Introduction to Philosophy Lecture 9 New Science and Politics
Questions• Calvin and Hobbes relation?• Neo-Platonism: Focus on Plato and Plotinus. A combination of Plato’s philosophy and Jewish theology• Egalitarian: “ An egalitarian favors equality of some sort: People should get the same, or be treated the same, or be treated as equals, in some respect. Egalitarian doctrines tend to express the idea that all human persons are equal in fundamental worth or moral status.”• http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/egalitarianism/
Questions 2• Heresy: opinion or doctrine at variance with the• orthodox or accepted doctrine, especially of a church• or religious system.
Figures• Nicolus (Nicolaus?) Copernicus (1473 – 1543)• Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)• Francis Bacon (1561-1626)• Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)• Nicolo’ Machiavelli (1467-1527)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 – 1543)• Polish• Religion and reason Religion and science• Founder of modern astronomy• Heliocentric – The earth revolves around the sun.• Against Christian Doctrine -Ptolemaic system
Nicolaus (Nicolus?) Copernicus (1473 – 1543) continued….• Condemned for heresy• Famous work: De revolutionibus orbium caelestium (1543)• On the revolution of the heavenly orbs
Ptolemaic System• Claudius Ptolemaeus (c.90-168 AD)• Based on Plato and Aristotle• The earth is the fixed center of the universe• 7 spherical shells surround the earth• Account for the paths of the stars• Last 8th sphere accounts for fixed stars
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)• Italian philosopher & once a Dominican friar• Burnt at the stake in 1600• Scientific views had serious consequences• Championed Copernicans belief• Extreme Pantheism: God is the unifying substance from which all things in the universe are derived• Neither the sun or the earth was the center because the universe is infinite
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) continued…• Different from Nicholas of Cusa (1401- 1464) - influenced him – the universe could afford no genuine knowledge of the divine.• Also advocated Hermeticism – 17 Core text: Corpus Hermeticum – Deal mainly with occult matters (including astrology, magic, and alchemy) – Gnostic and neo-platonic
Heresy• Later Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was asked to retract his Copernican view or face similar punishment• Conflict between reasonable arguments and political power of religion• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w1awv C1l7mM&feature=related
Aristotle and Religion• Aristotle was adopted at official doctrine of the church• Aristotle was the foundation of science but not a full manifestation• Assumptions for Aristotle: Flies had four legs• Observation in the new science became of paramount importance
Aristotle and religion continued….• 15th century Aristotle was still accepted• After the 15th century “common sense” came into question• A healthy dose of skepticism
Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626)• Lawyer, statesman, and philosopher• Recognized as the official founder of modern science• Insisted we start over• Theorist rather than scientist – philosophy of science• Theorist about science rather than a scientist• Created the original “Scientific Method”
Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) continued• Not knowledge for its own sake• Knowledge must be Practical/useful• Known for the Phrase “Knowledge is power”• Anyone can do science and discover truth (different today)• Knowledge is not exclusive to religious powers• Objects move based on natural/causal laws not teleological laws as in Aristotle
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679)• Machiavelli came first (why Solomon order? – no idea).• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCvTq5Dgd7o• Political philosophy• Main work: Leviathan (1651)• Life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”• State of nature (opposed to Aristotles social animal)• Social contract form state• Not utopian but it is a way to secure a better life than in the state of nature
Hobbes Continued• He considered his work De Cive (1642) – On the Citizen – his most scientific work.
Nature vs. Nurture• To what extent does our nature play a part in who we become• What about our family, culture, laws?
Niccolo’ Machiavelli (1467-1527)• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s25kX24j250• Civil war – Italy vs. the venicians (backed by the French) – called for uniform Italian power.• Florentine political philosopher, historian, playwright, regarded as the first sociologist• Il Principe (1512) – The Prince• Discorsi (1516) – Discourses• Brought a new realism to political philosophy• Idealistically ruler should be and embodiment of virtue and honor• Machiavelli rejects the above
Machiavelli continued• Given the way the world is, the successful ruler is only the one who acts effectively without regard to the conventional morality of action.• Sees political organizations as organic entities subject to their own laws of development which are independent from moral order.
Machiavelli Continued…• Condones the use of force• Condones omissions from public knowledge• Immoral actions are fine – as long as it prevents internal or external disruption of the state and promotes the welfare of its citizens (in so far as it is needed to stabilize the princes rule)
Machiavelli - What is left?• Publicly-spirited citizens would put the common good above the exclusive pursuit of selfish interest with its inherent corruption and venality• Civic Virtues – Vitality – Genius – Pride – Varity – Success
Summary• Both Hobbes and Machiavelli are nationalistic• Both would reject American exporting over seas• International relations is in a state of nature• Men are anti-social