Inventory waste occurs whenever a company receives or invests in materials or products before they are needed for immediate use or sale.In addition to the basic time-cost of money, goods and materials need storage, tracking and additional transportation. All of these costs are minimized when materials or goods are never accumulated but instead are properly utilized or delivered to the customer.Causes: poor sales forecasting, long setup and cycle times, poor planning, unbalanced production or service processes, processes or suppliers which cannot consistently produce the quantity or quality required.
This waste occurs any time production gets ahead of consumption. The waste is immediate.Causes: poor planning, Just-in-Case production, processes which cannot consistently produce the quantity or quality required, long setup and cycle times, local optimization (production that primarily benefits a single department’s interest), poor equipment reliability.
This waste occurs whenever the product or service is processed in a way that adds no value in the eyes of the customer. The key question is: would the customer be willing to pay for what is being done? If the answer is no, the task needs to be redefined.Causes: processing design decisions made at inappropriate levels, poorly documented processes, a lack of customer input concerning requirements, bogus quality standards unrelated to customer needs.
Transportation waste occurs either when a product is transported to a place other than the next process location or, the next process is not located adjacent to the current one. It can occur either between operations or within an operation where work stations are improperly laid out.Causes: improper facility layout, large buffers and in-process kanbans, batch processing, large lot purchasing. Poor production planning, poor scheduling, poor workplace organization.
Motion waste occurs whenever employees move from one work station to another, or even worse, make unnecessary trips. This includes the employees’ time while packing up, moving and setting up at a new workstation. It also includes all the management time in used in planning, directing and tracking employees, as well as, any material costs associated with those movements.Causes: ineffective equipment, office and plant layout, lack of visual controls (printed schedules, production plans, etc.), poor process documentation, poor workplace organization.
Waiting waste occurs any time the next process is unavailable or the upstream process is slow in delivering work to the downstream process. Even redirecting the worker to an alternate task is only a partial remedy, as the material remains idle and the production flow is disrupted.Causes: poor equipment maintenance, lack of proper equipment, tools or materials, long setup times, lack of cross training, non standardized work methods, production bottle necks.
Defect waste occurs whenever a product or service varies from the customer’s expectations. This waste normally take the form of scrap, rework or customer service, but may also take the form of QA activities such as paperwork, investigations, meetings and product sorting, and inspection.Causes: too many products/services, high inventory levels, inadequate tools/equipment, poor training, poor layouts/unnecessary handling, poor process documentation.
Discussion:These steps are essential to transform the product or service and add a feature or trait the downstream customer is willing to pay for. Value added steps should always be questioned and improved.
Discussion:Business value-added activities usually cannot be avoided. They are required in the process and cannot be eliminated. These steps should be questioned and improved.
Discussion:The focus should be to eliminate these activities. A word of caution, make sure during your waste identification exercise that these steps are not categorized as business non-value-added. When conducting your lean walk of the office/administrative process be critical and look at process steps closely to determine whether they are necessary.
Discussion:A value stream consists of: All actions including non-value-added activities, that makes transformation from raw information and materials to what the customer is willing to pay for Communication all along the supply chain regarding orders and forecasts The group of processes through which information and materials flow as they are being transformed
Discussion:Concept to launch is usually considered an engineering process but is also an administrative process. Long lead times in engineering and design can cause delays in meeting customer delivery requirements.
