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Leadership in educational administration

Webinar Series – 7
Leadership in Educational Administration
Department of Education
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University
Tirunelveli – 627 012

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Leadership in educational administration

  1. 1. Webinar Series – 7 Leadership in Educational Administration Department of Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli – 627 012
  2. 2. Patron Prof. K. Pitchumani Hon’ble Vice Chancellor Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli – 627 012
  3. 3. Prof. B. William Dharma Raja Dean, Faculty of Arts Head, Department of Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli – 627 012 Organizing Secretary
  4. 4. Dr V. Sasikala Formerly Assistant Professor (T) Department of Education Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli-12 Resource Person
  5. 5. Agenda…. Meaning & Nature Leadership in Educational Administration 01 Trait Transformational Transactional Value based Cultural Psychodynamic and Charismatic Approaches in Leadership 02 Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid Fiedler’s Contingency model Tri-dimensional model Hersey and Blanchard’s model Leader- Member Exchange Theory Models of Leadership 03
  6. 6. Educational Administration • Higher level authority • Determines policies, identifies goals and lay down principles • Process of acquiring and allocating resources for the achievement of predetermined educational goals. • study and practice of managing the resources, tasks and communications involved in running a school • Goal - school's overall process flowing smoothly, making decisions that facilitate successful education • The administrator identifies and articulates school's mission and goals and makes them happen by implementing programs, delegating tasks and allocating resources.
  7. 7. Leader • Art of motivating a group of people to act towards a achievement of a common goal • Thinks creatively in crisis and different situation • Helps themselves and others do right things • Map out and set direction • Build an inspiring vision “Managers manage tasks, but leaders lead people”
  8. 8. Leadership • Process of inspiring group • Potential to influence behaviours of others • Capacity to influence a group of people towards realization of a goal • Develop future visions and motivate the organization members to achieve vision “Management is doing things right, but leadership is doing the right things”
  9. 9. Educational Leadership Action of leading a group involved in educational process, organization and ability to do this In school administration – Radiate positive energy in educational policies and process motivating and supporting others towards a whole vision for the school Proactive attitude
  10. 10. Nature of Educational Leadership • Catalyst that transforms potential into reality • 3 factors = influence/ support, voluntary effort, goal achievement • Directs function • Motivating force in an organization • Creator of vision, mission, strategic goals and objectives • Constantly attempts to persuade others to agree with his decisions • Sensitive to feeling of others – thoughtful, helpful, easily approachable, responsible and friendly
  11. 11. Nature of educational leadership • Unorganized group - • Dedicated to his principles, values, rights and dignity of others • Reliable, generous, liberal, humble, modest and impartial • Capacity to identify capability of colleagues • Ability to get the work done • Cost effective • Firm but not arrogant or stubborn in making judgements and decisions
  12. 12. Qualities of a Leader 1. Resource provider 2. Instructional specialist 3. Curriculum specialist 4. Mentor 5. Learning facilitator 6. Classroom supporter 7. Catalyst for change 8. Policy maker 9. Learner 10. School leader
  13. 13. Principles of Leadership • Know yourself and self –improvement • Be technically proficient • Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions • Make sound and timely decisions • Know your people and look out for their well being • Keep your workers informed • Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers • Ensure that task are understood, supervised and accomplished • Train as a team • Use the full capacity of your organisation
  14. 14. Approaches in Leadership
  15. 15. Trait Leadership • Thomas Carlyle was a precursor of trait theory • Personality Traits –subjective nature – creativity, adaptability, dominance, integrity • Social Traits – communication, social skills • Physical Traits – genetic makeup - height, weight, complexion, Age, energy and stamina • Intellectual Traits • differentiate leaders from non leaders • Assumption • Trait theory - Leader are born not made • Behavioural theory – leaders can be made • Great man theory – study of individuals biogragraphy
  16. 16. Major traits • Henry Fayol , Charles Brid and Ralph Stogdil • Ambition and energy • Desire to lead • Honest and Integrity • Self confidence • Intelligence • High self motivating • Job relevant knowledge • Emotional stability – well adjusted • Intrinsic motivation – motivate others • Human relation – interpersonal skills • Empathy • Objective – not biased • Technical skills – plan, organize • Open minded • Good communication skill
