Introduction to Philosophy         Lecture 9   New Science and Politics
Questions• Calvin and Hobbes relation?• Neo-Platonism: Focus on Plato and Plotinus. A  combination of Plato’s philosophy a...
Questions 2• Heresy:  opinion or doctrine at variance with the• orthodox or  accepted doctrine, especially of a church• or...
Figures• Nicolus (Nicolaus?) Copernicus (1473 –  1543)• Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)• Francis Bacon (1561-1626)• Thomas Hobb...
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543)• Polish• Religion and reason  Religion and  science• Founder of modern astronomy• Helio...
Nicolaus (Nicolus?) Copernicus    (1473 – 1543) continued….• Condemned for heresy• Famous work: De revolutionibus orbium  ...
Ptolemaic System• Claudius Ptolemaeus (c.90-168 AD)• Based on Plato and Aristotle• The earth is the fixed center of the  u...
Ptolemaic• Model• “7th heaven” – angels
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)• Italian philosopher & once a Dominican friar• Burnt at the stake in 1600• Scientific views had...
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)           continued…• Different from Nicholas of Cusa (1401-  1464) - influenced him – the univ...
Heresy• Later Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was  asked to retract his Copernican view or  face similar punishment• Conflict ...
Aristotle and Religion• Aristotle was adopted at official doctrine of  the church• Aristotle was the foundation of science...
Aristotle and religion continued….• 15th century Aristotle was still accepted• After the 15th century “common sense”  came...
Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626)• Lawyer, statesman, and philosopher• Recognized as the official founder of  modern science• In...
Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626)             continued• Not knowledge for its own sake• Knowledge must be Practical/useful• Kno...
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679).
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)•   Machiavelli came first (why Solomon order? – no idea).•   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BC...
Hobbes Continued• He considered his work De Cive (1642) –  On the Citizen – his most scientific work.
Nature vs. Nurture• To what extent does our nature play a part  in who we become• What about our family, culture, laws?
Niccolo’ Machiavelli (1467-1527)• .
Niccolo’ Machiavelli (1467-1527)• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s25kX24j250• Civil war – Italy vs. the venicians (backed ...
Machiavelli continued• Given the way the world is, the successful  ruler is only the one who acts effectively  without reg...
Machiavelli Continued…• Condones the use of force• Condones omissions from public  knowledge• Immoral actions are fine  – ...
Machiavelli - What is left?• Publicly-spirited citizens would put the common  good above the exclusive pursuit of selfish ...
Summary• Both Hobbes and Machiavelli are  nationalistic• Both would reject American exporting over  seas• International re...
Looking forward•
Descartes (1596–1650)•   Methodological doubt•   Dream argument•   Mind/body distinction•   “cogito, ergo sum,” or “I thin...
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Introduction to philosophy lecture 9

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Introduction to philosophy lecture 9