Lean process improvement basics for any business
Growing Your Business Through Lean Process Improvement Applying Lean to any Type of Business
The Cost Reduction Principle Traditional thinking dictates that you set your selling price by calculating your cost and adding on a margin for profit In today’s competitive market the customer sets the price and you don’t have the luxury of adding a profit margin The only way to remain profitable and grow your business is to eliminate waste from your value stream, thereby reducing costs—cost reduction principle2 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Cost Reduction Principle Determine the price customers are willing to pay, and subtract your cost to determine what your profit will be Eliminating waste is important because customers not only set the price, but they also demand price reductions4 Quantum Associates, Inc
What is Lean Process Improvement? Is it skinny? Is it less people? Is it working harder? Is it making less? What is Lean?5 Quantum Associates, Inc
What is Lean Process Improvement? Lean is a continuous improvement methodology focused on managing processes, and improving them by compressing time, rather than sweating assets Every business is a collection of processes—primary processes that create value and secondary processes that support them (office and administrative functions) Processes are sequences of steps that must be carried out to create value for customers and managed as a whole, not separately6 Quantum Associates, Inc
Lean and Profitability7 Quantum Associates, Inc
Total Costs Growth Through Lean Sales/Product Family Lean reduces total costs enabling you to maintain or lower your prices and increase market share, thereby growing your business.8 Quantum Associates, Inc
What is Lean Process Improvement? Lean emphasizes the prevention of waste: any extra time, labor or material spent producing a product or service that doesn’t add value to it. Lean’s unique tools, techniques, and methods can help you reduce costs, achieve faster delivery and shorten lead times Lean fosters a culture in which all employees continually improve their skill levels and processes thereby increasing morale Quantum Associates, Inc9
What is Lean Process Improvement? Because lean systems are customer driven, products and services are created and delivered in the right amounts, to the right location, at the right time, and in the right condition Products and services are produced only for a specific customer order rather than being added to inventory10 Quantum Associates, Inc
Goals of Lean Process Improvement Improve Quality Eliminate Waste Reduce Lead Time Reduce Total Costs11 Quantum Associates, Inc
Goals of Lean Process Improvement Improve Quality Quality is the ability of your product or services to meet or exceed your customers’ requirements Eliminate Waste Waste is the activities that take up time, resources and space but does not add value to a product or service—customers do not want to pay for non-value-added activities12 Quantum Associates, Inc
Goals of Lean Process Improvement Reduce Lead Time Lead time is the total time it takes to complete a series of tasks within a process. Some examples: Period between the receipt of a sales order and the time payment is received The time it takes to transform raw materials into finished goods The time it takes to introduce new products after the design phase is completed The time it takes to complete a quote or submit a proposal Long lead times undermines your business. Reducing lead times can help you dominate your market.13 Quantum Associates, Inc
Goals of Lean Process Improvement Reduce Total Costs Total costs are the direct and indirect costs associated with the production of a product or service You must continually balance your products’ and services’ prices and your operating costs to succeed. If your prices and operating costs are too high you will lose market share and profits To reduce total cost a Lean process must eliminate waste and reduce lead times.14 Quantum Associates, Inc
Benefits Implementing lean tools and techniques will enable your company to meet customer demand for a quality product or service at the time they need it and for a price they are willing to pay. Lean management methods create flexible and efficient business and manufacturing processes. Lean practices will help your company manage its total costs and provide a fair ROI to its stakeholders.15 Quantum Associates, Inc