  17. 17. Ralph Stogdill Skills
  18. 18. Merits • Leadership depends on leaders traits • Quality of traits of leaders are transmitted • Easy and best way to analyze leaders potential • Useful to developing training programmes for managers
  19. 19. Limitation of Trait Theory • No universal trait – predict leader of all situation • No research • no systematic development of concept and principles • Unclear evidences • Influence of other factors are neglected. The traits approach also ignores external, environmental and situational influences on the leadership capability. • • It ignores followers, the situation and the culture a leader operates within. • Inconsistency in defining specific traits
  20. 20. Transactional Leadership • 1947 - Max weber – German sociologist – rational legal leadership – as the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge • premise of exchange between the leader and the organisation and the employee • reward for an action • assumption of a hierarchical organisation with defined roles, accountabilities, responsibilities and outcomes. • appeals to the self-interest of followers to achieve organizational goals • based on the leader’s position of authority in the structure • Leader elicits desired behaviour by motivating them externally
  21. 21. Focus – Transactional Leadership • Objectives and goals of an organisation • Processes and activities needed to meet the desired outputs and outcomes • Actual outputs and outcomes • Recognition and reward mechanisms • Punishment and control systems
  22. 22. Dimensions of Transactional leadersip • Contingent rewards – process of setting expectations and rewarding workers for meeting it • Passive management – does not interfere with workflow unless an issue arises • Active management – managers anticipate problems, monitor progress and issue corrective measures
  23. 23. Characteristic of Transactional leadership • Extrinsic Motivation • Practicability • Resistant to change • Discourage independent thinking • Rewards performance • Constrained thinking • Passive • Directive • Emphasis on corporate structure • Emphasis on self interest
  24. 24. Advantages of Transactional leadership • Effective motivation for team members for maximize productivity • Creates achievable goals for individuals at all levels • Eliminates confusion within chain of command • Reduces costs while improving productivity levels • Simple and easy to follow • Allows
  25. 25. Disadvantages o Transactional leadersip • Eliminates- individuality from production process • Limits – innovation • Creates more followers not leaders • Focus on consequences instead of rewards • Zero value on empathy • Success within the hands of leaders
  26. 26. Transformational leader • Leaders are visionary, inspiring, daring, risk- takers, and thoughtful thinkers • Found at all levels • Charismatic appeal • it creates a vision for transforming the performance of the organization • appeals to the higher ideals and the values of the organization’s people to make it happen • People are motivated by more than just their own self-interest, and they are motivated to give more effort than what transactional leadership alone can achieve • extension of transactional • higher level motivations, aspirations and commitment of the people being led. • performance improvement or a desire to revolutionise • encourages critical thinking and innovation.
  27. 27. • Inspirational motivation: • Promotion of consistent vision, mission and set of values to members • Every interaction compels their vision • Guide the followers – with sense of meaning and challenge • Work Enthusiastic and optimistic – spirit of teamwork and committment • Intellectual Stimulation • Encourages the followers to be innovative and creative • Appreciate new ideas • Never criticize publicaly • No hesitation in discarding old practice and ineffective strategies
  28. 28. • Idealized influence: • They practice what they preach • practical philosophy • Act as role model that followers seek to emulate • win the trust and respect of their followers through their action • They prefer the needs of their followers than personal gains • Demonstrate high standard of ethical concerns • Influence others to strive for common goals • Individualized Consideration • Act as mentors • Encourage with rewards for creative and innovative task • Individual difference are treated- talent and knowledge • Team members are empowered to make decisions • Consistent support to implement their decisions
  29. 29. Criticisms of Transformational Leadership Theory • Uncertainty, global turbulence, organizational instability – • High level of job satisfaction • High performance workforce • Organizational commitment • developing ways of transforming organization through leadership.
  30. 30. James Burnes (1978) distinguish between transactional and transformational leaders. A transactional leader is one who treats leadership as an exchange, giving followers what they want if they do what the leader desires. A transformational leader is a leader who treats leadership as a matter of motivation and commitment, inspiring flowerers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values.
