF Mode II Fracture Toughness Energy, GIIC Approximate ENF Load, GIIC 1/2** --- -15% -8% No change No change DCB Mode I Fracture Toughness, GIC Approximate DCB Load, GIIC 1/2** --- No change No change No change No change DLUA vs DLUA 2.0 – Recommended Level (Montana State University) No change on final composite properties*
  14. 14. 3M Deutschland GmbH 14 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M ** Per John Mandell and David Miller, PhD, the delamination load is approximately proportional to the square root of the delamination energy values, GIC & GIIC * As per MSU testing Property Control DLUA Over Application (2010) DLUA 2.0 Over Application (2015) 0 g/m2 15.0 g/m2 15.0 g/m2 Fatigue --- No change No change Tensile Strength - Longitudinal --- No change No change Tensile Strength - Transverse --- No change No change Compression Strength - Longitudinal --- No change No change Compression Strength - Transverse --- No change No change Short Beam Shear Strength --- -40% -25% ENF Mode II Fracture Toughness Energy, GIIC Approximate ENF Load, GIIC 1/2** --- -37% -20% -24% -13% DCB Mode I Fracture Toughness, GIC Approximate DCB Load, GIIC 1/2** --- No change No change No change No change DLUA vs DLUA 2.0 – 3X Application (Montana State University) Minimum effect on final laminate even at 3X application*
  15. 15. 3M Deutschland GmbH 15 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M Standard Spray Adhesives vs DLUA 2.0 – “Nozzle Plugging” §  Clogged traditional spray adhesives à cleaning of nozzle required §  No clogged nozzle of green spray can (DLUA 2.0)
  16. 16. 3M Deutschland GmbH 16 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M 3M™ DLUA vs DLUA 2.0 – Higher Shear and Peel Provides higher Shear & Peel Properties to hold the reinforcement in place with single (one side) application Shear Peel
  17. 17. 3M Deutschland GmbH 17 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M DLUA 2.0 EHS Overview § Newly developed product with a unique formulation from other 3M spray adhesives § DLUA 2.0 and standard spray systems are completely different (Both in formulation and bonding mechanism) § Differences in formula vs. standard spray ―  Different solvent systems: DLUA 2.0 is acetone/ cyclohexane based and standard spray systems are dimethyl ether/ methyl acetate/ cyclohexane based ―  W7900 has a green dye so it will be visible when you use it. Therefore, you can accurately use the correct amount ―  With <25% VOC, its the only formulation that is accepted by most stringent EHS regulations (California Regulations)
  18. 18. 3M Deutschland GmbH 18 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M Innovati ve Color Change Better EHS <25% VOC** Better Composite Properties No Impact on Mechanical Properties* Robust Improved Sprayability DLUA 2.0 – In Summary *when applied at recommended levels as per Montana State University testing **in accordance to US EHS regulations
  19. 19. 3M Deutschland GmbH 19 3 November 2015. All Rights Reserved.© 3M Making progress possible Santhosh Krishna Chandrabalan Technical Business Development Leader Wind Energy - Renewable Energy Division E-Mail: schandrabalan@mmm.com Tel: 651-230-5043 www.3M.com/wind
  20. 20. #WindWebinar Paul Dvorak Editorial Director - Moderator Windpower Engineering & Development Santhosh Chandrabalan Technical Business Development 3M Wind Energy schandrabalan@mmm.com Reducing Composite Defects in Blade Manufacturing Questions? @Windpower_Eng
  21. 21. #WindWebinar Thank You q  This webinar will be available at www.windpowerengineering.com & email q  Tweet with hashtag #WindWebinar q  Connect with Windpower Engineering & Development q  Discuss this on EngineeringExchange.com

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