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Running head: PREGNANCY 1
Pregnancy
Name
Institution
PREGNANCY 2
Pregnancy and Birth: Stages in the life cycle
Subtopic (1) Concrete Experience
Pregnancy as a stage of human d...
PREGNANCY 3
pregnancy was evident. Finally, in the sixth and seventh months, the baby began to move and
kick, again this w...
PREGNANCY 4
Societal and ethical issues
Even as I was having a good time waiting for my baby, there were instances when I
...
PREGNANCY 5
Not only is this step necessary for the baby, but to the mother, it is equally important
because this is the t...
PREGNANCY 6
Health risk of the mother and baby
There is a mentality that pregnancy and childbirth is a common thing and be...
PREGNANCY 7
babies a process of fulfilling dreams or desires. Again, this process is very expensive, and so the
poor peopl...
PREGNANCY 8
the end of the second month, the ears, the eyes, and the eyelashes are formed. Additionally, at
this point, th...
PREGNANCY 9
Health risks of the mother and the baby
Some of the biggest risks that are likely to affect the mother and the...
PREGNANCY 10
Technology is yet another method in where the female ova is taken out of the body and
fertilization is artifi...
PREGNANCY 11
Effects of pregnancy on family
All family members must be psychologically prepared for the newborn baby and s...
PREGNANCY 12
technology, even so, there are areas of concern for this technology, especially in the case where
parents may...
PREGNANCY 13
Reference
Moore., G., (2015) The Nation's Most Influential Source Book On Pregnancy. Lulu Press Inc. Print
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Pregnacy stages

Stages of pregnancy in women

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Pregnacy stages

  1. 1. Running head: PREGNANCY 1 Pregnancy Name Institution
  2. 2. PREGNANCY 2 Pregnancy and Birth: Stages in the life cycle Subtopic (1) Concrete Experience Pregnancy as a stage of human development Pregnancy and the process of delivering a baby can be considered as supernatural phenomena if given deep consideration. The entire progression is inherently natural even though the success of it should be characterized by health and stability from the conception to delivery of a healthy child cannot be less than awe-inspiring. Perhaps it is because of how delicate and committing pregnancy is, that makes it be a center of concern for every one and further makes the pregnant mother to be respected and valued. When I was a child, I have received news of people having babies, from friends to family members and even to neighbors. I had never thought of what the experience would be like, until when I got pregnant with my first baby, then I realized that pregnancy is a life changing experience. I got pregnant at the age of 36 years which is four years ago, and the same feeling I saw in my coursing was all in me, or even more. The two closest experiences with pregnancy, made me learn a lot about this excellent experience. Growth and development of the fetus During the time when I was pregnant, I learnt several things about pregnancy, just through observation. One observation that I made was that in the first phase of the pregnancy, there is no physical evidence. However, the emotional changes were very evident because I craved for certain foods like ice cream and cold drinks and not forgetting the constant morning sickness that marked the emotional changes (Moore, 2015). In the second and the third trimester, the pregnancy began to be evident because the baby was growing, my belly grew large and the
  3. 3. PREGNANCY 3 pregnancy was evident. Finally, in the sixth and seventh months, the baby began to move and kick, again this was visible. Effects of pregnancy on the other family members News of my pregnancy was welcomed with celebration, and everyone in the family was ecstatic about it. Everyone tried to play their part in ensuring that I was secure and well taken care of. The older and experienced members of the family especially the women, kept their advice flowing in. My pregnancy affected everyone including my husband and close family members who controlled what I eat, the hygiene and my general welfare and that of the unborn child. Anytime we were invited by friends or relatives for a visit; I was given particular attention than never before. The experience revealed that pregnancy affects even the family members because they become concerned and supportive to the pregnant mother to be. Health risks of mom and baby Proper care for the expectant woman by the people around is fundamental because of the ever present risks surrounding the expectant mother and the unborn child. My family stopped me from using any alcohol, un-prescribed drugs, tobacco and caffeine as they were considered harmful to the baby and me in the womb. Any manufactured and shelved foods were closely monitored especially by my husband before putting them in the shopping basket. I was also cautioned on taking processed foods without double checking the contents to avoid any possible allergy as well as harmful ingredients to the pregnancy. A visit to the doctor became a lifestyle. Mostly my husband would find time to accompany me to the doctor, but some other time I went with my sister-in-law who was always around. I had to visit the doctor at least once every week to check the health of the baby and to get any further advice from the physician.