  31. 31. Value-based • Values are natural motivators • Value-based leaders guide their teams by encouraging others to act in accordance with the organization’s shared core values. • Instead of focusing exclusively on metrics, values-based leadership drives positive change by emphasizing the organizational mission and purpose. • leader “walks the talk” and upholds the founding principles of the organization. • driven by his or her core values which are modeled and aligned with company values. • Positive influence on both leaders and followers
  32. 32. • Leaders embrace value based principles – legacy and lasting impact • Foundation of leadership success • Value based leadership • Value • Behaviour • Performance • Observable integrity behaviour • Collective determination of responsibility and performance • Environment for – creativity, flawless, committed and innovative • Trust culture • Positive growth • Choice & decisions based on values
  33. 33. Core values • Integrity • Humility compassion • Purpose driven • Courage • Self discipline • gratitude
  34. 34. Characteristics of value based leader • According to Harry Kraemer: • Strive to become better leaders • Keep things simple and help others do the same • Use of common sense when choosing to take action • Take the initiative and get going even before they have a team to lead • Self reflection - willingness • Balance – understands and listen others – efficient decisions • True self confidence • Genuine humility
  35. 35. Cultural leadership • The culture of any social unit includes group norms, shared perceptions, espoused values, and consensus around goals and objectives. • Culture includes the way people interact with each other, how they solve problems, and how they justify themselves. • Leadership proxy rooted In community, family, and cultural identity • Vibrant Culture • engages, defines, shapes and personifies a leader • Basic of cultural leadership – knowledge, self awareness and application • Individual culture • Organizational culture • National culture
  36. 36. Cultural Five core cultural competencies for leaders • Understand business, political, cultural environment of relevant cultures • Learn the perspectives, trends, taste and technologies of relevant culture • Be able to work simultaneously with people from different culture • Adapt to live and communicate in other cultures • Relate with other cultures from a position of equality than superiority
  37. 37. Steps to develop cultural leadership • Develop – knowledge about dimensions of culture • Understand – dynamics of diverse groups and team • Assess - own cultural conditioning • Develop – new skills in cross cultural communication • Develop and implement – specific practices and tools
  38. 38. Advantages cultural leadership • Builds confidence and breaks down barriers • A stronger and flexible leader to gain more followers • See commonalities across culture and make efficient decisions • Enjoy better understanding for foreign students • Sensitive and allows to judge and adjust accordingly • Diverse cultural perspective and strong leader • Drives strong innovation
  39. 39. Psychodynamic • Sigmund freud - Psychoanalysis • Carl Jung • No single model or theory • People gain their initial experiences with leadership fro the day they are born • Childhood experiences affect character • Personality traits characterize personality of an individual • No assumption about good or best leadership style • Strength based leadership
  40. 40. • Goal – raise the awareness of leaders and followers to their personality types and significance of those types on work and relationship • Important aspect – emphasizes our past experiences, feelings, unconsciousness, self-understanding and personality types • Better tolerance and understanding of people
  41. 41. Personality type • Extraversion – Introversion • source and direction for a persons expression • Sensing – Intuition • represents method by which someone perceives the information • Thinking- Feeling • represents how a person process the information • Judging – Perceiving • reflects how a person implements the information he or she has processed
  42. 42. Inspirational or Charismatic Leadership • Ronald E. Riggio “ Charismatic leaders are very skilled communicators, individuals who are both verbally eloquent but also able to communicate to followers on a deep, emotional level” • Based on the personal qualities or charisma of the leader. • Leaders are seen as having a strong vision • Sense of mission • Arouse strong emotions in followers. • Simply look at problems - devise new, creative solutions • Using their charisma and commitment, • excite, • motivate, • focus others to solve problems and excel.
  43. 43. Qualities of a Charismatic leader • High in confidence • Dominance • Strong self belief • People oriented • Risk taking • Facilitative • Maturity • Consultative – participative - transformational
  44. 44. Assumptions for charismatic leader • Great leaders have some exceptional inborn leadership qualities • Gift of god • These skills cannot be enhanced through education and training • These qualities are personal in nature cannot be shared by others • Any situation factor does not impede his inflence
  45. 45. Requirement for charismatic leader • Articulate and visionary • Sensitive to environment and needs of their employee or followers • Inclined towards personal risk taking • Skillful at using unconventional behaviour
  46. 46. Advantages • Inspire people to work for common cause • Organisations are committed to central mission • Prioritize learning from mistakes to succeed in their mission • Cohesive environment • Fight for quality life and better world • Courage for their convictions
  47. 47. Criticism of charismatic • Inspirational leader can also deceive his/ her followers • Charisma and good not always go together • Creates heavy dependence between leaders and followers • problematical when the leader leaves or does not live up to expectations.
