GC information graphics masterclass

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GC information graphics masterclass

  1. 1. Dr Will Stahl-TimminsHarriet Sjerps-JonesGrand Challenges MasterclassJune 2013INFORMATION GRAPHICSthe visual transformation of data into understanding
  2. 2. who are we?what is an information graphic?representation of dataexample toolsworkshop
  3. 3. Investigating the use ofinformation graphicsto explain the effectsof climate changeon health, comparedto textual presentation.FLOODS AND STORMSGLOBALTRENDSFLOODCAUSESHEALTHIMPACTSCLIMATE CHANGESTORMSDEATH & INJURYCASE STUDY 1: BANGLADESHASSUMPTIONSGlobal temperature riseGlobal Sea level riseIncrease in monsoon rainsIncrease in monsoondischarge into riversPeople affectedFlooding depth2°c30cm18%5%4.8%30–90cm4°c100cm33%10%57%90–180cmIf human activity continues to warm global temperatures,countries like Bangladesh are likely to see more flooding.CASE STUDY 2: USAStudies in industrialised countries indicate that denselypopulated urban areas are at risk from sea-level rise.INFECTIOUSDISEASESTOXIC CON-TAMINATIONMENTALHEALTHRAINFALL EVAPORATIONSEA LEVEL SURFACERUN-OFFLOCALTOPOGRAPHYURBANISATION190019502005FUTURECHANGESFLOODSThe majority of climate scientists agree that human activity is causingtemperatures to rise around the world. As these higher temperatures freewater that is usually frozen at the poles, sea levels are rising. Increasedtemeratures also lead to more evaporation of water from seas and lakes.This can lead to increased rainfall and greater numbers of storms,cyclones and extreme weather events.Coastal regionsare morevulnerable toflooding as sealevels rise.Extreme rainfallcan overwhelmrivers and lakes,causing them toflood.Drowning bystorm surge isthe major killerin coastalstorms.Global warmingand changes inland use (likeurbanisation)affect how muchwater is carriedin the air.Urbanisation canaffect how muchexcess watercan be absorbedinto the ground.Sometimes,the shape of theland can makeareas vulnerableto flooding.The number of people living incities is growing, particularly inlow income countries.= 100m peoplein towns or citiesFloods are low-probability, high-impact events that can overwhelmphysical infrastructure, human resilience and social organisation.Floods are the most frequent natural weather disaster. This informationgraphic shows some of the causes and health impacts of floods, andshows how the number and severity of floods may increase in the future.LATINAMERICASOUTH ASIAMICRONESIABAY OF BENGAL(particularly atrisk from stormsurges)VULNERABLEPEOPLEThose living inLow lying places(especially thosewith high density)One-quarter of theworld’s populationresides within 100 kmdistance and 100 melevation of thecoastline.In the USA, lower-incomegroups were mostaffected by HurricaneKatrina in 2005.Such as children, theinfirm, or those livingin sub-standard housing.Poorer communitiesThose with limitedability to escapeVULNERABLE PLACESTHE NORTHSEA COASTSEYCHELLESTHE GULFCOASTTHE NILEDELTAGULF OFGUINEADeaths recorded in disaster databasesare from drowning and severe injuries.Improved warnings have decreased mortality from floodsand storm surges in the last 30 years; however, the impactof weather disasters in terms of social and health effectsis still considerable and is unequally distributed,particularly affecting women.VENEZUELAMOZAMBIQUECHINA19992000/2001200330,000 DEAD1,813 DEAD130m AFFECTEDParticularly inplaces withpoor sanitation:From storage orfrom chemicalsalready in theenvironment:Insufficientlyinvestigated,but may include:DiarrhoealdiseasesCholeraCryptosporidiosisTyphoid feverOilPesticidesHeavy metalsHazardouswastePost-traumaticstressBehaviouraldisorders inchildrenAnxiety?Depression?LIKELY EFFECTS2.5–4m belowsea level by 2100NEW ORLEANS (USA)1.5–3m belowsea level nowThis would mean thata storm surge from aCategory 3 hurricane(estimated at 3 to 4 mwithout waves) could be 6 to 7 m aboveareas that were heavily populated in 2004.Mid-range estimateof 48 cm sea levelrise by 2100 plussubsidenceAIR QUALITY AND DISEASEPOLLUTIONSOURCESENERGYPRODUCTIONURBANTRANSPORTOZONE MODELSFuture emissions are, of course, uncertain, and depend onassumptions of population growth, economic development,regulatory actions and energy use. Changes inconcentrations of ground-level ozone driven by scenariosof future emissions and/or weather patterns have beenprojected for Europe and North America:There are no projections for cities in low- or middle-income countries, despite the heavier pollution burdensin these populations.PM MODELSEvidence for the health impacts of particulate matteris stronger than that for ozone. However, there arefew models of the impact of climate change on pollutantsother than ozone. These tend to emphasise the role oflocal abatement strategies in determining