Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Violence Prevention and Personal Safety for Lone Workers and Remote Employees

461 views

Published on

In this webinar, Violence Prevention and Personal Safety for Lone Workers and Remote Employees, Steven Crimando discussed the importance of protecting employees in the new mobile world, where people, assets, liability and reputation threats may face higher than normal levels of safety and security risks. Specific topics addressed include:

- Duty of care for lone workers/mobile workers
- Lone worker hazard vulnerability assessments
- Risk reduction strategies and techniques
- Street smarts and "getting of the X"
- Emergency/crisis communications from field settings

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Violence Prevention and Personal Safety for Lone Workers and Remote Employees

  1. 1. For Lone Workers and Remote Employees Violence Prevention and Personal Safety November 2016
  2. 2. 2 Agenda + Introduction and housekeeping + Lone worker hazard and vulnerability assessments + Risk reduction strategies and techniques + Street smarts and “getting of the X” FOLLOW US ON TWITTER, @EVERBRIDGE JOIN OUR EVERBRIDGE INCIDENT MANAGEMENT PROFESSIONALS GROUP ON LINKEDIN
  3. 3. 3 Housekeeping USE THE Q&A FUNCTION TO SUBMIT QUESTIONS #employeesafety
  4. 4. 4 Introduction – Our Presenter Steven M. Crimando Principal, Behavioral Science Applications
  5. 5. 5Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Strategies & Techniques for Violence Prevention For Lone Workers and Remote Employees
  6. 6. Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 6 Program Sections Two: For Employers O What are an employer’s legal duties? O Risk assessment O Policy O Training O Supervision O Support Three: For Employees O Employee responsibilities O Risk factors O High-level violence prevention strategies One: For Everyone O Who are Lone Workers? O What is Workplace Violence?
  7. 7. Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 7 Section One Information for Everyone
  8. 8. 8Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Reduce the risk of violence to lone workers, remote workers, and mobile workers. Goal
  9. 9. 9Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Our Perspective O Safety and security are shared obligations between the employer and employee. Everyone must do their part. O Whether onsite or off, no one should ever be a passive observer to their own safety. Complacency and perceptual bias can be the greatest threats to worker safety.
  10. 10. 10Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Please Note O The terms “lone worker,” “remote worker” and “mobile worker” will be used interchangeably in this program. O There are many sectors, and many types of jobs that use lone workers. O It will be necessary to make industry- and job-specific adjustments to these concepts. O Consult with the guidelines, regulations and best practices in your sector or industry.
  11. 11. 11Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. O This program does not presume to anticipate every potential hazard or threat encountered on the job. O Our focus will be primarily on the risk of workplace violence. O It will provide a foundation that you can build on and customize specific to your risks and resources. Also Note
  12. 12. Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 12 Program Content We will address: O Lone workers O Remote workers O Mobile workers Will not address: O Working from home O Business travel O Ex-patriate employees or working-abroad We will not discuss: O Self defense O Car Jacking O Kidnapping O Vehicle and driver safety
  13. 13. 13Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Operating Assumptions O Regardless if employees typically work unsupervised or just occasionally going to off-site meetings, businesses need to understand their responsibilities to educate their lone workers about their risks, procedures to reduce the possibility of workplace violence, and how to best respond. O Lone workers must be competent to deal with crisis situations as they arise.
  14. 14. 14Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Who Are Lone Workers? O Lone workers are those who work by themselves without close or direct supervision. O They work in many different occupations and settings ranging from urban to wilderness. O They can work alone in fixed locations with only one person on premises, or be mobile and always on the move.
  15. 15. 15Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. O Lone workers often work onsite, but outside of normal business hours. This can include security guards, housekeeping/janitors, facility maintenance or repair, or delivery workers. O They also work off-site, away from fixed locations in jobs in sales, construction, real estate, home healthcare, community social work, and in other roles. O Lone workers are especially vulnerable to workplace violence. O Employers of people who work alone, are geographically isolated, or have the potential to be alone when working late or travelling on the job, must take reasonable steps to minimize associated risks. Who Are Lone Workers?