  48. 48. Models of Leadership
  49. 49. Blake and Mouton – Managerial Grid • Blake and Mouton - 1964 • Based on 2 Key Dimensions of managerial behaviour • Concern for people • Concern for Production • It is 9 x 9 matrix which creates 81 positions in which a leader’s style may fall • 1 is low 9 is high • Out of them – 5 styles are identified and defined
  50. 50. Improverished (1, 1) • Indifferent • Don’t care • Manager is mostly ineffective • Cannot get jobs done • Very little interest • Bad work atmosphere • No feedback • Disorganization, dissatisfaction, disharmony
  51. 51. Task Oriented - Produce or perish (9, 1) • Production style – Slave driver • Autocratic or Compliance • Strict work rules • Polices and procedures • Punishment is only effective and motivation • Salaries cut-down, bonus, memo or fired • No concern for people their needs are secondary • Low team morale • Struggle to ret6ain high performance
  52. 52. Coordinate – Middle of the road (5 , 5) • Compromise style • Status quo manager • Medium concern for people and production • Balance between people and results • No needs are fully met • Everything goes average – struck in middle • Good leader bur strategy is not effective • Only for survival – mediocre performance • Salaries cut-down, bonus, memo • Highly diplomatic
  53. 53. Country Club – Coordinate (1 , 9) • Too friendly concern manager • Highly concerned to people • Relaxed work environment • Lack of direction and control • Productivity suffers • Creates good atmosphere
  54. 54. Team Management– Coordinate (9 , 9) • Team Style • Pinnacle of managerial style • Most effective leadership • Very rare • All employees are involved and valued • Committed - successful • Team – satisfaction, motivation • Passionate leader
  55. 55. Characteristics • Helps to think about your leadership style and its effect on team members and productivity and motivation • By plotting ‘concern of result’ against ‘concern of people’ the grid highlights how placing too much emphasis on one area at the expense of the other leads to poor results • When concern on both people and result are high employee engagement and productivity will be excellent • Excellent starting point to have idea of performance and improve leadership skills
  56. 56. Advantages • Understand your natural leadership style • Create personal development • Provides opportunities to plan to progress towards team management
  57. 57. Disadvantages • Very simple model • Only leader is focused • Other factors are ignored – culture, development etc
  58. 58. Contingency theory • This theory – focus – variables related to environment – determines – leadership style best suitable for the situation • No single Leadership style is best suited to all situations • Success depends upon: • Leadership style • Qualities of followers • Aspects of the situation • Organization (work environment)
  59. 59. Fiedlers Contingency Model • Fred Fiedler and his associates at university of Illinois (USA) have suggested contingency theory of leadership • It is combining the trait and situational approach • Focus – individual leadership • Effectiveness of leader is determined by • Leaders need gratification – task and people • Favourable situation – leaders control and influence over the outcomes • Task oriented - achievement of desired task • Relationship oriented – developing and nurturing good interpersonal relations at workplace
  60. 60. Steps
  61. 61. Least preferred Co-worker scale… 3 conditions • Identifying leadership style is first step using this model • Aim – find out whether the leader is task oriented or relationship oriented • Identifies – leaders whom the workers preference to work with • Scale comprises of 18 - eight point bipolar adjective sets • >72 - High LPC – Relationship oriented leaders, good interpersonal relations • <64 -Low LPC – Task oriented leaders • 65-71 - mixed • But poor measurement reliability
  62. 62. 2. Situation favourableness • Leader member relationship – how much team trust • Task structure – task are clear, precise or vague
  63. 63. Situation favourableness • 3 dimensions • Task structure – the structure of the institution, rules and regulations, clear guidelines, precise clear or vague • • Position Power – the legitimacy of leaders authority to reward and punish. Having more power increases situational favourableness • Leader member relations – general work atmosphere whether it is friendly or unfriendly with mired by conflicts, team trust
  64. 64. • Is trust with your team is high or low? • Are tasks vague or clear-cut and well understood • Is your authority low or high
  65. 65. Fielders Contingency • Fiedler: Favourability of the leadership situation (leader-member relations, task structure and the power in the position held by the leader)
  66. 66. 3. Find the right leadership style
  67. 67. Hershey – Blanchard Situational Model • 1999 • No single leadership is better than other • Adjust the style to followers and their abilities • Task relevant and relationship relevant • Readiness level of people and leader is attempting to influence • Readiness – willingness and ability to accomplish the task • Telling – Direction • Selling – Coaching –emotional support • participating
  68. 68. Advantages • Leader can change the style at their own discretion at any time • Employee may find a leader who adapts to shift changes in workforce as a desirable trait • Disadvantages • Too much responsibility on leader whose decision may be flawed or biased
  69. 69. Three-Dimensional Grid or 3-D Leadership Model
  70. 70. Reddin 3-D Leadership Model • Professor Bill Reddin • introduced the concept of “Situational demands” • Way the leader should behave to be effective • Next level to practical leadership theories • 2 basic dimensions – • 1. Task orientation • 2. Relationship orientation • 3rd dimension • 3. Effectiveness – result when right style is used
  71. 71. • Identified four major leadership styles on the high effectiveness plane and four corresponding styles • On the low effectiveness plane, effectiveness being where the leadership style matched the demands of the situation. • So a manager who demonstrated a high level of task-orientation and low relationships orientation where it was the style that was required was called a Benevolent Autocrat • while a manager who applied that style of behavior where the situation did not call for it was labelled an Autocrat. • The real theoretical breakthrough with Reddin’s 3-D model was the idea that one could assess the situation and identify what behavior was most appropriate. When the leadership style meets the demands of the situation, then the leadership is said to be effective else ineffective.