the futurelevels of, primarily, particulate matter, and tend to projectthe probability of air-quality standards being exceededinstead of absolute concentrations; the results varyby region.Because transboundary transport of pollutants playsa significant role in determining local to regional airquality, changing patterns of atmospheric circulationat the hemispheric to global level are likely to be justas important as regional patterns for future local airquality.FORESTFIRESAIRPOLLUTION(AP)As well as producinggreenhouse gassessuch as carbon dioxide, thatlead to global warming,the burning of fossil fuelsfor energy releases smallparticles into the air, calledparticulate matter (PM).Naturally-occuring forestfires mean that toxicgaseous and particulate airpollutants are releasedinto the atmosphere.MORTALITY AND MORBIDITYPARTICULATEMATTER (PM)Many different kinds ofcombustion, both artificialand natural, can causeparticles of solid matter canbecome suspended in the air.PM is known to affectmorbidity and mortality.Weather at all time scales determines the development, transport, dispersion and depositionof air pollutants, with the passage of fronts, cyclonic and anticyclonic systems and theirassociated air masses being of particular importance. This information graphic showssome of the causes and health impacts of air pollution, and shows how both the amountof air pollution, and our exposure to it, may increase in the future.Ozone generationis affected by:— Bright sunlight— Raised temperatures— Low winds— AtmosphericmoistureThe amount of airpollution breathedin by peopledepends on:— Wind / circula-tion of air— Topography— Housingcharacteristics— Activity patternsPM generationis affected by:— Raisedtemperatures— AtmosphericmoistureThe numberof forest firesis affected by:— Raisedtemperatures— AtmosphericmoistureIn urban areas, transportvehicles are the key sourcesof nitrogen oxides and volatileorganic compounds (VOCs)that lead to ground-levelozone. Burning fossil fuelsfor transport also releasesother gasses and particles.ALLERGICRHINITISOTHERDISEASEBURNS& SMOKEINHALATIONSevereallergies canlimit qualityof life.Particularlyaffectschildren.Chronicobstructivepulmonarydisease.Can affectquality of life,and isincreasinglycommon,particularly inchildren.Other Cardio-vascular andrespiratorydiseases arealso caused byair pollution.forest firescan havedirect effectson health.COPDPNEUMONIA ASTHMAOTHER TOXICGASSESAs well as ozone, othertoxic gasses such ascarbon monoxide can haveeffects on human health.OZONEOzone is a secondary pollutantformed through photochemicalreactions involving nitrogenoxides and volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) in thepresence of bright sunshinewith high temperatures.CLIMATE CHANGEThe majority of climate scientists agree that human activity iscausing temperatures to rise around the world. These highertemperatures can affect weather systems, causing extremelyhigh or extremely low winds. Rising temperatures also affectthe amount of water in the atmosphere.These changes may affect air pollution in two main ways. First,it may mean that the atmospheric conditions are right for moreair pollution to form. Secondly, it may change the patterns of airflow, meaning that more people are exposed to this pollution.FUTURECHANGESREFERENCE AREATEMP.INCREASE EMISSIONS EFFECTSKnowltonet al., 2004Bell et al.,2007Andersonet al., 2001New Yorkarea, USA50 cities,East USAEngland& Wales1.6 –3.2°C1.6 –3.2°C0.9 –2.4°Cmediumincreasemediumincreasenoincrease4.5% moredeaths0.6% moredeathsozone +other AP -assumed changesby 2050s(all models assume populationconstant at year 2000 level)FLOODS AND STORMSFloods are low-probability, high-impact events that can overwhelm physicalinfrastructure, human resilience and social organisation. Floods are the mostfrequent natural weather disaster. Floods result from the interaction of rainfall,surface runoff, evaporation, wind, sea level and local topography. In inland areas,flood regimes vary substantially depending on catchment size, topography andclimate. Water management practices, urbanisation, intensified land use andforestry can substantially alter the risks of floods. Windstorms are oftenassociated with floods.Major storm and flood disasters have occurred in the last two decades. In 2003,130 million people were affected by floods in China. In 1999, 30,000 died fromstorms followed by floods and landslides in Venezuela. In 2000/2001, 1,813 diedin floods in Mozambique. Improved structural and non-structural measures,particularly improved warnings, have decreased mortality from floods and stormsurges in the last 30 years; however, the impact of weather disasters in terms ofsocial and health effects is still considerable and is unequally distributed,particularly affecting women. Flood health impacts range from