Between the Gravel and the Sea:Vital Role of the Willamette River for Chinook Salmon“The Willamette River from a Mountain”...
Willamette Basin:Largest watershed in                                                                Columbia River      O...
General Life History – Spring Chinook Salmon    Spawn: late August – late OctoberPeak migration over Willamette Falls:    ...
Progress: Starting Point    “Spring chinook salmon are native to the Willamette River, with the mainstem river    primaril...
Origins of View                                     1. Legacy of Willamette as                                           p...
Catch of Wild Juvenile Chinook in McKenzie at Leaburg Dam               Migration from Spawning Areas
Migration of Juvenile Chinook past Willamette Falls        Tagged at Leaburg Dam in fall or springSpring migrants spend < ...
Fry Dispersal & Rearing     Santiam basin – early migration           Influence of dams       McKenzie – later migration  ...
Long Distance Fry Dispersal – What‟s up with that? Hypothesis: Adaptation to access productive rearing habitat in Willamet...
Willamette Juvenile Chinook Diversity (Spread the Risk)                                    Spawning Tributary             ...
Life History Diversity – Spreading the Risks   Spawning          Fry Migration                                 Subyearling...
Life History Diversity Provides Stability to PopulationsProportion of returning adult Chinook that migrated as subyearling...
Dynamic Rivers provide Diverse Habitats                           that support Diverse Life Histories Pools for larger fis...
Challenges                        Progress = continual growth                     “What happens if you get to the cliff an...
Measuring Progress                              Life History Diversity                        Channel complexity   Working...
In honor of Jim Sedell (1944 – 2012)            Within the time scale of a person’s            lifetime and the lifetimes ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Between the Gravel and the Sea: Vital Role of the Willamette River for Chinook Salmon

1,346 views

Published on

Presented by Kirk Schroeder of ODFW as part of the Science Progress Report at Within Our Reach 2012.

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,346
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Between the Gravel and the Sea: Vital Role of the Willamette River for Chinook Salmon

  1. 1. Between the Gravel and the Sea:Vital Role of the Willamette River for Chinook Salmon“The Willamette River from a Mountain” Paul Kane, 1847 Kirk Schroeder Luke Whitman Brian Cannon Paul Olmsted Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Jan Roberts-Dominguez: “Above the Willamette”
  2. 2. Willamette Basin:Largest watershed in Columbia River Oregon 70% of Oregon Portland population Willamette Falls Largest urban areas in OregonDams block access to upper reaches of Salem Spring Chinook North Santiam River rivers Albany Corvallis South Santiam River Spring Chinook„threatened” species 1999 Harrisburg Recovery Plan 2011 Eugene-Springfield
  3. 3. General Life History – Spring Chinook Salmon Spawn: late August – late OctoberPeak migration over Willamette Falls: Incubation and fry emergence: April – May December – April Rear 2 – 4 years in North Pacific Rear 5 – 15 monthsMost Willamette Chinook: 4 – 5 years old Migrate to ocean as smolts when they return
  4. 4. Progress: Starting Point “Spring chinook salmon are native to the Willamette River, with the mainstem river primarily a migration corridor for adults and smolts.” Bonneville Power Administration FY 2003 Provincial Project ReviewWillamette River = Migration CorridorRiver Management = “Flushing Flows” to push fish out of river Juvenile Chinook: simple life history hatchery fish emphasis
  5. 5. Origins of View 1. Legacy of Willamette as polluted river 2. Willamette as controlled river Dams control flowHatcheries control fish production
  6. 6. Catch of Wild Juvenile Chinook in McKenzie at Leaburg Dam Migration from Spawning Areas
  7. 7. Migration of Juvenile Chinook past Willamette Falls Tagged at Leaburg Dam in fall or springSpring migrants spend < 1 month – 3 months in Willamette Most Fall migrants overwinter in Willamette
  8. 8. Fry Dispersal & Rearing Santiam basin – early migration Influence of dams McKenzie – later migration Colder waterMigration to lower Willamette & Columbia Fry dispersed throughout Willamette by late February to early March Most migrate as smolts in June & July March 2011 (1.5 – 3 inches)
  9. 9. Long Distance Fry Dispersal – What‟s up with that? Hypothesis: Adaptation to access productive rearing habitat in Willamette Visualization of upper Willamette River downstream of McKenzie confluence - 1850Hulse et al. 2004. Ecological Applications 14: 325–341
  10. 10. Willamette Juvenile Chinook Diversity (Spread the Risk) Spawning Tributary Precocial Male Fall Spring Fry Fingerling 2-year Migrant Migrant Lower Tributary & Willamette River Winter-Spring Spring-Summer Summer Fall-Winter Spring Non-natal Streams Fall Feb- Fry Subyearling Migrant May Spring Migrant Mar- May- Jun- (Aug-Sep) Oct- Nov- Feb- JunJan- ? Jun Jul Dec Jan Apr Columbia River May- Mar- Apr- Apr- Jul May May Jun Ocean
  11. 11. Life History Diversity – Spreading the Risks Spawning Fry Migration Subyearling Dave Herasimtschuk © FI YearlingAug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Poor freshwater conditions Subyearling Yearling Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Poor ocean conditions Brian Franklin
  12. 12. Life History Diversity Provides Stability to PopulationsProportion of returning adult Chinook that migrated as subyearling or yearling smolts 1998 – 2006 brood yearsMcKenzie North Santiam South Santiam Clackamas 1998 2000 2003 2005
  13. 13. Dynamic Rivers provide Diverse Habitats that support Diverse Life Histories Pools for larger fish Refuge areas during floods Productive riffles Narrow channels with shade New gravel bars &Small side channels islandsCold water pockets Shallow edges for fry Willamette River downstream of McKenzie confluence
  14. 14. Challenges Progress = continual growth “What happens if you get to the cliff and you take one step forward? Or do you do a 180 turn and take one step forward? Which way is progress? The solution to many of the world‟s problems is to turn around and take a step forward.” Doug Tompkins from the documentary 180 South Full Steam Ahead?
  15. 15. Measuring Progress Life History Diversity Channel complexity Working Farms & Conservation Native Species Richness Connect People to River Water Quality Historic Trajectory Progress?Historical Willamette River Channel Change - S. Gregory, L. Ashkenas, D. Oetter, P. Minear, K. Wildman
  16. 16. In honor of Jim Sedell (1944 – 2012) Within the time scale of a person’s lifetime and the lifetimes of his or her children and grandchildren, entire ecosystems change. Ironically, however, it is within this time scale that people are most blind to changes occurring around them.

×