  4. 4. PREGNANCY 4 Societal and ethical issues Even as I was having a good time waiting for my baby, there were instances when I would come across some issues about pregnancy that raised ethical concerns. Even though I have never had contact with a person who has had or attempted abortion, I have heard it over the news and read about it in books. Such occurrences are issues that should be looked into by the society to prevent them. Other pregnancy related issues are teenage pregnancy, fertility treatment, miscarriages and adoptions which require societal attention to address them to avoid their effects. Implications of genetic selection and counseling While the above mentioned moral issues have been common in the society, there are others that have been propagated by the advancement made in the field of science. One of these scientific issues that came to my attention and that which is currently an issue of debate is the progress in genetic engineering that can enable pre-birth enhancement (Moore, 2015).There are those people that believe that it is God’s role to determine the child that will be born. However, there are others that feel that scientific processes such as baby enhancement are good for the welfare of the child. Such scientific issues are expected to be an influence in the pregnancies to come. Subtopic (2) Reflections Pregnancy as a stage in human development Pregnancy is a developmental stage for both the mother and baby. However, it is more fundamental to the child because it is the first point of the baby’s growth. The baby during this process is getting bigger and progressing in growth for each passing trimester. This is the period when the baby’s organs are shaped, and it is the beginning of a journey that may result in the child living a great life. Typically, pregnancy is a very significant stage in the life of the baby.
  5. 5. PREGNANCY 5 Not only is this step necessary for the baby, but to the mother, it is equally important because this is the time when she comes to terms with the fact that she has a paramount role in carrying the child to its full term of nine months. The mother also has to accept the fact that she has more than just one responsibility as a human. Further, she is coming to terms with the long journey that she has to undertake during this period, a trip full of excitement, but also heavy responsibilities. The responsibility does not end with the mother alone but stretches over to the father also. The father also feels the immense responsibility of caring for a bigger family and the fact that the next baby will depend on him as much as possible. The child sets forth an atmosphere that demands that the man acts and lives responsibly as an adult. The father has the role of ensuring that he behaves in a manner that reflects him as a father figure, a role model and a hero to the child. All the factors signify that pregnancy triggers development for all parties concerned. Growth and development of the fetus An observation of my pregnancy made me realize that the fetus grew quite faster during the second and third trimester and the physical changes are very evident. I desired to have in- depth biological knowledge of the growth process of the fetus. Effect of pregnancy on family members In as much as pregnancy has been indicated as a moment of maturity for both the father and the mother, and that they should prepare for the responsibility before them, sometimes it can be too much for them. Such a case occurs when the tow is not psychologically prepared for the coming baby. It is thus advisable that young people should seek counseling in case they desire to be parents or else they may not experience the joy that comes with pregnancy and parenting.