deaths, injuries,infectious diseases and toxic contamination, to mental health problems.In terms of deaths and populations affected, floods and tropical cyclones have thegreatest impact in South Asia and Latin America. Deaths recorded in disasterdatabases are from drowning and severe injuries. Deaths from unsafe or unhealthyconditions following the extreme event are also a health consequence, but suchinformation is rarely included in disaster statistics. Drowning by storm surge is themajor killer in coastal storms where there are large numbers of deaths. Anassessment of surges in the past 100 years found that major events were confinedto a limited number of regions, with many events occurring in the Bay of Bengal,particularly Bangladesh.Populations with poor sanitation infrastructure and high burdens of infectiousdisease often experience increased rates of diarrhoeal diseases after flood events.Increases in cholera, cryptosporidiosis and typhoid fever have been reported inlow- and middle-income countries. Flood related increases in diarrhoeal diseasehave also been reported in India, Brazil and Bangladesh. The floods in Mozambiquein 2001 were estimated to have caused over 8,000 additional cases and 447deaths from diarrhoeal disease in the following months.The risk of infectious disease following flooding in high income countries isgenerally low, although increases in respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases have beenreported after floods. An important exception was the impact of Hurricanes Katrinaand Rita in the USA in 2005, where contamination of water supplies with faecalbacteria led to many cases of diarrhoeal illness and some deaths.Flooding may lead to contamination of waters with dangerous chemicals, heavymetals or other hazardous substances, from storage or from chemicals already inthe environment (e.g., pesticides). Chemical contamination following HurricaneKatrina in the USA included oil spills from refineries and storage tanks, pesticides,metals and hazardous waste. Concentrations of most contaminants were withinacceptable short-term levels, except for lead and volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in some areas. There are also health risks associated with long-termcontamination of soil and sediment; however, there is little published evidencedemonstrating a causal effect of chemical contamination on the pattern ofmorbidity and mortality following flooding events. Increases in population densityand accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disastersincrease the probability of future disasters and the potential for mass humanexposure to hazardous materials released during disasters.There is increasing evidence of the importance of mental disorders as an impact ofdisasters. Prolonged impairment resulting from common mental disorders (anxietyand depression) may be considerable. Studies in both low- and high-incomecountries indicate that the mental-health aspect of flood-related impacts hasbeen insufficiently investigated. A systematic review of post-traumatic stressdisorder in high income countries found a small but significant effect followingdisasters. There is also evidence of medium- to long-term impacts on behaviouraldisorders in young children.Vulnerability to weather disasters depends on the attributes of the person at risk(including where they live, age, income, education and disability) and on broadersocial and environmental factors (level of disaster preparedness, health sectorresponses and environmental degradation). Poorer communities, particularly slumdwellers, are more likely to live in flood-prone areas. In the USA, lower-incomegroups were most affected by Hurricane Katrina, and low-income schools hadtwice the risk of being flooded compared with the reference group.High-density populations in low-lying coastal regions experience a high healthburden from weather disasters, such as settlements along the North Sea coast innorth-west Europe, the Seychelles, parts of Micronesia, the Gulf Coast of the USAand Mexico, the Nile Delta, the Gulf of Guinea, and the Bay of Bengal.Environmentally degraded areas are particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclonesand coastal flooding under current climate conditions.Future vulnerability to climate change
  4. 4. what do you wantto learn from this masterclass?
  5. 5. information graphics
  6. 6. charts / graphs7%8%10%11%29%35%02550751002007 2008 2009 201002550751002007 2008 2009 2010
  7. 7. tower graphicshttp://www.angelamorelli.com/water/Angela Morelli
  8. 8. maps / data maps
  9. 9. signage / wayfinding
  10. 10. diagrams
  11. 11. motion graphics
  12. 12. interactives
  13. 13. and other things?
  14. 14. paired discussion:why visualise data?
  15. 15. efficientcommunication?engagementwith audience?emotiveconnection?