  16. 16. What is Workplace Violence? Copyright © 2011-14. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17. 17Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Type I: Criminal Intent O Perpetrator has no legitimate relationship with the targeted establishment. O Primary motive: theft. O Deadly weapon used, increases the risk of fatal injury. O Workers who exchange cash, work late hours, or work alone at greatest risk. O Robbery, shoplifting and trespassing incidents can turn violent. O 85% of all workplace homicides are Type I.
  18. 18. 18Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. O Perpetrator is a customer or client of worker or employer. O Violence occurs in conjunction with worker’s normal duties. O Some jobs have an increased level of risk. Type II: Customer/Client O Healthcare and social service workers are almost four times more likely to be injured as a result of violence in the workplace than the average private sector employee. -Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013
  19. 19. 19Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. O Perpetrator is a current or former employee. O Motivating factor is often interpersonal or work-related conflicts, losses or traumas, and may involve a sense of injustice or unfairness. O Managers and Supervisors are at greatest risk of being victimized. O Type III violence accounts for about 7% of all workplace homicides. Type III: Worker-to-Worker
  20. 20. 20Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. O Domestic violence/Intimate partner violence in the workplace. O Perpetrators are not employees or former employees. O Women more often targets; men more often perpetrators. O Risk of violence increases when one party attempts to separate from the other. Type IV: Domestic Violence
  21. 21. 21Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. O Violence directed at an organization, its people, and/or property for ideological, religious or political reasons. O Violence perpetrated by extremists and value‐driven groups justified by their beliefs. O Target selection is based rage against what the targeted organization does or represents. Type V: Ideological Violence The shooting at the Planned Parenthood office in Colorado Springs, CO in November 2015 is a clear example of Type V violence.
  22. 22. Copyright © 2011-15. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 22 Workplace Violence is Not Just Gun Violence O While the media tends to report on sensational workplace shootings, gun-related violence on the job is statistically rare. O Workplace violence must be understood as potential violence well beyond firearms. Even a hot cup of tea or coffee can become a weapon. Note: Having an Active Shooter Response Plan is not equivalent of having a Workplace Violence Prevention Program.
  23. 23. Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 23 Section Two Guidance for Employers
  24. 24. Occupational Safety and Health Act O The OSH Act of 1970 mandates that, in addition to compliance with hazard-specific standards, all employers have a “general duty” to provide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm. Copyright © 2011-15. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. 25Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. OSHA & Workplace Violence O While OSHA does not have a specific regulation regarding workplace violence, it is considered a foreseeable risk, and as with other workplace hazards, states that, “employers have a 'general duty’ to provide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm.” O Although there are no rules that specifically for lone workers, the broad duties defined by OSHA still apply.
  26. 26. 26Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Important Definitions WORKPLACE Any location, permanent or temporary, where an employee performs a work-related duty Includes but is not limited to the building & the surrounding perimeter (i.e., parking lot) Includes field locations, workers’ homes and any location where business work- related functions are conducted For OSHA, the term “workplace” is synonymous with “on the job” and “on duty.”
  27. 27. OSHA & Lone Workers For OSHA, the lone worker is a gray area. Only a few government resources on lone work are available to employers, and some vague language in OSHA’s regulations. For example: O 1915.84(a) Except as provided in 1915.51(c)(3) of this part, whenever an employee is working alone, such as in a confined space or isolated location, the employer shall account for each employee; O 1915.84(a)(1) Throughout each work shift at regular intervals appropriate to the job assignment to ensure the employee’s safety and health; O 1915.84(a)(2) At the end of the job assignment or at the end of the work shift, whichever occurs first; O 1915.84(b) The employer shall account for each employee by sight or verbal communication. Note: These citations are from OSHA re: shipyards.
  28. 28. Duty to Care O All employers have a Duty of Care to their employees, regardless of where they work. O The Duty of Care may be a shared responsibility between a lone worker and their employer. Each must do their part. O Lone workers should not be at more risk than other employees. O Due to the risks faced by lone and remote workers, and the lack of assistance if something goes wrong, the Duty to Care takes on a greater importance. O Fulfilling a Duty of Care means that the employer should take all steps which are reasonably possible to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of their employees.
