Physiology of fitness_nrg_systems_-_lesson_4


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I didnt write this one but the information is gold for those of studying or wanting to understand energy systems. Enjoy

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  • Glycolysis, glucose & glycogen, ATP, 60- 120s, lactic acid. Immediate, high, myosin, actin & myosin
  • Physiology of fitness_nrg_systems_-_lesson_4

    1. 1. Physiology of Fitness Energy systems and their role in sport and exercise
    2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>List the 3 main energy systems and their cellular fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the 3 energy systems giving sports related examples </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why some sports require more of one energy system than another </li></ul><ul><li>Measure and record the body’s responses to different types of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the recorded measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a short magazine article describing the three main energy systems using examples. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    3. 3. Chemical fuel <ul><li>Your body’s ability to extract energy from food and transfer it to the contractile proteins in your skeletal muscle determines your capacity to exercise at different durations at different intensities. This transfer of energy occurs as a result of thousands of chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>The muscles use a fuel called </li></ul><ul><li>ATP (adenosine triphosphate). </li></ul>
    4. 4. ATP <ul><li>Energy is stored in the chemical bond </li></ul><ul><li>ATP = A - P - P -- P </li></ul><ul><li>When this bond is broken energy is released – allowing myosin to attach to actin and muscle contraction to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>ADP = A - P - P P = </li></ul><ul><li>ADP will then bind again with a phosphate group and energy is stored that can be used later. </li></ul>Lots of energy stored between 2 nd & 3 rd phosphate groups Phosphate (creatine phosphate)
    5. 5. Actin & Myosin <ul><li>What are the contractile proteins in muscle? </li></ul><ul><li>Actin & Myosin </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The key terms to remember from that clip are: </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>ADP + Creatine Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Myosin </li></ul><ul><li>Actin </li></ul><ul><li>When ATP is released onto myosin the chemical bond breaks releasing a lot of energy causing actin and myosin filaments to contract ie muscle contraction </li></ul>Contractile proteins
    6. 6. What is ATP? <ul><li>ATP is a protein (Adenosine) with 3 phosphates attached to it </li></ul><ul><li>When chemical bonds are broken, energy is released and ATP becomes ADP (Adenosine diphosphate Di=2) </li></ul><ul><li>The energy from this breaking is used to make muscles contract </li></ul>The release of energy from ATP
    7. 7. Energy Systems <ul><li>What are the 3 main energy systems that convert chemical fuel from food into energy? </li></ul><ul><li>Creatine Phosphate System </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid System </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic Energy System </li></ul>What is this? The mitochondrion , shown here, is a tiny cellular structure that turns chemical fuel into cellular energy ie ATP.
    8. 8. Creatine Phosphate System
    9. 9. Creatine Phosphate System <ul><li>CP System </li></ul><ul><li>(immediate energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Here ATP is made without the presence of oxygen . </li></ul><ul><li>When exercise intensity is high, or energy needs are instantaneous, creatine phosphate stored in your muscle is broken down to provide energy to make ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive work can be achieved, but only for short periods of time at maximum intensity, as the supply of creatine phosphate is very limited, up to 10 seconds . </li></ul>Activity List as many sports activities as possible that use mainly the CP system.
    10. 10. Creatine Phosphate System Primary energy source: Duration of activity: Sporting events: Advantages: Limiting factors: Stored ATP, CP 7-12 s Weight lifting, high jump, long jump, 100m run, 25m swim Produce very large amount of energy in a short amount of time <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial concentration of high energy phosphates (ATP, PC) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Creatine Phosphate System
    12. 12. Training The CP System <ul><li>a) Interval training: eg 1min low intensity 1min high intensity & repeat </li></ul><ul><li>- 20% increase in CP (creatine phosphate) stores </li></ul><ul><li>- no change in ATP stores </li></ul><ul><li>- increase in ATPase function (ATP -> ADP+P) </li></ul><ul><li>- increase in CPK (creatine phosphokinase) function (CPK breaks down CP molecule and allows ATP resynthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Sprint training: </li></ul><ul><li>- increase in CP stores up to 40% </li></ul><ul><li>- 100% increase in resting ATP stores </li></ul>
    13. 13. Lactic Acid Energy System