  72. 72. • the four basic styles result into eight styles. • These eight styles are resultants of the eight possible combinations of task-orientation, relationship-orientation and effectiveness as Less effective Basic type More effective Deserter Separated Bureaucratic Missionary related Developer Autocratic Dedicated Benevolent Autocrat Compromiser integarted Executive
  73. 73. Leader- Member Exchange Theory • Emerged in 1970’s – George Graen’s Leader Member exchange model • LMX or Vertical dyad Linkage Theory • Informal observation • Leader maintains his position • Focused – relationship that develops between managers and members of their team • The quality of the relationship is measured by means of the level of mutual trust, respect, support and loyalty. • How should interact with eact ther to reach a successful workplace • The importance of potential differences in this respect is brought into sharp focus by Graen’s le • How leader contributr for growth or inder development • hat leaders automatically develop a relationship with each of their subordinates, and that the quality of this relationship strongly influences the responsibility, decision making, access to resources and performance of subordinates. • These relationships are usually formed on the basis of personal compatibility and subordinate competence and dependability.
  74. 74. 3 stages in Leader- Member Exchange Theory • The relationship between manager and his subordinates go through 3 stages. They are: • Role – Taking • Role – Making • Routinization
  75. 75. Role - Taking • It appears when freshers’ join the team • New role • Managers use this time to assess new members' skills and abilities. • Less competent • offers them opportunities to demonstrate their capabilities. • team members get everyday responsibilities, and are not considered for promotions or challenging assignments. • locational awareness • Process of orienting • Adjust and aligning to surroundings and circumstances
  76. 76. Role Making • Get used to role • Began to work on project task, as part of team • Expect – new team members to work hard, loyal, prove trustworthy • Managers - Subconsciously sort the team members in to one of two groups: • In-Group - if team members prove themselves loyal, trustworthy and skilled, they're put into the In-Group. This group is made up of the team members that the manager trusts the most. • ost of their attention, providing challenging and interesting work, and offering opportunities for additional training and advancement. • work-ethic to their manager. • Out- Group - if team members betray the trust of the manager, or prove that they're unmotivated or incompetent, they're put into the Out-Group. This group's work is often restricted and unchallenging. Out-Group members tend to have less access to the manager, and often don't receive opportunities for growth or advancement.
  77. 77. Routinization • routines between team members and their managers are established. • In- Group team members work hard to maintain the good opinion of their managers, by showing trust, respect, empathy, patience, and persistence. • Rising stars • Won the trust • Perform at high level • Manager – offer support, advice opprtunitnities for skill to grow • Vale leader opinion • maintain their position and reputation by displaying respect, perseverance, patience and empathy • Out-Group members may start to dislike or distrust their managers. Because it's so hard to move out of the Out-Group once the perception has been established, Out-Group members may have to change departments or organizations in order to "start over." • Never tested no challenging tasks are assigned little face tme • Few oppprtunities •
  78. 78. Applying this theory • It is used to identify, validate any perception you have on your team • Identify your out group • Are they truly incompetent • Do they have low motivation • Compare facts with perception • Reestablish the relationship • Provide Training and developing opportunities • Mentor coaching • Task allocation • Set effective realistic goals • job satisfaction of in-group members is high • Reassess their potential from time to time
  79. 79. Strengths of LMX Theory • Practical in Approach • It concentrates on specific relationship between leader and each subordinate • Robust explanatory theory • Focus- significance of communication in leadership • Communication is a medium through which leaders and subordinates develop, grow and maintain beneficial exchanges. When this communication is accompanied by features such as mutual trust, respect and devotion, it leads to effective leadership.
  80. 80. Criticism of LMX • fails to explain the particulars of how high-quality exchanges are created • is objected on grounds of fairness and justice as some followers receive special attention of leaders at workplace and other followers do not.