  29. 29. 29Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Employer Responsibilities O Ensure lone workers have no medical conditions which can make them unsuitable for working alone. O Be aware that some tasks may be too difficult or dangerous to be carried out alone. O Provide some level of supervision. O Put contact procedures in place for lone workers who may be faced with workplace violence. O Check whether there are any specific legal requirements.
  30. 30. Organizing a Lone Worker Violence Prevention Program O Need, justification and authorization. O Ownership, commitment, and responsibility. O Policy and procedures necessary for functioning. (Legal counsel) O Organize resources, design system and refine. O Training, implementation, more training. O Maintenance of program, trouble-shooting and ongoing training.
  31. 31. 31Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. WPV Lone Worker Policy When developing a Lone Worker Workplace Violence Prevention Policy include: O Management commitment to preventing and managing workplace violence risks. O Statement that violence in the workplace is unacceptable and will not be tolerated. O Acknowledgement of occupational violence hazards. O Potential risk factors. O Statement that appropriate action by workers will be supported. O All incidents and near misses will be investigated and action taken to prevent or reduce risks. This should be consistent with or a subpart of overall organizational workplace violence prevention policies.
  32. 32. 32Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Policy Components O General: A lone worker policy will outline how the organization manages the safety of lone workers. O Communications-specific: Explain to staff how they should communicate with the organization in different circumstances (including hostile or violent encounters) while working alone. This may include: O Checking-in at reasonable times throughout the day, O Checking out of each address after each visit, O Checking that the lone worker has reached home safely. O Use of communication technologies.
  33. 33. 33Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Risk Assessment O Risk assessment is an essential element of ensuring lone worker safety. The main goals of any risk assessment should include: O Identifying the foreseeable risks (general) to the safety of employees working. O Identifying foreseeable situations and environments in which violence would be more likely to occur. O Identifying counter-measures to reduce the possibility of violent encounters and/or to protect lone workers if violence occurs. O Managers and supervisors should monitor and review the risk assessment regularly to ensure it is still valid.
  34. 34. 34Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) O JHAs can provide several benefits, including assisting in training and incident investigation. O A specific Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) is recommended for jobs that carry a higher risk for hostile or violent encounters. O Involving workers in the process is helpful since they are often the most knowledgeable about the actual risks.
  35. 35. 35Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Risk & Job Hazard Analysis When conducting a Risk or Job Hazard Analysis, employers should consider: O How likely the threat is and how severe the outcome may be? O The location of the workplace? O Distances from help? O If the work carried out after dark? O Distances travelled, road surfaces and condition? O Known area or security hazards? O Mobile phone coverage?
  36. 36. Key Training Areas O Training is especially important in circumstances where there is limited supervision to control, guide and help in uncertain or dangerous situations. O Identify clear limits about what can and cannot be done if violence is encountered while working alone. O Such training may help reduce panic and emotional distress, as well as physical injury in the face of potential violence. 36
  37. 37. 37Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. General Training Areas O Who is a lone worker. O What are the possible risks to safety. O What can be done to counter these risks, (e.g. What policies, procedures and protocols are in place to ensure safety.) O Reporting accidents, incidents and near misses. O Ensuring accountability. O Calling for help in an emergency.
  38. 38. 38Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Specific Training Areas O Personal safety. O Dealing with threatening and aggressive behavior. O Awareness strategies. O What to do in specific situations. O Record keeping.
  39. 39. 39Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Supervision O It remains an employer’s duty to supervise employees even if constant supervision is not possible. O Supervision around the risk of violence and violence prevention measures can be provided in site visits and while checking on overall performance indicators (e.g., progress, quality, etc.) O Ongoing supervision can help employers and employees understand the changing nature of some types of violence (e.g., recent increase in gang activity in the area, etc.) O Be cognizant of the employment law concept of “negligent supervision” and its relationship to injuries and deaths stemming from violence on the job.
  40. 40. 40Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Accountability O One component of supervision is “accountability” in that employers should know where lone workers are for their own safety. O There are several systems that employers can adopt to ensure workers can located. O An approach blending work practices and technologies is often most helpful.
