Exercise in-the-heat-and-acclimatisation


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  • Does not cover loss of SV, ie…CO decreases and therefore BP regulation must occur…intense situation
  • Exercise in-the-heat-and-acclimatisation

    2. 2. Applied Exercise Physiology <ul><li>On completion of this unit a learner should: </li></ul><ul><li>Know how temperature and altitude affect exercise and sports performance </li></ul><ul><li>Know about the physical differences between people of different gender and race and their affect on exercise and sports performance </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>3. Know the impact that the physiological effects of ageing have on exercise and sports performance </li></ul><ul><li>4. Know the effects and implications of using ergogenic aids for exercise and sports performance. </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>You have evolved over millions of years to exist within a narrow range of Physiological variables </li></ul><ul><li>From the amount of water in your body, to the acidity in your cells and the concentration of glucose in your blood </li></ul><ul><li>These are regulated by physiological and hormonal responses to maintain “Optimal” conditions AKA? </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Exercise and heat exsist to most adult as the biggest CHALLENGE to HOMEOSTASIS </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Most sports have to compete in change of climate </li></ul><ul><li>This pushes bodies ability to control its internal environment, this has significant physiological consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between preventing “hyper” thermia and maintaining an adequate fuel supply to the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>This is an abnormally high core temperature, and has significant implications on performance and health. </li></ul>
    8. 9. What points where highlighted by the video? <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ESauS61OHFg </li></ul>
    9. 10. HYPOTHALAMUS <ul><li>Temperature is regulated by the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior hypothalamus is concerned with heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Controls sweating and skin blood flow responses </li></ul>
    10. 12. Hypothalamic dysfunction? <ul><li>What do you think the symptoms would be? </li></ul>
    11. 13. HEAT Exchange <ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Convection </li></ul><ul><li>Conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot dry environment 98% of cooling </li></ul></ul>
    12. 14. Activity <ul><li>With a partner think of as many acute responses to heat as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>There are the responses that occur immediately when exposed to the stimulus of heat </li></ul><ul><li>And responses that take longer to occur </li></ul>
    13. 15. ACUTE RESPONSES <ul><li>Acute responses similar to exercise however exacerbated in the heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Sweat Response (Most obvious) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Skin and Muscle vasodilation </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Core Temperature </li></ul>
    14. 16. Accute responses to exercise <ul><li>Increase HR </li></ul><ul><li>BP Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes precedence over skin blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase Lactate production </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Substrate Metabolism </li></ul>
    15. 17. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE <ul><li>Progressive decline in Stroke Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to Sweat losses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in HR to compensate </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to maintain Cardiac Output , progressive loss in Cardiac Output causes a decrease in BP </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Cases – BP regulation wins out over temp regulation </li></ul>
    16. 18. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE.... <ul><li>When Hyper thermia starts to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Blood diverted away from the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain BP </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperthermia as no evaporative sweat losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of Death </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. SUBSTRATE METABOLISM/ LACTATE PRODUCTION <ul><li>Increase in CHO usage during exercise in the heat </li></ul><ul><li>Epinephrine (adrenaline) levels increase with exercise in the heat </li></ul><ul><li>Could result in Increase in Lactate production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less ability to oxidise lactate back to pyruvate </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. FLUID LOSS <ul><li>As duration and intensity of exercise increases sweat reponse usually increases? </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating helps the body lose heat by....? </li></ul><ul><li>How much you sweat is determined by the temperature your training status </li></ul>
    19. 21. FLUID LOSS <ul><li>2-3L per hour during exercise in the heat </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo hydration/ Dehydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of fluid intake/sweat rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration impairs thermoregulation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperthermia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to use cooling mechanisms in extreme environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may feel dizzy, faint, nauseated, or very thirsty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same response to losing a lot of blood </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. PERFORMANCE IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>Decreases muscular endurance and max aerobic power </li></ul><ul><li>Unsure about the effect on anaerobic performance but research suggests no impact if progressive dehydration does not occur before the event. </li></ul>
    21. 23. PERFORMANCE IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>Debate over theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less substrate availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased lactate production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested critical core temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle recruitment inhibited during exercise in the heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tucker (2004) showed power output began to fall within the first 30% of maximal self-paced time trial in the heat. This suggested the decrease in performance was not associated with an altered temperature, heart rate or exercise perception. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 25. For next week <ul><li>An athlete comes to you they have been suddenly called up for a outdoor competition in India during the summer temperatures can reach over 40C, they want advice on what they’re drinking strategy should be. </li></ul><ul><li>How much should they drink? Before competition, during and after? </li></ul><ul><li>What can they do to maximise fluid retention, is just water enough? </li></ul>
