OPERATING
SYSTEM
CONCEPTS
NINTH EDITION
OPERATING
SYSTEM
CONCEPTS
ABRAHAM SILBERSCHATZ
Yale University

PETER BAER GALVIN
Pluribus Networks

GREG GAGNE
Westminste...
ȱ
ViceȱPresidentȱandȱExecutiveȱPublisherȱ ȱ
ȱ
DonȱFowleyȱ
ExecutiveȱEditorȱ ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
ȱ
BethȱLangȱGolubȱ
EditorialȱAssistantȱ ...
To my children, Lemor, Sivan, and Aaron
and my Nicolette
Avi Silberschatz

To Brendan and Ellen,
and Barbara, Anne and Har...
Preface
Operating systems are an essential part of any computer system. Similarly,
a course on operating systems is an ess...
viii

Preface

Computing Society and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
Consideration was also given to the fe...
Preface

ix

performance bottleneck, we also examine performance issues associated
with I/O devices.

• Protection and sec...
x

Preface

We have also made substantial organizational changes. For example, we
have eliminated the chapter on real-time...
Preface

xi

• Chapter 14, Protection, has no major changes.
• Chapter 15, Security, has a revised cryptography section wi...
xii

Preface

We have chosen these three programming environments because we
believe that they best represent the two most...
Preface

xiii

• Solutions to practice exercises
• Study guide for students
• Errata
Notes to Instructors
On the website f...
xiv

Preface

use to other readers, such as programming exercises, project suggestions,
on-line labs and tutorials, and te...
Preface

xv

Our Executive Editor, Beth Lang Golub, provided expert guidance as we
prepared this edition. She was assisted...
Contents
PART ONE
Chapter 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8

OVERVIEW

Introduction

What Operating Systems Do 4
Computer-...
xviii

Contents

Chapter 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

Overview 163
Multicore Programming 166
Multithreading Models 169
Thread Li...
Contents

Chapter 9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7

xix

Virtual Memory

Background 397
Demand Paging 401
Copy-on-Write 408
P...
xx

Contents

PART FIVE
Chapter 14

PROTECTION AND SECURITY

Protection

14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5

Goals of Protection 625...
Contents

PART SEVEN

CASE STUDIES

Chapter 18 The Linux System
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7

Linux History 781
Desi...
xxii

Contents

Appendix B The Mach System
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5

History of the Mach System B1
Design Principles B3
System ...
Part One

Overview
An operating system acts as an intermediary between the user of a
computer and the computer hardware. T...
1

CHAPTER

Introduction
An operating system is a program that manages a computer’s hardware. It
also provides a basis for...
4

Chapter 1 Introduction

user
1

user
2

user
3

…

user
n

compiler

assembler

text editor

…

database
system

system...
1.1 What Operating Systems Do

5

to monopolize its resources. The goal is to maximize the work (or play) that
the user is...
6

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1.3

Defining Operating Systems

By now, you can probably see that the term operating system co...
1.2 Computer-System Organization

7

is increasing. Mobile operating systems often include not only a core kernel
but also...
8

Chapter 1 Introduction
CPU

user
process
executing
I/O interrupt
processing

I/O
idle
device
transferring
I/O
request

...
1.2 Computer-System Organization

9

STORAGE DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION
The basic unit of computer storage is the bit. A bit...
10

Chapter 1 Introduction

All forms of memory provide an array of bytes. Each byte has its
own address. Interaction is a...
1.2 Computer-System Organization

11

registers
cache

main memory

solid-state disk

magnetic disk

optical disk

magneti...
12

Chapter 1 Introduction

be installed to improve performance where a large disparity in access time or
transfer rate ex...
1.3 Computer-System Architecture

cache

thread of execution

instruction execution
cycle
data movement

13

instructions
...
14

Chapter 1 Introduction

a multiprocessor. If there is only one general-purpose CPU, then the system is
a single-proces...
1.3 Computer-System Architecture

15

is restarted. This solution is expensive, since it involves special hardware and
con...
16

Chapter 1 Introduction

of memory addressable in the system. Either way, multiprocessing can cause
a system to change ...
1.3 Computer-System Architecture
1.3.3

17

Clustered Systems

Another type of multiprocessor system is a clustered system...
18

Chapter 1 Introduction
BEOWULF CLUSTERS
Beowulf clusters are designed to solve high-performance computing tasks.
A Beo...
1.4 Operating-System Structure

19

0
operating system

job 1

job 2

job 3
job 4
Max
Figure 1.9 Memory layout for a multi...
20

Chapter 1 Introduction

Multiprogrammed systems provide an environment in which the various
system resources (for exam...
1.5 Operating-System Operations

21

memory (Chapter 9). The main advantage of the virtual-memory scheme is that
it enable...
22

Chapter 1 Introduction
user process
user process executing

kernel

calls system call

trap
mode bit = 0

return from ...
1.5 Operating-System Operations

23

components. We should note that, as an alternative to modes, the CPU designer
may use...
24

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.5.2

Timer

We must ensure that the operating system maintains control over the CPU.
We canno...
1.7 Memory Management

25

is an active entity. A single-threaded process has one program counter
specifying the next inst...
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Operating system-concepts-9th-edition

  1. 1. OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS NINTH EDITION
  2. 2. OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS ABRAHAM SILBERSCHATZ Yale University PETER BAER GALVIN Pluribus Networks GREG GAGNE Westminster College NINTH EDITION
  3. 3. ȱ ViceȱPresidentȱandȱExecutiveȱPublisherȱ ȱ ȱ DonȱFowleyȱ ExecutiveȱEditorȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ BethȱLangȱGolubȱ EditorialȱAssistantȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ KatherineȱWillisȱ ExecutiveȱMarketingȱManagerȱȱ ȱ ȱ ChristopherȱRuelȱ SeniorȱProductionȱEditorȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ KenȱSantorȱ Coverȱandȱtitleȱpageȱillustrationsȱ ȱ ȱ SusanȱCyrȱ CoverȱDesignerȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ MadelynȱLesureȱ TextȱDesignerȱȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ JudyȱAllanȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ȱ ThisȱbookȱwasȱsetȱinȱPalatinoȱbyȱtheȱauthorȱusingȱLaTeXȱandȱprintedȱandȱboundȱbyȱCourierȬ Kendallville.ȱTheȱcoverȱwasȱprintedȱbyȱCourier.ȱ ȱ ȱ Copyrightȱ©ȱ2013,ȱ2012,ȱ2008ȱJohnȱWileyȱ&ȱSons,ȱInc.ȱȱAllȱrightsȱreserved.ȱ ȱ Noȱpartȱofȱthisȱpublicationȱmayȱbeȱreproduced,ȱstoredȱinȱaȱretrievalȱsystemȱorȱtransmittedȱinȱanyȱ formȱorȱbyȱanyȱmeans,ȱelectronic,ȱmechan