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Effective Ways to Prevent Wind Blade Erosion

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Maximizing efficiency of wind turbines is a vital consideration for operators, and managing erosion is a vital method to achieve this. Studies have consistently shown that erosion can lead to a loss in annual energy production (AEP) of up to 20% on severe cases. This figure is hard to ignore, and highlights the ROI benefits that can be achieved from paying close attention to erosion. The heart of the issue is the fact that wind blades come into contact with various elements in the air at rotation speeds up to 250 mph, leading to erosion in the form of pitting, gouging and delamination of the edge of the blade. This erosion not only compromises the integrity of the blade, but also impacts its aerodynamic efficiency, causing a significant loss in AEP. This loss can be compounded by the downtime necessary to make repairs to turbines, so owners have important motivations for protecting blades against erosion and making repairs quickly. In severe cases of erosion can even lead up to blade replacement which can get very expensive.
3M™ Wind Energy has extensive experience managing erosion, understanding the causes and effects of leading edge erosion, and bringing education to the industry on this problem. We have had decades of experience in understanding erosions and how to effectively prevent this.

Published in: Engineering
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Effective Ways to Prevent Wind Blade Erosion

  1. 1. #WindWebinar
  2. 2. #WindWebinar q  This webinar will be available afterwards at www.windpowerengineering.com & email q  Q&A at the end of the presentation q  Hashtag for this webinar: #WindWebinar Before We Start
  3. 3. #WindWebinar Introducing the Featured Speakers MODERATOR FEATURED SPEAKER Santhosh Chandrabalan Global Business Manager 3M Wind Energy Paul Dvorak Editorial Director Windpower Engineering
  4. 4. #WindWebinar Latest Protection Methods Against Leading Edge Erosion For Increased Tip Speeds Santhosh K Chandrabalan Global Business Manager – Wind Energy 3M Renewable Energy Division
  5. 5. #WindWebinar
  6. 6. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar 6 © 3M 2014. All rights reserved. §  3M enables more efficient and more reliable wind turbines, built faster and safer §  Leveraging 3M’s core competencies in the field of films, adhesives, tapes, coa5ngs and the inven<ve power of 40+ addi<onal corporate technology plaAorms Bi Biotech Ce Ceramics Dd Drug Delivery Di Display Do Dental & Orthodontic Materials Ec Energy Components Em Electronic Materials Fc Flexible Converting & Packaging Fe Flexible Electronics Fs Filtration, Separation, Purification Fi Films Im Imaging Fl Fluoromaterials In Inspection & Measurement Is Integrated Systems Design Lm Light Management Md Medical Data Management Me Metal Matrix Composites Mf Mechanical Fasteners Mi Microbial Detection & Control Mo Molding Mr Microreplication Pe Predictive Engineering & Modeling Nt Nanotechnology Nw Nonwoven Materials Rp Radiation Processing Se Sensors Po Porous Materials & Membranes Pm Polymer Melt Processing Wo Wound Management Vp Vapor Processing Su Surface Modification Sm Specialty Materials Op Optoelectronics Pd Particle & Dispersion Processing Pr Process Design & Control Pp Precision Processing Tt Track and Trace We Accelerated Weathering Ab Abrasives Ac Acoustics Ad Adhesives Am Advanced Materials An Analytical As Application Software 3M Renewable Energy Division – Wind Energy
  7. 7. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar 7 © 3M 2014. All rights reserved. Vortex Generators Aerodynamic Optimization of Installed Wind Turbines with customized enhancement solutions Blade Bonding Adhesive Offering long pot life and s<ll 50% faster cure - addi<onally increasing crack resistance and fa<gue behavior Dry Layup Adhesive Red colored spray adhesive to efficiently fix the fiber mats during dry layup Erosion Protec5on Solu5ons Tapes & Coa<ng offering superior erosion resistance and process- advantages in blade produc<on §  Reduce cycle <me §  Decrease variability §  Increase blade throughput §  Lower process cost §  Increase strength §  Decrease weight §  Enhance mechanical proper<es §  Improve laminate quality §  Lower blade cost §  Improve resistance to erosion §  Improve aerodynamics §  Enable aTachments to surface §  Simplify maintenance §  Lower O&M cost Rotorblade Surface Rotorblade Structure Rotorblade Process Acrylic Foam Tapes For mess-free bonding applications that require high durability and bonding strength while being mess- free and fast to apply Wind Fillers Easy and fast to apply filler offering significant <me savings before sanding Sealants & Adhesives High-performance sealing and bonding materials for all areas of the blade 3M`s Wind PorAolio