  16. 16. Investigating the use ofinformation graphicsto explain the effectsof climate changeon health, comparedto textual presentation.FLOODS AND STORMSGLOBALTRENDSFLOODCAUSESHEALTHIMPACTSCLIMATE CHANGESTORMSDEATH & INJURYCASE STUDY 1: BANGLADESHASSUMPTIONSGlobal temperature riseGlobal Sea level riseIncrease in monsoon rainsIncrease in monsoondischarge into riversPeople affectedFlooding depth2°c30cm18%5%4.8%30–90cm4°c100cm33%10%57%90–180cmIf human activity continues to warm global temperatures,countries like Bangladesh are likely to see more flooding.CASE STUDY 2: USAStudies in industrialised countries indicate that denselypopulated urban areas are at risk from sea-level rise.INFECTIOUSDISEASESTOXIC CON-TAMINATIONMENTALHEALTHRAINFALL EVAPORATIONSEA LEVEL SURFACERUN-OFFLOCALTOPOGRAPHYURBANISATION190019502005FUTURECHANGESFLOODSThe majority of climate scientists agree that human activity is causingtemperatures to rise around the world. As these higher temperatures freewater that is usually frozen at the poles, sea levels are rising. Increasedtemeratures also lead to more evaporation of water from seas and lakes.This can lead to increased rainfall and greater numbers of storms,cyclones and extreme weather events.Coastal regionsare morevulnerable toflooding as sealevels rise.Extreme rainfallcan overwhelmrivers and lakes,causing them toflood.Drowning bystorm surge isthe major killerin coastalstorms.Global warmingand changes inland use (likeurbanisation)affect how muchwater is carriedin the air.Urbanisation canaffect how muchexcess watercan be absorbedinto the ground.Sometimes,the shape of theland can makeareas vulnerableto flooding.The number of people living incities is growing, particularly inlow income countries.= 100m peoplein towns or citiesFloods are low-probability, high-impact events that can overwhelmphysical infrastructure, human resilience and social organisation.Floods are the most frequent natural weather disaster. This informationgraphic shows some of the causes and health impacts of floods, andshows how the number and severity of floods may increase in the future.LATINAMERICASOUTH ASIAMICRONESIABAY OF BENGAL(particularly atrisk from stormsurges)VULNERABLEPEOPLEThose living inLow lying places(especially thosewith high density)One-quarter of theworld’s populationresides within 100 kmdistance and 100 melevation of thecoastline.In the USA, lower-incomegroups were mostaffected by HurricaneKatrina in 2005.Such as children, theinfirm, or those livingin sub-standard housing.Poorer communitiesThose with limitedability to escapeVULNERABLE PLACESTHE NORTHSEA COASTSEYCHELLESTHE GULFCOASTTHE NILEDELTAGULF OFGUINEADeaths recorded in disaster databasesare from drowning and severe injuries.Improved warnings have decreased mortality from floodsand storm surges in the last 30 years; however, the impactof weather disasters in terms of social and health effectsis still considerable and is unequally distributed,particularly affecting women.VENEZUELAMOZAMBIQUECHINA19992000/2001200330,000 DEAD1,813 DEAD130m AFFECTEDParticularly inplaces withpoor sanitation:From storage orfrom chemicalsalready in theenvironment:Insufficientlyinvestigated,but may include:DiarrhoealdiseasesCholeraCryptosporidiosisTyphoid feverOilPesticidesHeavy metalsHazardouswastePost-traumaticstressBehaviouraldisorders inchildrenAnxiety?Depression?LIKELY EFFECTS2.5–4m belowsea level by 2100NEW ORLEANS (USA)1.5–3m belowsea level nowThis would mean thata storm surge from aCategory 3 hurricane(estimated at 3 to 4 mwithout waves) could be 6 to 7 m aboveareas that were heavily populated in 2004.Mid-range estimateof 48 cm sea levelrise by 2100 plussubsidenceAIR QUALITY AND DISEASEPOLLUTIONSOURCESENERGYPRODUCTIONURBANTRANSPORTOZONE MODELSFuture emissions are, of course, uncertain, and depend onassumptions of population growth, economic development,regulatory actions and energy use. Changes inconcentrations of ground-level ozone driven by scenariosof future emissions and/or weather patterns have beenprojected for Europe and North America:There are no projections for cities in low- or middle-income countries, despite the heavier pollution burdensin these populations.PM MODELSEvidence for the health impacts of particulate matteris stronger than that for ozone. However, there arefew models of the impact of climate change on pollutantsother than ozone. These tend to emphasise the role oflocal abatement strategies in determining the futurelevels of, primarily, particulate matter, and tend to projectthe probability of air-quality standards being exceededinstead of absolute concentrations; the results varyby region.Because transboundary transport of pollutants playsa significant role in determining local to regional