Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
1.What is the Research Project? 
2.Why? 
3.How? 
4.Where? 
Professional Development approach to motivate teachers to overc...
The Research Areas 
ICT-CPD 
Motivation 
Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education 
Barriers for ICT integration
ICT in Education 
Plurality of concepts in Education and ICT. 
•Educational Technology: is the field concerned with the de...
Integration or Adoption 
•Integration of ICT as a comprehensive process of use of ICT. Sometimes include the institutional...
1995 
1997 
1999 
2001 
2003 
2005 
2007 
2009 
2011 
2012 
Despite all investments on ICT infrastructure, equipment and p...
What is the research project? 
Main Objective 
To understand how continuing professional development contribute to integra...
What is not the research project? 
•Is not oriented to discover how technology improve the learning process. 
•Is not orie...
The Research Areas 
ICT-CPD 
Motivation 
Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education 
Barriers for ICT integration
Barriers in ICT integration Classification 
First-order (extrinsic to teacher) 
Second-order (intrinsic to teachers) 
(Erm...
Relevant Findings 
•Second-order barriers are a main problem but in literature first order barriers are in top.(Ermert,199...
The Research Areas 
ICT-CPD 
Motivation 
Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education 
Barriers for ICT integration
Findings on CPD 
•CDP is one of the most important strategies to promote integration of ICT in education(Brinkerhoff, 2006...
CPD OUTCOMES (INTERNAL) 
New awareness 
Value congruence 
Affective outcomes 
Motivation and attitude 
Knowledge and skill...
The Research Areas 
ICT-CPD 
Motivation 
Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education 
Barriers for ICT integration
Motivation 
•Two ways of see motivation in CPD for ICT: 
–Motivation to participate in ICT-CPD activities 
–CPD to foster ...
•Self-efficacy is one of three key influences on behavior. (Bandura, 1994) 
•Motivation and confidence are key determinant...
Motivation for change 
•Motivation in education 
–Most of studies about motivation in Education are related to students mo...
Theorethical Framework Activity Theory 
•Object-oriented activity mediational processes in which individuals and groups of...
1.Ethnographic analysis of the current situation (steps 1,2) 
•questioning their present activity by jointly analyzing pro...
Where? 
•National University, Costa Rica 
•UNA Virtual Department 
•CPD Department
Contribution 
•Contribution to continuing professional development, ICT integration in Education theory and practice 
–(Pr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Professional Development approach to motivate teachers to overcome the second-order barriers of Information and Communication Technologies integration in Higher Education.

This is the presentation of the PHD research project plan regarding to Professional Development approach to motivate teachers to overcome the second-order barriers of Information and Communication Technologies integration in Higher Education.
Author Willy Castro
PHD Student
Aalborg University

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all
  • Be the first to comment

Professional Development approach to motivate teachers to overcome the second-order barriers of Information and Communication Technologies integration in Higher Education.

  1. 1. 1.What is the Research Project? 2.Why? 3.How? 4.Where? Professional Development approach to motivate teachers to overcome the second- order barriers of Information and Communication Technologies integration in Higher Education. Willy Castro Guzmán PHD. Student HCCI Department of Communication and Psychology Aalborg University wcastro@hum.aau.dk https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Willy_Castro
  2. 2. The Research Areas ICT-CPD Motivation Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education Barriers for ICT integration
  3. 3. ICT in Education Plurality of concepts in Education and ICT. •Educational Technology: is the field concerned with the design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning(Luppicini, R.;2005). •Technology in education: application of technology to any of those processes involved in operating the institutions which house the educational enterprise. Application of technology which support education within institutions( AECT) •Instructional technology : subset of ET for instruction as subset of Education. (AECT) ICT in Education for research project: Digital technologies resources for information and communication used to achieve the learning objectives of educational curriculum.