Waste Waste is anything—time, cost or work that adds no value in the eyes of the customer Waste exists at all levels and in all activities Lean shows us how to recognize and eliminate waste and not simply accept it as the ―way work is done around here‖16 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes The ultimate lean target is the total elimination of waste. Waste, or muda, is anything that adds cost or time without adding value. Seven deadly waste have been identified over the years. Recently an eighth waste has been identified—underutilization of people.17 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes Inventory Excess inventory that is not directly required for current customer orders Manufacturing—excess raw materials, WIP and finished goods Office/Service—unneeded files, extra supplies, unnecessary copies, excessive unread emails, etc.18 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes Overproduction Excessive use of resources—producing too much of something, faster than needed, or before it is needed Manufacturing—units made for stock or inventory Office/Service—Producing reports before they are needed, performing more analysis than required19 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes Over-processing Extra operations, such as rework, reprocessing, handling and storage that occurs because of defects, overproduction, and too much or too little inventory, includes redundant activities, such as checking someone else’s work. Obtaining multiple signatures, or excessive reviews The time spent producing product/service features which are irrelevant to the customer Manufacturing—reworking defective product Office/service—multiple approval signatures, entering data in multiple systems and or ―stand alone‖ spreadsheets for reporting purposes20 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes Transportation Unnecessary movement of materials such as WIP, materials being transported from one operation to another. Transporting something further than necessary, or temporarily locating, filing, stocking, stacking, or moving materials, people, information or paper. Manufacturing—moving sub components from one work process to another Office/service—Filing/saving documents that will never be used again, updating customer records in different systems21 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes Motion Extra steps taken by employees and equipment to accommodate inefficient process layout, defects, reprocessing, overproduction. More walking, reaching or bending than necessary Any movement of people which does not contribute added value to the product or service Manufacturing—operators having to walk back and forth to retrieve tools or materials not stored in the immediate work area Office/service—selecting additional keystrokes and fields to retrieve previous information, searching for misplaced files22 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes Waiting The period of inactivity in a downstream process that occurs because an upstream activity does not deliver on time. Manufacturing—waiting for parts or subcomponents to complete a job Office/service—delays in getting feedback/approvals/decisions from peers or top management23 Quantum Associates, Inc
The Seven Deadly Wastes Defects (Rework) Refers to all processing required creating a defect or mistake and the additional work required to correct it Manufacturing—defective units of product Office/service—incorrect/missing information on a form, handling a report numerous times Do it again!24 Quantum Associates, Inc
Eighth Waste Underutilization of People - is a result of not placing people where they can (and will) use their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the fullest • Assigning an employee to two jobs due to understaffing • Having employees perform a task that is politically motivated • Not cross training employees25 Quantum Associates, Inc
Three Types of Process Activities Value-added activities Business value-added activities Non-value added activities26 Quantum Associates, Inc
Value-added Activities Those steps the customer is willing to pay for To qualify as value-added an activity must meet the following criteria: It changes the form, feature, or function that the customer desires It must be ―done right the first time‖ The customer is willing to pay for it ―It is the customer who determines what a business is. What the customer thinks he is buying, what he considers ‗value,‘ is decisive— it determines what a business is, what it produces and whether it will prosper.‖ –Peter Drucker27 Quantum Associates, Inc
Business Value-added Activities Activities the customer isn’t willing to pay for but must be done to comply with regulations, organizational policies, and so on You must periodically examine these activities to make sure they are necessary, if not eliminate them28 Quantum Associates, Inc
Non-value-added Activities Those activities the customer is not willing to pay for and can be avoided Your goal should be to eliminate these activities because they are WASTE29 Quantum Associates, Inc
