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handout on elective regarding PRESCHOOL...
Sent by Sir Tibayan [thanks sir c: ]

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  1. 2. Pre-School <ul><li>Preschool: </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Task </li></ul><ul><li>-- Initiative vs. Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Parenting Preschooler <ul><li>Creating a Positive Home Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Stay Close </li></ul><ul><li>Use Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot (planned or purposeful ignoring) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop, Redirect, Reinforce </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective Teaching Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Set Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Use a Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Time-Out from Positive Reinforcement </li></ul>
  3. 4. Preparing the child for school <ul><li>Counting Down to the First Day of Preschool! </li></ul><ul><li>12 months before: Find out what programs are available in your community and what their applications/admissions policies are. </li></ul><ul><li>4 weeks before: Once you’ve decided upon a school, review its policies to learn how teachers will help your child make the transition. </li></ul><ul><li>4 weeks before : If necessary, adjust sleep schedules so that bedtime and naps coordinate with the school schedule. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>4 weeks before : Begin talking with your child about school, but keep it casual. </li></ul><ul><li>3 weeks before: Read books about school to familiarize your child with the concept. Stories will also prompt conversation about his new school. </li></ul><ul><li>2 weeks before: Go school shopping. </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 weeks before: If possible, walk by the school and visit the grounds. Let your child play on the swings and even peek in the windows. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>1 week before: Get out your label-maker or permanent marker. </li></ul><ul><li>1 week before: Have your child meet her teacher and visit the classroom.. </li></ul><ul><li>1 day before : Prepare everything in advance – your child’s first-day outfit; any supplies the school asks. </li></ul><ul><li>you to bring, such as an extra change of clothes; your camera! Remind your child that tomorrow is his first day, but again, keep it low key. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>On the first day: Allow plenty of time to arrive at school, and plan to spend some time in the classroom once you get there.. </li></ul><ul><li>For the first few weeks: Take your time making the transition. Every child will respond differently. If possible, stay in the classroom with your child for as long as he needs you, and work with the teachers to help him adjust. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. </li></ul>Sex Education <ul><li>It will be discussed due to.. </li></ul><ul><li>Early exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Expect self- stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity about others </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday moments are key </li></ul>
  8. 9. Common behavioral problems <ul><li>Sibling rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Middle child complex </li></ul>Sibling rivalry - is a fact of family life. The brass ring all children angle for is the impossible one of &quot;favorite child, now and forever.&quot;
  9. 10. <ul><li>Middle child complex - of all the so-called birth-order syndromes, middle child complex is perhaps the most frequently noted and quoted. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Role of the Nurse in the care of a family with a healthy and ill preschool child <ul><li>Age 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents for child’s increasing interest in widening personal relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage enrollment in preschool or other socialization activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize importance of setting limits. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect exaggerated tension-reduction behaviors such as need for”security blanket”. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Encourage parents to offer child choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect marked changes at 3 ½ yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parent for normal dysfluency in speech and advise them to avoid focusing on the pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect extra demands on their attention </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Warn parents that the equilibrium of 3 yr old change to the aggressive, out-of bounds behavior of a 4 year-old. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to handle anger appropriately and constructively. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform parents to anticipate a more stable appetite with more food selection. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress need of protection and education of child to prevent injury. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Age 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents for more aggressive behavior, including motor activity and offensive language. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect resistance to parental authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore parental feelings regarding parental behavior. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Suggest some type of respite for primary caregivers, such as placing child in preschool for part of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents for child’s increasing sexual curiosity. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize importance of realistic limit setting on behavior and appropriate disciplinary techniques </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Prepare parents for highly imaginative 4-yr.-old who indulges in “tall tales”.( to be differentiated from lies) and develops imaginary playmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect nightmares or increase in them. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided reassurance that a period of calm begins at 5 yrs. of age. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Age 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Inform parents to expect tranquil period at 5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Help parents prepare child for entrance into the school environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain immunizations are up to date before entering school. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage parents to establish safety rules regarding interaction with strangers. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Suggest swimming lesson for child. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage parents to limit television viewing and to preview shows and movies for appropriate content. </li></ul>
  18. 19. School Age <ul><li>School age - children ages 6 - 12 years old. </li></ul>Industry vs. Inferiority Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority
  19. 20. <ul><li>Three things for school age </li></ul><ul><li>Physical development </li></ul><ul><li>Language & Behavior development </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul>
  20. 21. Parenting school age <ul><li>If your child's physical development appears to be outside the norm, talk to your health care provider. </li></ul><ul><li>If language skills appear to be lagging, request a speech and language evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain close communication with teachers, other school personnel, and parents of friends to be aware of potential problems as they arise. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Encourage children to express themselves openly and talk about concerns without fear of punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Free play or simple, quiet time is important for the child not to feel constantly pushed to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Issues dealing with violence, sexuality, and substance abuse. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Discuss these issues openly with your children to share concerns or correct misconceptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage children to participate in constructive activities such as sports, clubs, arts, music, and scouts. </li></ul><ul><li>School-age children should participate in family chores such as setting the table and cleaning up. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>1.Underachievement </li></ul><ul><li>2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Underachievement - occurs when a child's performance is below what is expected based on the child's ability. </li></ul>Common behavioral problems
  24. 25. <ul><li>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD has three subtypes: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>b. Predominantly inattentive </li></ul><ul><li>c. Combined </li></ul>
  25. 26. What causes ADHD? <ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factor </li></ul><ul><li>Brain injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Food additives </li></ul>
  26. 27. How is ADHD treated ? <ul><li>Treatments include medication, various types of psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments </li></ul>
  27. 28. Role of the nurse in the care of a family with healthy and ill school age. <ul><li>Age 6 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate the parents to expect strong food preference of school age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare parents for emotionality as child experiences erratic mood changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help parents anticipates continued susceptibility to illness. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><ul><li>Encourage parents to respects child’s needs for privacy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach injury prevention and safety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare parents for child increasing interest outside the home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help parents understand the need to encourage child’s interaction with peers. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Ages 7 -10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect improvement in health with less illness, but warn them the allergies may become apparent. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect an increase in minor injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize caution in selecting and maintaining sports equipment and reemphasize safety. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Prepare parents to expect increase involvement with peers and interest in activities outside the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the need to encourage independence while maintaining limit setting and discipline. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Prepare mother to expect more demand at 8 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare father to expect increasing admiration at 10 yrs., encourage father-child activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents for prepubescent changes in girls. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Ages 11-12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Help parents prepare child body changes pubescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare parents to expect a growth spurt in girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain child sex education is adequate with accurate information. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Prepare parents to expect energetic but stormy behavior at 11 years, with child more becoming more tempered at 12 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage parents to support the child’s desire to “grow up” but to allow regressive behavior when needed. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Prepare parents to expect an increase in masturbation. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct parents that the amount of rest child needs may increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Help parents educate child regarding experimentation with potentially harmful activities. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Health Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Help parents understand the importance of regular health and dental care for child. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage parents to teach and model sound health practices, including diet, rest. Activity and exercise. </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Stress the need to encourage children to engage in appropriate physical activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize providing a safe physical and emotional environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage parents to teach and model safety practices. </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Thank You!! </li></ul><ul><li>The end </li></ul>P&C Team 2010-2011