airquality, changing patterns of atmospheric circulationat the hemispheric to global level are likely to be justas important as regional patterns for future local airquality.FORESTFIRESAIRPOLLUTION(AP)As well as producinggreenhouse gassessuch as carbon dioxide, thatlead to global warming,the burning of fossil fuelsfor energy releases smallparticles into the air, calledparticulate matter (PM).Naturally-occuring forestfires mean that toxicgaseous and particulate airpollutants are releasedinto the atmosphere.MORTALITY AND MORBIDITYPARTICULATEMATTER (PM)Many different kinds ofcombustion, both artificialand natural, can causeparticles of solid matter canbecome suspended in the air.PM is known to affectmorbidity and mortality.Weather at all time scales determines the development, transport, dispersion and depositionof air pollutants, with the passage of fronts, cyclonic and anticyclonic systems and theirassociated air masses being of particular importance. This information graphic showssome of the causes and health impacts of air pollution, and shows how both the amountof air pollution, and our exposure to it, may increase in the future.Ozone generationis affected by:— Bright sunlight— Raised temperatures— Low winds— AtmosphericmoistureThe amount of airpollution breathedin by peopledepends on:— Wind / circula-tion of air— Topography— Housingcharacteristics— Activity patternsPM generationis affected by:— Raisedtemperatures— AtmosphericmoistureThe numberof forest firesis affected by:— Raisedtemperatures— AtmosphericmoistureIn urban areas, transportvehicles are the key sourcesof nitrogen oxides and volatileorganic compounds (VOCs)that lead to ground-levelozone. Burning fossil fuelsfor transport also releasesother gasses and particles.ALLERGICRHINITISOTHERDISEASEBURNS& SMOKEINHALATIONSevereallergies canlimit qualityof life.Particularlyaffectschildren.Chronicobstructivepulmonarydisease.Can affectquality of life,and isincreasinglycommon,particularly inchildren.Other Cardio-vascular andrespiratorydiseases arealso caused byair pollution.forest firescan havedirect effectson health.COPDPNEUMONIA ASTHMAOTHER TOXICGASSESAs well as ozone, othertoxic gasses such ascarbon monoxide can haveeffects on human health.OZONEOzone is a secondary pollutantformed through photochemicalreactions involving nitrogenoxides and volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) in thepresence of bright sunshinewith high temperatures.CLIMATE CHANGEThe majority of climate scientists agree that human activity iscausing temperatures to rise around the world. These highertemperatures can affect weather systems, causing extremelyhigh or extremely low winds. Rising temperatures also affectthe amount of water in the atmosphere.These changes may affect air pollution in two main ways. First,it may mean that the atmospheric conditions are right for moreair pollution to form. Secondly, it may change the patterns of airflow, meaning that more people are exposed to this pollution.FUTURECHANGESREFERENCE AREATEMP.INCREASE EMISSIONS EFFECTSKnowltonet al., 2004Bell et al.,2007Andersonet al., 2001New Yorkarea, USA50 cities,East USAEngland& Wales1.6 –3.2°C1.6 –3.2°C0.9 –2.4°Cmediumincreasemediumincreasenoincrease4.5% moredeaths0.6% moredeathsozone +other AP -assumed changesby 2050s(all models assume populationconstant at year 2000 level)FLOODS AND STORMSFloods are low-probability, high-impact events that can overwhelm physicalinfrastructure, human resilience and social organisation. Floods are the mostfrequent natural weather disaster. Floods result from the interaction of rainfall,surface runoff, evaporation, wind, sea level and local topography. In inland areas,flood regimes vary substantially depending on catchment size, topography andclimate. Water management practices, urbanisation, intensified land use andforestry can substantially alter the risks of floods. Windstorms are oftenassociated with floods.Major storm and flood disasters have occurred in the last two decades. In 2003,130 million people were affected by floods in China. In 1999, 30,000 died fromstorms followed by floods and landslides in Venezuela. In 2000/2001, 1,813 diedin floods in Mozambique. Improved structural and non-structural measures,particularly improved warnings, have decreased mortality from floods and stormsurges in the last 30 years; however, the impact of weather disasters in terms ofsocial and health effects is still considerable and is unequally distributed,particularly affecting women. Flood health impacts range from deaths, injuries,infectious diseases and toxic contamination, to mental health problems.In terms of deaths and populations affected, floods and tropical cyclones have thegreatest impact in South Asia and Latin America. Deaths