  6. 6. PREGNANCY 6 Health risk of the mother and baby There is a mentality that pregnancy and childbirth is a common thing and because there are many instances where mothers get pregnancy and have babies, then that makes the process an evident and reasonable scenario. This, however, is not the case because many things may go wrong in case the mother or the doctor becomes negligent. Keeping off from alcohol and other substances is crucial. Moreover, household equipment that seems harmless may be agents of destruction to the mother and the baby. Societal and ethical issues Pregnancies among young people, together with unwanted pregnancies and abortion are ethical issues that often arise because of lack of adequate sex education. There may be cases when some of these pregnancies are as a result of sexual abuse, and sometimes abortion cannot be avoided. Even in cases where the mother’s life is in danger, abortion has to be done. While there are those that consider abortion as an action against God, such ethical concerns should be put aside in cases where abortion is required to save a mother’s life. Fertility treatment is a scientific discovery that has brought joy to the couple because there are those that have not been able to get children. This is a vast improvement in this area of science. Genetic selection and counseling The debate about this area of science about pregnancy is quite broad, and there is the grave concern as much as there are benefits of the same. In its initial inception, this process has been designed to help parents have their children given enhanced qualities that will help in withstanding diseases and health risks. However, sometime later, parents may wish that their kids be improved with other qualities they want, such as IQ and the like which will make having
  7. 7. PREGNANCY 7 babies a process of fulfilling dreams or desires. Again, this process is very expensive, and so the poor people will be disadvantaged. Genetic selection should, therefore, an area that required regulation so that while these procedures are made available to people of all social classes, it should also be regulated so that it is ethically used only for what it is meant for and that is protecting the fetus from infections. Subtopic (3) Generalization / Theories / Principles Pregnancy as a stage of human development From a biological definition, pregnancy is a result of the fusion of the female ova with the male sperm. While the biological understanding of pregnancy seems dispassionate, it is important as discussed that the parents to be are well prepared psychologically, to enjoy the pregnancy and childbearing process. Growth and development of fetus During copulation, semen is deposited into the vagina where the spermatozoa moves to the fallopian tube, through the body of the uterus and the cervix. The fertilization of the ovum takes place typically, in one of the fallopian tubes. In as much as there are many sperms that are released into the vagina, only one has the possibility of managing to attach to the ovum and penetrate the thick protective coating surrounding the ovum. Only one and the first sperm that penetrates and fully enters the egg, is capable of donating the genetic materials. Once one has penetrated, the ovum polarizes and repels any other sperms form getting through. This is thus the first step in the growth and development of the fetus. After the fusion of the sperm and the ova and fertilization takes place, an embryo is formed, and it immediately begins to develop through cell multiplication. This mostly happens in the first month. In the second month, the mass of cells starts to take the shape of a human, and by
  8. 8. PREGNANCY 8 the end of the second month, the ears, the eyes, and the eyelashes are formed. Additionally, at this point, the brain of the baby has started feeling pain, pleasure and the growing baby can even move their limbs (Moore, 2015). When the third month comes, the placenta grows and attaches the mother and the baby for the sake of nutrition from the mother’s meal. The umbilical code forms the lifeline of the baby even as it approaches the fourth month when the heartbeat is evident. From a personal encounter, this is the month that I had intense craving for strange things such as ice cream and cold drinks. By the fifth month, the baby’s sense organs become manifest and are fully grown. In the sixth and the seventh month, the most vital organs develop and the baby starts to form shape and size at a very fast rate. Moreover, this is the point when the baby’s internal organs are almost entirely grown because some organs such as the heart and the lungs are not fully developed but can complete their growth under special care. In the eighth months, the baby is bigger in size and dimension and when the 9th-month sets in, the baby weighs between 3 to 5 kgs and is ready to come into the world through birth that is induced naturally by labor pain. Effects of pregnancy on family A newly born baby has a lot of demands that go far beyond time and care but also increased attention and endless patience of the mother and father. It is a vital time in the relationship between the parent and the child. In some case, the parents may feel burdened by the fact that the baby has taken a lot of their time while it may be frustrating for the mother due to endless chores and lack of sleep. Such conditions may cause a tensed atmosphere full of arguments and tempers there is thus a need for the parents to be understanding and mature. This again is a call for psychological preparedness.