  8. 8. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Field Pictures of Leading Edge Erosion Source: WKA/GES & DRTS
  9. 9. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Higher Requirements for Surface Integrity §  Longer blades with higher <p speeds §  Offshore installa<ons §  Installa<ons in other demanding environments (e.g. deserts and cold climates) §  Current commercial available products do not meet erosion resistance requirements Source: LM Wind Power – IQPC & Sandia
  10. 10. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Erosion - Observa<ons from the Field §  Erosion is a severe problem and can be seen on all blades §  … irrespec<ve of the turbine loca<on (Onshore, Offshore, Nearshore, Mountains) §  … irrespec<ve of the hub height (30m – 110m). §  … irrespec<ve of the paint/coa<ng system used (Gelcoat, Topcoat) §  … irrespec<ve of the blade length (10m – 45m). §  … irrespec<ve of the Wind Turbine Generator manufacturer (A Alstom – Z Zond) §  Erosion is very much depending on §  … the environmental condi<ons at the turbine loca<on §  ... the quality of the blade structure and the finishing §  … the actual <p speed of the turbine §  A combina<on of high par<cle loaded air and rain has a significant erosion impact
  11. 11. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Effects of Blade Leading Edge Erosion on Wind Turbine Output
  12. 12. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Wind Tunnel Studies at University of Illinois §  Test Loca<on: §  University of Illinois Applied Aerodynamics Group §  Prof Michael Selig & Agrim Sareen §  Objec<ve: §  Determine impact of leading edge erosion on aerodynamics (lij and drag) at several different Reynolds numbers (here Re 1,850,000) on a DU 96-W-180 wind turbine airfoil profile §  Es<mate power output (AEP – Annual Energy Produc<on) for each scenario using PROPID sojware
  13. 13. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Erosion Condi<ons Evaluated §  Created subscale airfoils with leading edge damage using computer generated random Gaussian distribu<ons §  3 of the 9 levels of erosion evaluated are highlighted in this presenta<on A2 – Moderate Pitting B3 – Pits + Gouges C4 – Pits, Gouges & Delamination *Model cord length is 18 inches
  14. 14. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Leading Edge Status rDrag (Measured) r Lift (Measured) rAEP (Simulated) rMWh / yr r€ / yr A2 Erosion Moderate Pitting “80% ”11% ”4.2% ”166 ”8,300€ B3 Erosion Pits & Gouges “200% ”15% ”9.8% ”386 ”19,300€ C4 Erosion Pits, Gouges & Delam “400% ”17% ”20.5% ”808 ”40,400€ Assumptions: 1.5 MW turbine, €50/ MWh, 30% capacity factor Effect of Leading Edge Erosion on Turbine Output Onshore – 1.5MW
  15. 15. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Benefits of Leading Edge Repair & Protec<on Source: LM Wind Power – UWIG Wind Turbine Opera<ons and Maintenance Users Group Mee<ng
  16. 16. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Products: 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Tape Features & Benefits of a Proven Solu<on 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Tape Features §  High durability ensuring long life<me §  Based on over 40 years of 3M Protec<on Film experience in aircraj applica<ons and §  More than 150,000 protected wind turbine rotor blades since 1994 §  Available in various colors (offering superior UV resistance) 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Tape Advantages §  Significant reduc<on of leading edge erosion §  Extended maintenance and service intervals §  Fast & ease of applica<on in OEM and MRO environments §  Broad applica<on window enabling installa<ons also under harsh environmental condi<ons (e.g. high humidity levels)