  41. 41. 41Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Support Support of lone worker safety and violence prevent must be clearly communicated and consistently provided before, during and after an incident or emergency. This includes: O Support of both executive and line management. O Immediate post incident support. O Connection to post-incident resources (e.g., police, EAP, crime victims services, etc.) O Report and investigation. O Feedback/information.
  42. 42. 42Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Post-Incident Response O Emotional reactions to violent incidents may vary between individuals. O Information about an employee’s reactions should be safeguarded to protect the safety, security and privacy of all involved. Post-incident emotional support can: O Relieve both emotional and physical suffering, O Improve people’s short-term functioning. O Accelerate an individual’s course of recovery.
  43. 43. Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 43 Section Three Guidance for Employees
  44. 44. 44Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Employee Responsibilities Employees have a responsibility to: O Follow the employer’s policies and procedures for safety and violence prevention. O Take reasonable care of their own and other people’s safety. O Maintain an awareness of their surroundings and the possible threats to their personal safety when working alone. O Be involved in assessing risk and identifying safety measures. O Leave the working environment if there is an imminent danger to their safety. O Take part in and follow guidance provided in training to ensure their safety.
  45. 45. 45Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Additional Responsibilities O Inform the employer when safety or violence prevention measures are not adequate or effective. O Inform the employer when they have encountered a “near miss” or have identified additional violence risks that were previously unidentified. O Report to the employer any actual accidents or incidents that occur.
  46. 46. 46Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. The Lone Worker Security Test Spend time working from your car trunk? Sit alone in your car making data entries? Walk to and from facilities with expensive/desirable samples or equipment? Carry expensive electronics? Find yourself in parking lots, hotels, or other facilities late at night? Go to isolated locations? Spend hours driving alone for long distances? Travel to locations without cellular signal? Travel at night? Interact with people you don’t know well? Do you frequently…
  47. 47. 47Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Self Assessment  When working alone, am I aware of my surroundings and any possible threats?  Do I leave a situation if I feel unsafe and back away from threatening situations?  Do I know my employer’s policy or position on this? (i.e., leaving)  Do I know my escape routes?  Do I report any incident as soon as possible to my line manager?  Could I obtain assistance if they were threatened, injured or ill while working alone or at remote worksites?
  48. 48. Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 48 Violence Prevention & Response Toolkit O Smartphone O Company policies O Safety best practices O Safety products O Action checklists O Situational awareness O Verbal De-escalation skills O Environmental controls O Communications system O Good instincts Recommended Reading “The Gift of Fear” Gavin deBecker
  49. 49. 49Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Keys to Situational Awareness O The ability to establish and monitor a baseline. O The ability to recognize change from the baseline. O What is different today? People, objects, a gut feeling? O Don’t keep it to yourself: O See Something, O Say Something, O Do Something.
  50. 50. 50Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Baseline & Anomalies BASELINENormal Variation Positive anomalies fall above the baseline: Behaviors or conditions that should not be there, but are. Negative anomalies fall below the baseline: Behaviors or conditions that should be there, but aren’t.
  51. 51. 51Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Three Common Obstacles to Situational Awareness 1. Not Monitoring the Baseline. If you are not monitoring the baseline, you will not recognize the presence of threats that represent a risk. 2. Normalcy Bias. We have a bias towards the status quo. Nothing has ever happened here, so nothing is likely to happen. 3. Focus Lock. This is some form of distraction that is so engaging, that focuses all of our awareness on one thing and by default, blocks all the other stimulus in our environment. Recommended Reading “Left of Bang” Patrick Van Horne Jason A. Riley
  52. 52. 52Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Three Effective Techniques to Improve Situational Awareness 1. Monitor the Baseline. At first, this will require conscious effort. 2. Fight Normalcy Bias. This requires you to be paranoid for a while as you develop your ability. Look at every anomaly in the baseline environment as a potential threat. 3. Avoid using the obvious focus locks in transition areas. It is OK to text while you are sitting at your desk or laying in bed. But it’s NOT OK to text as you walk from the office to the parking garage.That text message can wait. Keep alert in transitional areas.