  4. 4. Integration or Adoption •Integration of ICT as a comprehensive process of use of ICT. Sometimes include the institutional level. (Toledo,2005; ) –If two or more things integrate, or if you integrate them, they combine or work together in a way that makes something more effective (Longman Dictionary) •Levels of integration –Stages in teacher´s level of integration (Gladhart,2001) •Entry •Adoption (the act of starting to use a particular plan, method, way of speaking etc; Longman Dictionary). •Adaptation •Appropiation •Invention
  5. 5. 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2012 Despite all investments on ICT infrastructure, equipment and professional development to improve education…ICT adoption and integration in teaching and learning have been limited. Buabeng-Andoh. Investment in hardware and software has increased teachers only incorporate technology into their teaching in a limited manner. Villanueva ; Hennessy et al.; Moonen; Angeli; Infante and Nussbaum. It is well documented that teachers do not generally make effective use of information technology in their teaching. Hixon and Buckemeyer ; Levin and Wadmany. Researchers observe there has been a disappointingly slow uptake of ICT in education even though high investments .Selwyn. Huge educational investment have produced little evidence of ICT. Gulbahar Research suggests that computers are still under- used in terms of quantity and quality of use(Conlon & Simpson, 2003; Demetriadis et al., 2003; Hayes, 2007; Pelgrum, 2001; Wilson, Notar, & Yunker, 2003; Wooley, 1998) Research suggests that computers are under-used in many schools. Abrami; Ertl & Plante; Muir-Herzig, Sutherland et al. Despite increased investments in technology, statistics are disheartening. Teachers use computers once or twice a year for instructional purposes . Russell, Bebell, O’Dwyer, & O’Connor Even in technology-rich schools, teachers were not integrating technology to any substantial degree. Cuban, Kirkpatrick, and Peck Institutional and political plans have been formulated, but no significant results have yet been reached. Ertmer, Addison, Lane, Ross, and Woods Education sector is investing heavily on ICT but ICT adoption in education sector lagged behind the business sector (Leidner & Jarvenpaa) History of ICT integration in Education
  6. 6. What is the research project? Main Objective To understand how continuing professional development contribute to integration of ICT in Higher Education based on development of teachers' motivation. Main Research Question How can continuing professional development helps educational institutions to overcome second-order barriers and motivate teachers to integrate ICT in learning process? Secondary Objectives To describe the relations, tensions and contradictions in continuing professional development processes for ICT integration. To promote development of motivational patterns in teachers to overcome second-order barriers in integration of ICT in teaching and learning process Secondary Questions What are the existing cultural and historical tensions and contradictions among the continuing professional development for ICT integration, the teachers and the institutional context? How can professional development be used to develop and expand motivational patterns in teachers to influence the direction of the change of ICT integration in learning process?
  7. 7. What is not the research project? •Is not oriented to discover how technology improve the learning process. •Is not oriented to determinate the effectiveness or not of any technology in education. •Is not oriented to assess the impact of ICT use in education. •Is not oriented to promote the use of ICT in CPD in a broad sense.