  17. 17. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Benefits of Leading Edge Repair & Protec<on Onshore – 1.5MW Leading Edge Status rAEP Avg. Materials & Installation Cost per Blade Downtime per Turbine (days) Years of Service ROI (months) NPV A2 Erosion - 4.2% 2,250 € 1 – 2 0.5 – 4 2.7 64,036 € B3 Erosion -9.8% 3,250 € 1.5 – 3 1 – 6 1.8 152,788 € C4 Erosion -20.5% 4,750 € 5 – 6 1.5 – 7 1.7 320.164 € Example Calculation Assumption: 1.5 MW turbine, €50/ MWh, 30% capacity factor, NPV: straight line, 5 yr, 15% IRR
  18. 18. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Conclusion: Preven<on is more efficient than Repair Erosion is a severe issue on almost all rotor blades Erosion can cause significant AEP reduc<ons §  Pits and gouges reduce AEP from 4% up to 10% §  Delamina<on reduces AEP up to 20% Preventa<ve blade repair & protec<on reduces down<me and costs §  Repair of erosion can cost up to 5.000 Euro Onshore & 44.000 € Offshore §  3M Wind Protec<on Tape provide 5 - 10 years of leading edge protec<on §  ROIs from all scenarios studied were less than 5 months
  19. 19. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Tes<ng Methods for Blade Leading Edge Erosion on Wind Turbine Output
  20. 20. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Advanced Rain Erosion Tests Methods can simulate what the Blade experiences in Real-Life Source: LM Wind Power – IQPC
  21. 21. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar §  Shock waves run though substrate and water droplet §  Rayleigh waves run over substrate §  Wasser jets run over substrate surface Rain Erosion - Impact Physics §  “Hard materials” start to break/blister, i.e. materials start eroding earlier §  “Elas<c materials” absorb energy
  22. 22. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Source: http://www.poly-tech.dk §  Standard Test Parameters §  Rota<onal Speed: 125-157 m/s §  Rain: 25-35 mm/h §  Droplet Size: 1-2 mm §  Specimen: Leading edge profile Helicopter Rain Erosion Tests Source: UDRI & PolyTech
  23. 23. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Rain Erosion Tests – PolyTech Compe<<ve Materials (Special LEP Coa<ngs) Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  24. 24. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Rain Erosion Tests – PolyTech Compe<<ve Materials (Special LEP Coa<ngs) Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 140, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  25. 25. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Rain Erosion Tests – PolyTech Compe<<ve Materials (Special LEP Coa<ngs) Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  26. 26. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Rain Erosion Tests – PolyTech 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Tape W8607 Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  27. 27. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Rain Erosion Tests – PolyTech 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Coa<ng W4600 Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  28. 28. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Rain Erosion Tests ajer UV Exposure – PolyTech 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Coa<ng W4600 §  Erosion Resistance of 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Coa<ng W4600 is not significantly influenced by UV exposure §  §  UVA-340 lamps match the solar UV spectrum well, especially from 295 to 370 nm §  UVB-313 lamps include significant unnatural radia<on below the solar cut-off of 295 nm §  3M uses and recommends UVA-340 lamps for accelerated weathering that makes use of UV fluorescent lamps No influence even ajer 4000h UV
  29. 29. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Products: Introducing the Next Genera<on LEP Protec<on 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Coa<ng W4601 §  W4601 project was ini<ated with the following objec<ves §  Keep the leading edge performance of W4600 and make it robust §  Increase the applica<on window for W4600 §  Reduce the curing <me of exis<ng W4600 §  W4600 formula<on was the star<ng point of W4601 §  Product robustness was achieved by adding 3M Proprietary fluoropolymer §  This addi<ve extends the applica<on window for W4601 up to 85% RH without any loss in performance §  The original formula<on was improved to reduce curing <me to 2 hours
