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  1. 1. Language Maintenance andLanguage Shift.By Stephen Wilsen17356536
  2. 2. Essay Question Examine at least 2 models of studies of LanguageMaintenance and Language Shift in the literaturesuch as Domain Analysis and Social NetworkAnalysis and use them in the current issue oflanguage maintenance, shift, loss or death in agroup or community.
  3. 3. Analysis of essayquestion Define language maintenance, shift and death. Explain how they are related. Provide examples. Compare and contrast arguments. Case study 1 – Domain Analysis. Case study 2 - Social Network Analysis. Conclusion.
  4. 4. Definitions LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE – Languagemaintenance refers to the conscious effort inpreserving and sustaining a language LANGUAGE SHIFT –The process by whichspeakers of a language gradually replace it withanother language. It can occur in situations oflanguage contact when more than one languageshare a geographical space or in immigrate andindigenous communities. LANGUAGE DEATH – When the last speaker of alanguage dies or no longer uses the language.
  5. 5. Do theseconceptsOverlap? The concepts of language maintenance (LM),language shift (LS) and language death (LD)definitelyoverlapand relate to one another atcertain stages. For instance, if people around theworld were not participating in maintaining theirnative language then the world would experiencemore circumstances of language death. Whilst insome cases language death occurs due to peopleengaging in language shift. For this reason LM, LS and LD usually will notoccur without some sort of connection with oneanother at some point in time.
  6. 6. Domain Analysis Domains are where languages are used; alanguage can be used in many domains; such as,work, home, family, school, and media. The dominant language is the one used in all thedomains, for instance in Australia it is English. Case study 1 - Will look at why indigenouslanguagesare not as common in Australia nowcompared to the past, and what is causingIndigenous languages to die in Australia?
  7. 7. Facts about AustralianIndigenous languages There has been a decrease in the percentage ofpeople speaking indigenous languages from 100% in1800 to 13% in 1996. Less than half of the 250-300 Indigenous languagesspoken when the Europeans arrived have survived,and fewer than two dozen are being actively passedon to younger generations at present. Many Aboriginal people speak English as their thirdor even fourth language. All Australian Indigenous languages are likely tobecome extinct within the next generation.
  8. 8. Social Network Analysis Social networks are generally ‘anchored’ toindividuals, thus meaning when an individual hasdirect and regular contact with another individualthrough language. Case study 2 – Will look at the languages used inmy friends Indigenous community of Looma. I willdiscuss with Lewis about how they maintain theirnative languages and if he has noticed a decline inthe use of his native language.
  9. 9. Aims of Essay Highlight how Indigenous languages in Australia arenearing extinction. Explain the reasons behind the decline in Indigenouslanguage use. Express the views of an indigenous individual wholives in a remote community and uses nativeindigenous languages. Find answers as to what is being done about theissues raised in this essay.
  10. 10. Thank youSTEPHEN WILSEN - 17356536