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Need to Cite?
Presentation by Michael Scanlon, Sheryl Scanlon,
and Kate Cottle
What Must be Cited?
▪ Paraphrases (rephrased material)
▪ Summarized material
▪ Phrases taken from sources
– 2 words or more
▪ Use of an author's argument or line of thinking
▪ Historical, statistical, or scientific facts
▪ Articles or studies you may refer to within your text
(American PsychologicalAssociation [APA], 2009; Perrin, 2012)
What Does NOT Need to be Cited?
▪ Proverbs, axioms, and sayings ("A stitch in time saves
▪ Well-known quotations ("The personal is political.")
▪ Common knowledge (Thomas Edison invented the
phonograph, oxygen's atomic number is 8, orVincent
Van Gogh painted "Starry Night.")
– Rule of thumb: if you can find the information in ten sources exactly the
same, it's common knowledge
– However, if it is specific to your profession and people outside of it may not
know it, then cite it.
(APA, 2009; Perrin, 2012)
So, Again,What Needs to Be Cited?
▪ If the thought did not originate with you, you must
▪ If the thought did not originate with you, but
everyone knows it (including people outside of your
field), you don’t need to cite it.
▪ If you’re not sure whether to cite it or not, cite it.
▪ You can’t go wrong with being cautious, especially
when it comes to APA and academic writing.
American Psychological Association. (2009.) Publication manual of
the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).
Washington, DC: Author.
Perrin, R. (2012). Pocket guide to APA style (4th ed.). Boston, MA:
Easy to follow citing steps for beginner and advanced APA writers.