  8. 8. The Research Areas ICT-CPD Motivation Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education Barriers for ICT integration
  9. 9. Barriers in ICT integration Classification First-order (extrinsic to teacher) Second-order (intrinsic to teachers) (Ermert 1999; Earle 2002) Extrinsic Described in terms of the types of resources (Ermert, 1999) Intrinsic Tipically rooted in teachers' underlying beliefs (Kerr, 1996). •Lack of hardware , software , access Difficult to integrate in instruction / •Curricula are not ready to use such new technologies/ ICT does not fit in curricula •Lack of time (training, design) / Workload •Lack of training (Insufficient,inappropriate training styles, low quality) •Lack of technical support Lack of teacher competence / Skills / knowledge Attitudes and beliefs that do not favor technology-based learning Lack of teachers confidence / Self- intimidated by technology Resistance to change Teacher do not realize the advantages of using technology in their teaching Barriers to change are "the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect a teacher's innovation implementation efforts” (Brickner, p. xvii). Bromme, Hesse, and Spada (2005) said of a barrier: “There it refers to the gap between an initial and end state. In other words, barriers are challenges which have to be overcome in order to attain a goal
  10. 10. Relevant Findings •Second-order barriers are a main problem but in literature first order barriers are in top.(Ermert,1999) •Teachers would not automatically integrate technology into teaching and learning even if barriers such as access, time, and technical support were removed.(Ertmer (1999). •By providing “teachers with knowledge of barriers, as well as effective strategies to overcome them, it is expected that they will be prepared to both initiate and sustain effective technology integration practices” (Ertmer, 1999) •Individual and wider environmental influences. (Mueller et al. 2005) The majority of existing research, has focused on environmental barriers (Mueller, 2008) •There are inconsistencies between teachers’ expressed pedagogical beliefs and their practices regarding technology use. (Chao-Hsiu Chen, 2008) There is vast literature about barriers for ICT integration, but at the mapping level. Behavior and beliefs have been studied in predictive level of acceptance models The focus of technology integration concerns is moving from hardware, software and technical concerns to the individual level.
  11. 11. The Research Areas ICT-CPD Motivation Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education Barriers for ICT integration
  12. 12. Findings on CPD •CDP is one of the most important strategies to promote integration of ICT in education(Brinkerhoff, 2006; Diehl, 2005) •Awareness and insights in advance, in relation to transformations in classroom activities (Levin & Wadmany, 2008). •An over-emphasis on skills training, Policy tensions, focus and types of CPD have not led to the degree of change that was anticipated.(BECTA ,2009) •It is possible for teachers within the same school to have widely differing CPD experiences, depending on the individual department, the relationship between the school and the degree of teacher motivation. •Lack of quality in ICT-CDP. There are contradictions about duration (short-term, long-term), orientation (one-off, external, internal) and design of CPD activities(Becta , 2009) •There is a strong need to develop teachers’ knowledge, understanding and skills regarding learning with technologies, and hitherto teachers’ professional learning in this area has been largely under-theorised and problematic in terms of effective policy and strategy. (Preston, 2004) •Learning organizations invest heavily in technology and possibly training, but hardly at all in knowledge sharing and creation. They need to develop confidence in using ICT at home – to ‘inhabit’ the new practices, and develop an attitude to technologies where they are part of their identities as teachers as well as being part of everyday life. (Fullam, 2001) •Morale and motivation, which is frequently downplayed in strategic approaches, is linked to teachers having creative, proactive, choice-led and flexible experiences. Cogill, 2008; Pachler et al., 2009 ) •Collaborative approaches are at the heart of effective CPD design and reflect the pedagogical potentials of technologies . (Cordingley et al., 2005, 2007) CDP is one of the most recurrent barrier mentioned in ICT integration literature. Despite efforts in professional development lack of (quality) professional development is still in top
  13. 13. CPD OUTCOMES (INTERNAL) New awareness Value congruence Affective outcomes Motivation and attitude Knowledge and skills CPD OUTCOMES (EXTERNAL) Materials and resources Informational outcomes Institutional outcomes Impact of practice Adapted from Harland and Kinder (1997) SECOND ORDER-BARRIERS Teachers lack of interest / Lack of motivation of teachers educators Lack of teachers confidence (self-efficacy)/ Self-intimidated by technology Resistance to change Lack of teacher competence / Skills / knowledge Competence Attitudes and beliefs that do not favor technology-based learning Faculty perception that classroom management is more difficult when using technology Two theoretical perspectives affect teacher learning: - psychological factors (teacher cognition and motivation); - organizational factors (Caena,2011) Few existing studies show that psychological factors have relatively large effects on teacher learning, mediating the influence of leadership and organizational conditions. (Caena,2011) Scholars stress the need for research considering the interplay of the two perspectives - psychological & organizational - deploying multi- level models of CPD.(Caena,2011) Complex multi level models would be needed to understand the dynamic, recursive links between conditions and effects. (Caena, 2011).