Understanding Waste What would you be willing to pay for when ordering a hamburger? ___ Meat ___ Cost of radio, TV, web ___ Dough ads ___ Ketchup ___ Cost of delivery truck signs ___ Electricity to run ovens ___ Cost of store manager ___ Electricity to run outdoor lights left on accidentally ___ Cost of cleaning ___ Person paid to inspect take- ___ Cost of menus out orders ___ Employee training ___ Cost of hamburgers not ___ Profit sold30 ___ Distribution Center Quantum Associates, Inc
What Are Value Streams? A Value Stream is all the actions, both value-added and non-value-added required to bring a product or service from concept to launch and from order to delivery.31 Quantum Associates, Inc
Types of Value Streams “Whenever there is a product (or service) for a customer, there is a value stream. The challenge lies in seeing it.” There are three value streams for each product family that overlap and flow together: • Concept to Launch (engineering/design) • Raw Materials to Customer (manufacturing) • Order to Cash (administrative functions )32 Quantum Associates, Inc
Value Stream Mapping Value Stream Mapping – the process of identifying and charting the flows of information, processes, and goods or services across the entire supply chain from the supplier to customer possession Includes both value-added and non value-added activities Allows for ―seeing‖ areas of waste in current state Future state is roadmap and apt to change Create icons specific to your business or industry Maps should be the plan for 6 months – 2 years Maps – many types33 Quantum Associates, Inc
Value Stream Mapping Customer Data Box Queue/Wait Information Processe Flow s Attributes Step34 Quantum Associates, Inc Graph
Value Stream Map 30 Year Fixed Mortgage Application Value Stream—Current State Map Client Pre-application Application Approval/Title Closing Prep 8 hrs. 80 hrs. 80 hrs. 40 hrs. Verify emply & Oder appraisal Notify parties Financial data 15 min 60 min 20 min 120 min assets & title & confirm File paperwork Schedule Credit Report 15 min Underwriting 120 min 5 min 5 min pending location Determine 120 min Yield 70 % Yield 80 % Print docs 120 min prgm (1 day) (10 days) (10 days) (5 days) 8 hrs 80 hrs 80 hrs 40 hrs 150 min 180 min 25 min 245 min Queue time = 208 hrs Value-added time=10 hrs (600 minutes) Total lead time = 218 hrs (27.25 days) Gadget Data35 Quantum Associates, Inc PCE = 4.6%
Value Stream Map Orthopedic Patient Current State Value Stream Map Wait time = 200 minutes Value-added time = 104 minutes Total Lead time = 304 minutes (5.06 hours) Patient Shift = 12 hours Registration Triage Emergency Room Radiology Emergency Room ER Casting Discharge 15 mins 35 mins 20 mins 45 mins 45 mins 40 mins Verify Ins 3 min Vitals 3 min Recheck vitals 3 min Post pst 3 min Reassess 3 min Cast pt 30 min Return Appt 2 min Discharge Update Info 4 min Chief cmpl 2 min Mini assmt 3 min Obtain xray 5 min Obtain xray 3 min Pt educ 5 min 5 min recpt Process 3 min Mini evl 4 min Chief cmpl 2 min Process 15 min Ict hc 5 min Dispense 4 min Assess 5 min Diagnosis 5 min meds 15 mins 35 mins 20 mins 45 mins 45 mins 40 mins 10 mins 13 mins 13 mins 23 mins 16 mins 35 mins 7 mins PCE =34%36 Quantum Associates, Inc
Value Stream Map Weekly shipments: 700,000 lineal Current State: 6-day lead time as shown 50,000 pieces 5,350 finished pieces/day 5% 90 % From F/J: Staging 5% 10% 90% Lam #1 Resaw (4 saws) Molder #4 Prime I I I Crew size: 4 Crew size: 1 1/3 Crew size: 4 I Crew size: 3 Run speed 58 ft/min Run speed 184 ft/min. Run speed 300 ft/min Run speed: 3,15 l ft/min Output: 500 pieces/hr Output:1,584 pieces/hr Output:1,285 pieces/hr Output: ,350 pieces/hr 1 4,500 9000 268 9,000 C/T= 7.2 sec pieces C/T= 2.3 sec pcs C/T= 2.8 sec pieces C/T= 1.3 sec pieces C/O= 5 - 25 min C/O= 7 - 30 min C/O= 5 - 45 min C/O= 1 min - 1 hr % Crew:days= 100% % Crew Days =100% % Crew:days= 100% % Crew:days =100% swing = 0% Swing =0% swing = 0 % swing = % Reliability = 98% % Reliability = 95% % Reliability = 98% % Reliability =73% Waste = 1/2% Waste = Waste = 1/2% Waste = 3% Sec available 27,000 Sec available 108,000 Sec available27,000 VA Ratio 1:311 Sec available 27,000 Weekly hr = 5 Weekly hr = 31.6 Weekly hr = 38.9 Weekly hr = 18.5 Production lead time = 521,874 sec .5 hr 48 hr 48 hr 48 hr Value-added time 1,674 sec 1,034 sec 230 sec 280 sec 130 sec37 Quantum Associates, Inc
Value Stream Map Weekly shipments: 700,000 lineal Future State: 1-day lead time as shown 50,000 pieces Free up $50,625 inventory 96% improvement in lead time Instant quality feedback 5,350 finished pieces/day 95% From F/J: Staging 5% Lam #1 Primed lineal cell I I Crew size: 4 Crew size: 6 Run speed 58 ft/min Run speed 300 ft/min Output: 500 pieces/hr Output: 1,285 pieces/hr 4,500 268 pieces C/T= 7.2 sec pieces C/T= 2.8 sec C/O= 5 -25 min C/O= 10 - 20 mins % Crew:days= 100% % Crew days =100% swing = 0% % Reliability = 98% % Reliability = 95 % Waste = 1/2% Waste = 1.2% Sec available 27,000 Sec available 27,000 VA Ratio =1:12 Weekly hr = 5 Weekly hr = 38.9 Production lead .5 hr 3 hr .2 hr time = 3.7 hr Value-added time 1,034 sec 199 sec 1,233 sec38 Quantum Associates, Inc