    23. 26. PART 2
    24. 27. Last weeks question <ul><li>How much should they drink? Before competition, during and after? </li></ul><ul><li>What can they do to maximise fluid retention, is just water enough? </li></ul>
    25. 28. Recap <ul><li>The body defends itself from heat through three mechanisms: breathing, sweating, and changing the blood flow. </li></ul><ul><li>The first reaction is to circulate blood to the skin, which increases skin temperature and allows the body to give off some heat. </li></ul>
    26. 29. <ul><li>During heavy work, muscles need more blood flow, which reduces the amount of blood available to flow to the skin and release the heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating also helps the body to cool off </li></ul><ul><li>humidity levels need to be low enough to allow the sweat to evaporate. </li></ul><ul><li>water and salts lost through sweating must be replaced to keep sweating. </li></ul>
    27. 30. <ul><li>Four environmental factors affect the amount of stress an athlete faces in a hot environment area: </li></ul><ul><li>temperature, </li></ul><ul><li>humidity, </li></ul><ul><li>radiant heat (such as from the sun or a furnace) </li></ul><ul><li>wind speed. </li></ul>
    28. 31. Great North Run 2005
    29. 32. <ul><li>Four participants died en-route to South Shields </li></ul><ul><li>Particular deadly set of circumstances occurred, High humidity, High temperatures and prevailing tail wind </li></ul><ul><li>“ they had all been physically fit and well-prepared for the event.” </li></ul>
    30. 33. NUTRITIONALSTRATEGIES <ul><li>Hyper hydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic, with acclimatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + Water,Gastric Discomfort, urination, Increase body mass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water only Hydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only replaces 30-70% of sweat losses </li></ul></ul>
    31. 34. <ul><li>Rehydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water ingested -> dilution of plasma osmolarity (reduces the concentration of electrolytes)-> reduced thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is why electrolyte and Sodium drinks such as Gatorade and PowerAde are important. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CHO Loading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily intakes 7-10g/kg of BM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid caffine and alcohol! </li></ul></ul>
    32. 35. IMMEDIATE COMPETITION STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EFFECTS OF HEAT? <ul><li>Athlete or exerciser comes to you complain of feeling to hot before and during exercise or competition what do you do? </li></ul>
    33. 36. IMMEDIATE COMPETITION STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EFFECTS OF HEAT <ul><li>Pre Cooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice vests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoiding getting hot too soon reduces physiological strain </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Core Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delays dehydration and hyperthermia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light weight/ little as possible/Compression wear </li></ul></ul>
    34. 37. Cooling vest
    35. 39. Compression Wear <ul><li>there is evidence to suggest that compression clothing may improve exercise performance by reducing the impact of hot and/or humid conditions on the body’s thermoregulatory system </li></ul>
    36. 40. <ul><li>Increases in skin and core temperature and a reduction in cooling efficiency are observed when clothing interferes with the evaporation of sweat from the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been suggested that compression clothing assists the rate of evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>faster transfer of sweat from the skin to the fabric. </li></ul>
    37. 41. <ul><li>Once there, the sweat can be dispersed more quickly and evenly over a larger area </li></ul><ul><li>This Allows evaporation to be maximised. </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes would feel cooler during exercise and perceive the activity as being less difficult. </li></ul>
    38. 42. WET BULB GLOBE TEMPERATURE (WBGT) <ul><li>Estimation of heat stress. </li></ul><ul><li>WBGT accounts for the levels of humidity, radiation, wind movement and ambient temperature </li></ul>WBGT Risk <18 Low 18-23 Moderate 23-28 High >28 Hazardous
    39. 43. WBGT Map
    40. 44. ACCLIMATISATION <ul><li>Repeated exposures to the heat results in adaptations within the body that make the athlete less susceptible to the demands imposed by exercise in the heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat tolerance is improved </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore performance in the heat is improved </li></ul>
    41. 45. STRATEGIES AND DURATION <ul><li>Conflicting Views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term/ short term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recent research suggests 7-14 days </li></ul><ul><li>Major adaptations plateau after 14 days </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of adaptation undertaken 5-6 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acclimation Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same Intensity and duration </li></ul></ul>
    42. 46. ADAPTATIONS Response & effect RESPONSE EFFECT Improved skin blood flow Dissipate heat effectively Lower Heart Rate Work at a higher intensity Effective distribution of CO Meet thermoregulation and metabolism demands Reduction in sweating threshold Evaporative cooling begins earlier Increased distribution of active sweat glands Maximizes evaporative cooling Increased sweat rate Maximizes Evaporative Cooling
    43. 47. ADAPTATIONS RESPONSE EFFECT Reduction in loss of water and electrolytes from sweat Preserves sodium in extra cellular fluids, promotes water retention Better maintenance of Core Temperature Fatigue delay, increase thermoregulatory capacities Increasing sweating sensitivity to increasing core temp Maximizes Evaporative cooling Less reliant on CHO metabolism CHO sparing, less lactate accumulation ?