  14. 14. The Research Areas ICT-CPD Motivation Ambit of research: ICT Integration in Education Barriers for ICT integration
  15. 15. Motivation •Two ways of see motivation in CPD for ICT: –Motivation to participate in ICT-CPD activities –CPD to foster motivation to integrate ICT in Education •To be motivated means to be moved to do something(Ryan & Deci, 2000) –Motivation directs behavior toward particular goals. (Maehr & Meyer, 1997; Pintrich et al., 1993). –Motivation leads to increased effort and energy. (Csikszentmihalyi & Nakamura, 1989; Maehr, 1984; Pintrich et al., 1993). –Motivation increases initiation of and persistence in activities (Larson, 2000; Maehr, 1984; Wigfield, 1994). –Motivation often enhances performance. (A. E. Gottfried, 1990; Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992; Walberg & Uguroglu, 1980) •Theories of motivation may assist in the creation of rules to enhance performance (Graham, 1996). •Motivation is an initial agent to change (Schein, 1995)
  16. 16. •Self-efficacy is one of three key influences on behavior. (Bandura, 1994) •Motivation and confidence are key determinants of behavior change (Dixon,2008) •It is possible to exercise self-influence is a mechanism of motivation. Challenging goals enhance and sustain motivation.(Bandura, 1994) •There is a correlation between motivation and attitudes with success. (Lightbown & Spada, 2006) •Often learners are simultaneously motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors (Cameron & Pierce, 1994; Covington, 2000; Lepper et al., 2005)
  17. 17. Motivation for change •Motivation in education –Most of studies about motivation in Education are related to students motivation –Teachers in CPD are learners, but motivation has not been considered in CPD-ICT •Teachers motivation to integration of ICT is an under-researched field Content ICT Skills Pedagogy CPD
  18. 18. Theorethical Framework Activity Theory •Object-oriented activity mediational processes in which individuals and groups of individuals participate driven by their goals and motives, which may lead them to create or gain new artifacts or cultural tools, intended to make the activity robust (Engeström) •Activity proceed from the German and Russian concept which means “doing in order to transform something”. Motive centered. Zanders(2008). •More comprehensive approach to phenomenon. •Identify tensions and contradictions. •Implementation is thus not only about management driven decisions. It is also a complex negotiation between factors that are often contradicting each other. (Nyvang, 2006)
  19. 19. 1.Ethnographic analysis of the current situation (steps 1,2) •questioning their present activity by jointly analyzing problematic situations in it; •analyzing the systemic and historical causes of the problems identified; •revealing and modeling inner contradictions of the systemic structure of the activity causing the problems Transforming the model (steps 3,4) •representing the systemic structure of the activity in order to find a new form for the activity that would resolve in an expansive way the inner incompatibilities between its components; •finding a new interpretation of the purpose of the activity (object) and a new logic of organizing it, •creating a new activity model Implementing the new model of activity (step 5) •concretizing and testing the new model (e.g. what changes do we try next month ? putting first steps into practice, pushing the next steps) •begining to transform the practice by designing and implementing new tools and solutions. Reflecting on the new practice, consolidating it, spreading it (steps 6, 7) •teaching others what we have learned •codifying the new rules etc. Methodological Approach Expansive Learning
  20. 20. Where? •National University, Costa Rica •UNA Virtual Department •CPD Department
  21. 21. Contribution •Contribution to continuing professional development, ICT integration in Education theory and practice –(Professional development is an under-researched field and limitated in number, specially for ICT development.(Becta, 2009)Under-theorized(Preston, 2004) –Thank you for listening Questions, comments, contributions –Tak for din opmærksomhed Spørgsmål, kommentarer, bidrag –Gracias por su atención Preguntas, comentarios, aportes

×