Decisions—Decisions—Decisions Is my company too small for Lean Process Improvement? Isn’t Lean a manufacturing process? I am a service business. Can I afford to implement Lean Process Improvement? All of these industries have successfully applied Lean to their processes39 Quantum Associates, Inc
Lean Success Stories Lean Dentist--A dentist in Jacksonville, FL used Lean Tools to achieve the following benefits… Year Hrs/Wk Patient Hygienist Assistants Dentists Cubicles available time for s to dentists complete treatment 2005 77 hours 99 days 3 5 3 10 2006 140 hours 38 days 2 3 3 6 Benefits +82% +81% +33% +40% No +40% Change40 Quantum Associates, Inc
Lean Success Stories Lean Landscapers—an Atlanta landscaping company used Lean tools to achieve the following results: Reduced the cycle time of financial statements from 22 days to 5 days and critical errors from 7 to zero Boosted productivity of its maintenance crews 36% at a 60 residential home complex—reduced man hours from 56.2 hours/week to 35.9 hours/week41 Quantum Associates, Inc
Lean Success Stories Construction —Veridian Homes, Madison, WI Veridian’s Lean efforts have accomplished the following: Model-homes sold cycle time reduced from 32 to 15 days Drafting time per model reduced by more than one hour Estimating time per home reduced by 32% Material variance reduced 20% for lumber, 24% for siding ,and 30% for trim Paperwork processing decreased by 208 hours per year Person hours reduced by 200 per year through escrow and warranty process improvements Reduced inspection (and inspection costs) by 50% while reducing defects by more than 50% They achieved all this with a very small investment in kaizen events.42 Quantum Associates, Inc
Lean Success Stories Lean Office RB Royal, Fond-du-Lac, WI used Lean tools to improve their quote process from 15 – 30 days to an average of 3 days. Some quotes are completed in 24 hours.43 Quantum Associates, Inc
We Offer the Following Lean Implementation Options Fast Track Lean – 2 days For the tight budget- occasional help from a Lean facilitator who works with your designated process expert. Train-the Trainer – 4 - 6 months Lean expert teaches and mentors in-house ―Lean Agent‖ and improvement team Rapid Improvement Events – 1 week 3-5 day commitment of your in-house team facilitated by a Lean expert and focused on improving a particular process/value stream. Quick results method. Walking the Gemba – 3 weeks Lean assessment of your organization by Lean experts and your in-house process expert to identify the improvement opportunities. This approach is useful when staffing is tight. Lean Office Simulation It is estimated that 90% of administrative activities are waste. This highly interactive, role playing simulation will teach your administrative/office staff how to use Lean in the office to improve their processes. Contact us for details: firstname.lastname@example.org or 847.919.612744 Quantum Associates, Inc
Getting Started Value Stream Maps The roadmap to problem identification Going from the current state to the future state is the driver for eliminating waste Your ultimate goal is to achieve the ideal state-once you reach your future state let that become the new current state and create a new future state, and so on Waste is the enemy. Always strive to eliminate waste from your value streams45 Quantum Associates, Inc
Getting Started Value Stream Maps For support and administrative processes Determine what data to include by the question you are trying to answer about your value stream or process Define the ―product‖ produced by the process Example: If your goal is to reduce days in receivable, you would define ―invoices‖ as the product and identify the total number of invoices issued, cycle time and queue time for processing and collection, and total cycle time. From this information you can determine where the bottlenecks most likely occur and eliminate areas of waste in your ―future state‖ map.46 Quantum Associates, Inc
Getting Started Kaizen Synonymous with continuous improvement Associated with events that Quickly implement Lean tools and techniques to eliminate waste Improve work flow Improve productivity Train workers in lean tools and techniques It is the Lean technique that will move your value stream from current state to future state47 Quantum Associates, Inc
Conclusion Lean is a proven, company-wide systematic approach to eliminate/minimize waste resulting in the production of a ―good‖ or ―service‖ at the lowest possible cost It is not just a manufacturing program confined to shop floor employees Lean is every system, every process, and every employee within the organization If you are the low cost producer of a good or service you have a competitive advantage and will be able to grow your business. Lean is the tool to reduce your costs.48 Quantum Associates, Inc
DO NOT BE AFRAID, MY FRIEND49 Quantum Associates, Inc