  1. 1. Introduction to Philosophy Lecture 9 New Science and Politics
  2. 2. Questions• Calvin and Hobbes relation?• Neo-Platonism: Focus on Plato and Plotinus. A combination of Plato’s philosophy and Jewish theology• Egalitarian: “ An egalitarian favors equality of some sort: People should get the same, or be treated the same, or be treated as equals, in some respect. Egalitarian doctrines tend to express the idea that all human persons are equal in fundamental worth or moral status.”• http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/egalitarianism/
  3. 3. Questions 2• Heresy: opinion or doctrine at variance with the• orthodox or accepted doctrine, especially of a church• or religious system.
  4. 4. Figures• Nicolus (Nicolaus?) Copernicus (1473 – 1543)• Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)• Francis Bacon (1561-1626)• Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)• Nicolo’ Machiavelli (1467-1527)
  5. 5. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543)• Polish• Religion and reason  Religion and science• Founder of modern astronomy• Heliocentric – The earth revolves around the sun.• Against Christian Doctrine -Ptolemaic system
  6. 6. Nicolaus (Nicolus?) Copernicus (1473 – 1543) continued….• Condemned for heresy• Famous work: De revolutionibus orbium caelestium (1543)• On the revolution of the heavenly orbs
  7. 7. Ptolemaic System• Claudius Ptolemaeus (c.90-168 AD)• Based on Plato and Aristotle• The earth is the fixed center of the universe• 7 spherical shells surround the earth• Account for the paths of the stars• Last 8th sphere accounts for fixed stars
  8. 8. Ptolemaic• Model• “7th heaven” – angels
  9. 9. Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)• Italian philosopher & once a Dominican friar• Burnt at the stake in 1600• Scientific views had serious consequences• Championed Copernicans belief• Extreme Pantheism: God is the unifying substance from which all things in the universe are derived• Neither the sun or the earth was the center because the universe is infinite
  10. 10. Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) continued…• Different from Nicholas of Cusa (1401- 1464) - influenced him – the universe could afford no genuine knowledge of the divine.• Also advocated Hermeticism – 17 Core text: Corpus Hermeticum – Deal mainly with occult matters (including astrology, magic, and alchemy) – Gnostic and neo-platonic
  11. 11. Heresy• Later Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was asked to retract his Copernican view or face similar punishment• Conflict between reasonable arguments and political power of religion• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w1awv C1l7mM&feature=related
  12. 12. Aristotle and Religion• Aristotle was adopted at official doctrine of the church• Aristotle was the foundation of science but not a full manifestation• Assumptions for Aristotle: Flies had four legs• Observation in the new science became of paramount importance
  13. 13. Aristotle and religion continued….• 15th century Aristotle was still accepted• After the 15th century “common sense” came into question• A healthy dose of skepticism
  14. 14. Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626)• Lawyer, statesman, and philosopher• Recognized as the official founder of modern science• Insisted we start over• Theorist rather than scientist – philosophy of science• Theorist about science rather than a scientist• Created the original “Scientific Method”
  15. 15. Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) continued• Not knowledge for its own sake• Knowledge must be Practical/useful• Known for the Phrase “Knowledge is power”• Anyone can do science and discover truth (different today)• Knowledge is not exclusive to religious powers• Objects move based on natural/causal laws not teleological laws as in Aristotle
  16. 16. Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679).
  17. 17. Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)• Machiavelli came first (why Solomon order? – no idea).• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCvTq5Dgd7o• Political philosophy• Main work: Leviathan (1651)• Life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”• State of nature (opposed to Aristotles social animal)• Social contract form state• Not utopian but it is a way to secure a better life than in the state of nature
  18. 18. Hobbes Continued• He considered his work De Cive (1642) – On the Citizen – his most scientific work.
  19. 19. Nature vs. Nurture• To what extent does our nature play a part in who we become• What about our family, culture, laws?
  20. 20. Niccolo’ Machiavelli (1467-1527)• .
  21. 21. Niccolo’ Machiavelli (1467-1527)• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s25kX24j250• Civil war – Italy vs. the venicians (backed by the French) – called for uniform Italian power.• Florentine political philosopher, historian, playwright, regarded as the first sociologist• Il Principe (1512) – The Prince• Discorsi (1516) – Discourses• Brought a new realism to political philosophy• Idealistically ruler should be and embodiment of virtue and honor• Machiavelli rejects the above
  22. 22. Machiavelli continued• Given the way the world is, the successful ruler is only the one who acts effectively without regard to the conventional morality of action.• Sees political organizations as organic entities subject to their own laws of development which are independent from moral order.
  23. 23. Machiavelli Continued…• Condones the use of force• Condones omissions from public knowledge• Immoral actions are fine – as long as it prevents internal or external disruption of the state and promotes the welfare of its citizens (in so far as it is needed to stabilize the princes rule)
  24. 24. Machiavelli - What is left?• Publicly-spirited citizens would put the common good above the exclusive pursuit of selfish interest with its inherent corruption and venality• Civic Virtues – Vitality – Genius – Pride – Varity – Success
  25. 25. Summary• Both Hobbes and Machiavelli are nationalistic• Both would reject American exporting over seas• International relations is in a state of nature• Men are anti-social
  26. 26. Looking forward•
  27. 27. Descartes (1596–1650)• Methodological doubt• Dream argument• Mind/body distinction• “cogito, ergo sum,” or “I think, therefore I am”

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