  30. 30. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Introducing the Next Genera<on LEP Protec<on 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Coa<ng W4601 Criteria W4600 W4601 Thixotropy/Sagging 300µm 350µm Curing Touch dry time ~ 1-1,5h, Hard dry ~ 8 h, (cured at 23°C, 50% RH) Touch dry time ~ 25 min, Hard dry ~ 1 h, (cured at 23°C, 50% RH) Tensile ~900% Elongation at Break 27MPa Tensile Strength (cured at 23°C, 50% RH) ~700% Elongation at Break 30 Mpa Tensile Strength (cured at 23°C, 50% RH) Application Window Loss in Rain Erosion Properties as humidity increases (similar to standard coatings) RET shows no drop in performance after 18h RET at 85% RH Applicability Brush and Casting Brush, Spray and Casting Mixing 1.5:1 3:1 (standard cartridges) Crysttalization If material is crystallized material should be recovered by oven storing for 8h at 40°C Material shows recovering properties, no oven storage needed
  31. 31. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Key Applica<on Factors Influencing Product Performance Application Factor Theoritical Impact on Erosion Resistance Coating Thickness below recommended level - Coating Thickness above recommended level + Humidty during Application & Cure - Surface Roughness - Toughness of LEP + Poor Adhesion between Surface Layers - Filler O / - Topcoat O / - Poor finish Quality (e.g. air entrapment) - -+ O neutralpositive negative
  32. 32. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar 36+ Hour Consistently Proven Performance §  Profiles Brushed with W4601 §  Recommended applica<on thickness §  2X Recommended applica<on thickness §  4X Recommended applica<on thickness §  Profiles with W4601 + PU Filler §  Recommended applica<on thickness §  3X Recommended applica<on thickness §  Profiles Casted §  Recommended applica<on thickness §  3X Recommended applica<on thickness
  33. 33. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm Rain Erosion Tests of NextGen Coa<ng – PolyTech 3M Wind Blade Protec<on Coa<ng W4601 cured at 23° and 85% r.H.
  34. 34. #WindWebinar Profile brushed, Cured at 23/50, two times (~ 400-500 µm) Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  35. 35. #WindWebinar Profile brushed, Cured at 23/50, four times (800-1000µm) Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  36. 36. #WindWebinar 1mm PU Filler (W3610) underneath, Profile casted 1 time ,Cured at 23/50; (~350µm) Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  37. 37. #WindWebinar 1mm PU Filler (W3610) underneath, Profile casted 3 times, Cured at 23/50; (~1000µm) Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  38. 38. #WindWebinar Profile casted one time (~350 µm); Cured at 23/80 Test Specifica<ons: V<p [m/s] 157, Rain [mm/h] 30-35mm, Droplet Size [mm] 1-2mm
  39. 39. 3M Renewable Energy Division #WindWebinar Key Take-Aways §  Erosion §  Erosion is impac<ng the aerodynamic efficiency of a turbine (up to 20%) §  BeTer Test Standards have to be developed §  Rain Erosion (Helicopter) Tests are the right intermediate step §  UVA should be used to age materials §  3M is the leading supplier of erosion protec<on solu<ons §  3M Wind Blade Protec<on Tape §  More than 15 years of experience in the wind industry §  S<ll benchmark in regard to erosion protec<on of rotor blades §  Current developments to improve ease-of-applica<on and durability §  3M Wind Blade Protec<on Coa<ng W4600 and now W4601 §  Liquid VOC-free alterna<ve to our Wind Tape §  Even beTer performance than 3M Wind Protec<on Tape in erosion tes<ng §  Quick and easy to apply - with no need for capital investment
  40. 40. #WindWebinar Questions? Santhosh Chandrabalan Global Business Manager 3M Wind Energy schandrabalan@mmm.com Tel: 651-733-7740 Paul Dvorak Editorial Director Windpower Engineering pdvorak@wtwhmedia.com @Windpower_Eng
  41. 41. #WindWebinar q  This webinar will be available at www.windpowerengineering.com & email q  Tweet with hashtag #WindWebinar q  Connect with Windpower Engineering & Development q  Discuss this on EngineeringExchange.com Don’t Forget!
  42. 42. #WindWebinar

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