  9. 9. PREGNANCY 9 Health risks of the mother and the baby Some of the biggest risks that are likely to affect the mother and the baby are the things that the mother consumes and passes on to the child. Alcohol intake, passive smoking, narcotic drug, and caffeine are poisonous substances for the fetus. The reason why these materials are denied is that alcohol, for instance, affect the healthy cell development and oxygen supply in the fetus. Worse of all is that the baby may develop Fetal Alcohol Syndrome which may cause severe handicaps, underweight and small size of the baby. Worse of all, the baby may have mental retardation and hence require lifelong medical attention. There are also common household items that are capable of causing harm to pregnancy, for instance, types of fish solvents and chemicals, nail polish, and neurotoxins (Moore, 2015). All these are things that people rarely think of as harmful, but it is important that to consider keeping off these things. The best step, however, is to talk to the doctor about the potential risks of these substances. Societal and ethical issues Abortion, unwanted pregnancies, and teenage pregnancies are unfortunate events in the lives of women. However, they can be avoided through comprehensive sex education and through the use of scientific methods such as ovulation indicators that can come into use when the woman has irregular ovulation. It is, however, important that childbirth should be avoided in the case where the pregnant woman is at a younger age and if it has to be done, it should be under the care of experts. Other scientific processes that are effect in the area of pregnancy are the fatality treatments that may be used to help childless couples. The first is the Artificial Insemination that is all about artificially inducing the fertilization of sperm and ova. Assisted Reproductive
  10. 10. PREGNANCY 10 Technology is yet another method in where the female ova is taken out of the body and fertilization is artificially induced externally. It can be categorized as IVF, GIFT, and ZIFT. Genetic selection and counseling As indicated earlier in the discussion, science has made it possible that shortly, parents will be able to select the qualities of their babies before they are born such as hair color, skin tone, height and even intelligent capabilities and the like (Moore, 2015). There are also ethical concerns that come with this, which has been discussed earlier. As observed, the technology is promising, but it has to be approached with caution and ethical consideration because the excessive use without control may be of disadvantage to some group of individuals. Subtopic (4) Testing and Application Pregnancy as a stage of human development One insight that I might have overlooked throughout this study is the practical importance of the pregnancy process. Form my experience as a pregnant mother I have had a different perception to pregnancy, that it is not just an enjoyable occurrence, but periods that come with very weighty responsibilities. I am therefore equipped with knowledge on pregnancies and proper care during the moments, and also I can guide fellow women on how to face the period with maturity and care. Growth and development of the fetus Throughout the study, it is clear that fetus grows gradually at a fast pace in the initial stages and rapidly in the rest of the process. Monitoring the growth of the fetus is fundamental and in case any abnormally is noticed, visiting a physician is mandatory.
  11. 11. PREGNANCY 11 Effects of pregnancy on family All family members must be psychologically prepared for the newborn baby and should be understanding when parents are giving too much attention and time to the child. I would like advice family members and friend to understand such circumstances when they arise. Through the study, I have learned that alcohol and other psychotropic drugs are very harmful to the baby and even to the pregnant mother. With this knowledge, I will advise the other pregnant women and family members, but also it would be a guide for me if I get pregnant a second time or a friend gets pregnant, I will carefully select what I give them as gifts. I also would prefer attending programs that help in the knowledge of such matters. Societal and ethical issues As a mother and having once been pregnant, I intend to use my knowledge to assist teenage mother facing the challenges mentioned such as teenage pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy, and abortion. I would like to join programs on the same to increase my knowledge even as I assist these young mothers and fellow pregnant women (Moore, 2015). I would also use my influence and resources available to sensitize the society to look at such issues from an empathetic perspective and not to be judgmental. While there are fertility treatments, there are many people who are still unaware and other have taboos against them. These people should first of all be made to realize that these solutions are available and myths and taboos should be clarified. Genetic selection and counseling It is further important it realizes that there are cases where the child may need to be enhanced before birth to help the child survive against some infections and further for the sake of the survival of the child through genetic selection. In such cases I would highly support this
  12. 12. PREGNANCY 12 technology, even so, there are areas of concern for this technology, especially in the case where parents may misuse it for self-benefits. Such cases should-should not be allowed to happen.
  13. 13. PREGNANCY 13 Reference Moore., G., (2015) The Nation's Most Influential Source Book On Pregnancy. Lulu Press Inc. Print

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