    14. 14. Lactic Acid Energy System <ul><li>high intensity exercise </li></ul><ul><li>up to 2 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>ATP is made by the partial breakdown of glucose and glycogen. This is caused by anaerobic glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an anaerobic process (no O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the body store glycogen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the by-product of anaerobic glycolysis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    15. 15. Lactic Acid Energy System Primary energy source: Duration of activity: Sporting events: Advantages: Limiting factors: Stored glycogen, blood glucose 12 s – 3 min <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid build up, H+ ions build up (decrease of pH) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>800m run, 200m swim, downhill ski racing, 1500 speed skating Ability to produce energy under conditions of inadequate oxygen
    16. 16. Lactic Acid Energy System
    17. 17. Lactic Acid Energy System <ul><li>Anaerobic Threshold </li></ul><ul><li>The exercise intensity at which lactic acid begins to accumulate within the blood </li></ul><ul><li>The point during exercise where the person begins to feel discomfort and burning sensations in their muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is used to store pyruvate and hydrogen ions until they can be processed by the aerobic system </li></ul>
    18. 18. Lactic Acid Energy System <ul><li>The primary source of substrates is carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary dietary source of glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primary energy fuels for brain, muscles, heart, liver </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Recap <ul><li>Lactic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Energy System </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic g________ is the breakdown of ________ and _________ to produce _ _ _ </li></ul><ul><li>This energy system can sustain high intensity exercise for how long? _____ </li></ul><ul><li>The by product is called _______ ____. It can impede muscle contraction and cause fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>Creatine Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Energy System </li></ul><ul><li>It is the imm_________ </li></ul><ul><li>energy system needed when exercise intensity is ______, or energy needs are instantaneous. </li></ul><ul><li>C_______ p________ is broken down to provide energy to make _ _ _ </li></ul><ul><li>When ATP is released onto m______ the chemical bond breaks releasing a lot of energy causing a____ and m_____ filaments to contract ie muscle contraction </li></ul>
    20. 20. Aerobic Energy System Primary energy source : Duration of activity: Sporting events: Advantages: Limiting factors: Glycogen, glucose, fats, proteins > 3 min <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lung function, max.blood flow, oxygen availability, excess. energy demands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Walking, jogging, swimming, walking up stairs Large output of energy over a long period of time, removal of lactic acid
    21. 21. Aerobic Energy System
    22. 22. Aerobic Energy System
    23. 23. Aerobic Energy System <ul><li>The most important energy system in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Blood lactate levels remain relatively low (3-6mmol/L bl) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary source of energy (70-95%) for exercise lasting longer than 10 minutes provided that: </li></ul><ul><li>a) working muscles have sufficient mitochondria to meet energy requirements </li></ul><ul><li>b) sufficient oxygen is supplied to the mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>c) enzymes or intermediate products do not limit the Kreb’s cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Primary source of energy for the exercise that is performed at an intensity lower than that of the anaerobic oxidative system </li></ul>
    24. 24. Aerobic Energy System <ul><li>Long term energy, system for light exercise and every day movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The production of energy in the aerobic system does not start instantly.... Why? </li></ul><ul><li>In groups discuss this and write down your agreed answer </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: </li></ul><ul><li>It takes a few minutes for the heart to deliver oxygenated blood to the working muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Long, continuous moderate exercise produces energy using this system. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Types of Sport that use each system <ul><li>Remember, energy at any given time is derived from all 3 energy systems. </li></ul><ul><li>However the emphasis changes depending on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the intensity of the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the efficiency of your aerobic fitness </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Energy Systems Summary <ul><li>Creatine Phosphate energy system ... for very short high intensity exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADP + Phosphocreatine ATP + creatine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>requires no O2 but only enough stored for about 10secs e.g. power lifting... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid Energy System: short-term energy system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose 2 ATP + 2 lactic acid + heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen 3 ATP + 2 lactic acid + heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>requires no O2 but produces energy for high intensity exercise for up to 60 – 90 secs e.g. 400m race.. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Energy Systems Summary <ul><li>3. Aerobic Energy System: long-term energy system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose +O 2 38 ATP + CO 2 + water + heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acids + O 2 129 ATP + CO 2 + water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ heat </li></ul></ul>