    44. 48. ADAPTAIONS TO MAINTAIN CORE TEMP <ul><li>Sawka et.al (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Core temperature does not rise as quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Delays onset of dehydration and hyperthermia </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoregulatory responses carried out as normal for longer </li></ul>
    45. 49. BLOOD VOLUME CHANGES <ul><li>Expansion of blood volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Large shift of blood to the peripheral areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. decrease in plasma volume. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulates increased renal sodium and water retention. </li></ul><ul><li>Aldosterone and Vasopressin (ADH) released to help mediate expansion. </li></ul>
    46. 50. HEART RATE <ul><li>Due to increase in Blood Volume, heart rate decreases rapidly in the first four days of an acclimation program </li></ul><ul><li>More blood means the heart doesn't have to work as hard </li></ul><ul><li>The HR still increased during exercise, but at a much slower rate after acclimation. </li></ul><ul><li>A decrease of about 22BPM from the first day has been shown. </li></ul>
    47. 51. SWEATING <ul><li>Sweating rate occurs at a lower core temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of sweating increases, more effective evaporative cooling in dry temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased distribution of active sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Plasma sodium concentrations allows for greater water retention in the body. </li></ul>
    48. 53. <ul><li>Hue et.al (2004) Sweat Rates </li></ul>
    49. 54. HOW CAN THIS HELP?? <ul><li>Acclimatisation allows the body to exercise for longer at a higher intensity in the heat </li></ul><ul><li>Body adapts and delays dehydration and hyperthermia </li></ul><ul><li>Better thermoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, delays onset of fatiguing elements and increases performance capacity. </li></ul>
    50. 55. Heat Training practical examples <ul><li>Candian Triathletes training for cancun mexico competition. </li></ul><ul><li>cram 5 people into remodeled 5th wheeler complete with heaters, filters and various other apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>crank the heat up to 38c and 80% humidity </li></ul>
    51. 56. Canadian Triathlon Team
    52. 58. <ul><li>ride for 90min with your core temp at 39 degrees </li></ul><ul><li>drink as much water as you can handle </li></ul><ul><li>get sports &quot;data miner&quot; to collect the stats </li></ul>
    53. 59. Planning for next week <ul><li>We are in the gym </li></ul><ul><li>1 person in each group will be the subject and the subject again the following week </li></ul><ul><li>We will weigh them before and after exercise in the same clothes </li></ul><ul><li>first week will be with added clothing so subjects must wear long sleeve top and training bottoms. No compression wear underneath! </li></ul>
    54. 60. <ul><li>The week after, either shirtless and only shorts or compression wear. </li></ul><ul><li>3 helpers will be on hand for the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>1Data collector </li></ul><ul><li>1 Minder, to make sure the subject feels ok and ensures they’re drinking enough water </li></ul><ul><li>1 time keeper </li></ul><ul><li>Testers should also wear sensible clothing, no jeans </li></ul>
    55. 61. <ul><li>Duration will be 20 minutes moderate intensity level 4 during warm up and then 8 for bikes. </li></ul><ul><li>4-6 kph and then 7-9 Kph (avg jogging speed) for treadmill users </li></ul><ul><li>First 5 minutes will be warm up and last 2 minutes cool down </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll be measuring weight, measuring RPE, and measuring fluid intake </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to bring electrolyte drinks for post test recovery </li></ul>
    56. 62. Pay your testing dues <ul><li>If you volunteer to be a subject now it means your less likely be one for future testing </li></ul><ul><li>If you know what it feels like you will have a greater understand when testing others! </li></ul>