  53. 53. 53Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Do Something: Get Off the “X” O An aggressor is coming toward you. You don’t want to be there. If you move, even one step, the aggressor now has to adjust to you. This movement off the X, away from the spot where the aggressor may strike, will help to keep you alive. O The site of the attack is a dangerous place to be. Remove yourself from the site of the attack and you will increase your odds of survival. O Pick a direction and get off the X!
  54. 54. 54Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Stay “Left of Bang!” O “Bang” is where an attack begins or damage is done. O On a timeline moving from left to right, “right of bang” is what happens after the violence begins. In the worst- case scenario, you’re a casualty to the right of bang. O Therefore, you need to stay to the “left of bang.” In that zone you need to be alert, ready, prepared, and able to respond before the bad stuff happens. BANG!LEFT RIGHT Before After
  55. 55. 55Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Perform a Violence Prevention Premortem Asking before an incident, in what ways can this go wrong?
  56. 56. 56Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Prospective Hindsight O Imagining that an adverse event has already occurred increases the ability to correctly identify reasons for future outcomes by 30%.1 O Using prospective hindsight to conduct a premortem helps identify risks at the outset.2 O Doing this at the beginning of an assignment rather than the end allows the assignment to be improved rather than autopsied. 1. Deborah J. Mitchell, J. Edward Russo, Nancy Pennington, Back to the Future: Temporal Perspective in the Explanation of Events, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2, 25-38 (1989). 2. Gary Klein, Harvard Business Review, 2007 http://hbr.org/2007/09/performin g-a-project-premortem/ar/1
  57. 57. 57Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. Operational Recommendations [1] O Relocating the service to another location. O Using two workers rather than one when risk is perceived to be elevated. O Using mobile phones or other electronic methods to obtain assistance with emergency numbers on speed dial. O Monitoring the location of staff (e.g., “flight plans, call in schedules, etc.) O Ensuring workers have reliable vehicles (particularly for work at night) and roadside assistance.
  58. 58. 58Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. O Mapping emergency coordinates of remote locations. O Mapping areas where there is generally no mobile phone coverage and developing communication systems for these areas. O Ensuring that a worker’s family and friends have the relevant office contact details and can advise the workplace if the worker does not arrive home at their usual time. O Providing the on-call coordinator with work time and location details to assist tracking workers who do not arrive home on time. Operational Recommendations [2]
  59. 59. Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. 59 O Identifying: O What the emergency communication system is. O The types of emergency situation in which workers should be calling for help. O Who to contact. O How to contact them. O Whether any code words are required. Operational Recommendations [3] O Agreeing on an universal distress code that is not commonly used but can be worked into any conversation: O Example: “Hi, this is Mike. I’m with Mr. Wilson on South Street. Can you please email me the RED FILE?”
  60. 60. 60Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. In Conclusion… O Workplace violence is a recognized hazard in almost every industry, but is a special risk in jobs involving lone workers. O Lone workers should not be at more risk than other employees in an organization. O Safety and security in lone work is a shared obligation between the employer and employee. O Both parties benefit from a pragmatic and proactive approach to identifying risks and resources to mitigate the risk of violence. Rule One on every job must be: Everyone goes home safely at the end of their shift.
  61. 61. 61Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved.
  62. 62. 62Copyright © 2011-16.. Behavioral Science Applications. All Rights Reserved. For More Information Toll Free 888-404-6177 New York Metro Area 917-289-1186 Email: info@behavioralscienceapps.com Web: www.behavioralscienceapps.com
  63. 63. 63 Q&A USE THE Q&A FUNCTION TO SUBMIT QUESTIONS Contact Us: Everbridge marketing@everbridge.com 818-230-9700
  64. 64. 64 Thank you for joining us today! If you’d like to request a demo of the Everbridge Platform please visit www.Everbridge.com/request-demo. Everbridge Resources On-Demand Webinars: www.everbridge.com/webinars White papers, case studies and more www.everbridge.com/resources Follow us: www.everbridge.com/blog @everbridge Linkedin Learn about Everbridge Safety Connection by visiting www.everbridge.com/product-safety-connection

×