recorded in disasterdatabases are from drowning and severe injuries. Deaths from unsafe or unhealthyconditions following the extreme event are also a health consequence, but suchinformation is rarely included in disaster statistics. Drowning by storm surge is themajor killer in coastal storms where there are large numbers of deaths. Anassessment of surges in the past 100 years found that major events were confinedto a limited number of regions, with many events occurring in the Bay of Bengal,particularly Bangladesh.Populations with poor sanitation infrastructure and high burdens of infectiousdisease often experience increased rates of diarrhoeal diseases after flood events.Increases in cholera, cryptosporidiosis and typhoid fever have been reported inlow- and middle-income countries. Flood related increases in diarrhoeal diseasehave also been reported in India, Brazil and Bangladesh. The floods in Mozambiquein 2001 were estimated to have caused over 8,000 additional cases and 447deaths from diarrhoeal disease in the following months.The risk of infectious disease following flooding in high income countries isgenerally low, although increases in respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases have beenreported after floods. An important exception was the impact of Hurricanes Katrinaand Rita in the USA in 2005, where contamination of water supplies with faecalbacteria led to many cases of diarrhoeal illness and some deaths.Flooding may lead to contamination of waters with dangerous chemicals, heavymetals or other hazardous substances, from storage or from chemicals already inthe environment (e.g., pesticides). Chemical contamination following HurricaneKatrina in the USA included oil spills from refineries and storage tanks, pesticides,metals and hazardous waste. Concentrations of most contaminants were withinacceptable short-term levels, except for lead and volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in some areas. There are also health risks associated with long-termcontamination of soil and sediment; however, there is little published evidencedemonstrating a causal effect of chemical contamination on the pattern ofmorbidity and mortality following flooding events. Increases in population densityand accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disastersincrease the probability of future disasters and the potential for mass humanexposure to hazardous materials released during disasters.There is increasing evidence of the importance of mental disorders as an impact ofdisasters. Prolonged impairment resulting from common mental disorders (anxietyand depression) may be considerable. Studies in both low- and high-incomecountries indicate that the mental-health aspect of flood-related impacts hasbeen insufficiently investigated. A systematic review of post-traumatic stressdisorder in high income countries found a small but significant effect followingdisasters. There is also evidence of medium- to long-term impacts on behaviouraldisorders in young children.Vulnerability to weather disasters depends on the attributes of the person at risk(including where they live, age, income, education and disability) and on broadersocial and environmental factors (level of disaster preparedness, health sectorresponses and environmental degradation). Poorer communities, particularly slumdwellers, are more likely to live in flood-prone areas. In the USA, lower-incomegroups were most affected by Hurricane Katrina, and low-income schools hadtwice the risk of being flooded compared with the reference group.High-density populations in low-lying coastal regions experience a high healthburden from weather disasters, such as settlements along the North Sea coast innorth-west Europe, the Seychelles, parts of Micronesia, the Gulf Coast of the USAand Mexico, the Nile Delta, the Gulf of Guinea, and the Bay of Bengal.Environmentally degraded areas are particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclonesand coastal flooding under current climate conditions.Future vulnerability to climate change
  17. 17. TEXT A GRAPHIC A TEXT B GRAPHIC B149 177 163 185RISK GROUP A:STORMS & FLOODSRISK GROUP B:AIR QUALITY8 mins3 minsView TimeKEYMEAN & 95% CISIG. (P < 0.05)N.S. (P > 0.05)
  18. 18. CONTROL A TEXT A GRAPHIC A CONTROL B TEXT B GRAPHIC B159 130 164 179 142 166RISK GROUP A:STORMS & FLOODSRISK GROUP B:AIR QUALITYMemoryKEYMEAN & 95% CISIG. (P < 0.05)N.S. (P > 0.05)100%0%
  19. 19. CONTROL A TEXT A GRAPHIC A CONTROL B TEXT B GRAPHIC B158 129 160 176 142 161RISK GROUP A:STORMS & FLOODSRISK GROUP B:AIR QUALITYRisk perception (severity)71KEYMEAN & 95% CISIG. (P < 0.05)N.S. (P > 0.05)
  20. 20. elements
  21. 21. how many brothers andsisters do you have?
  22. 22. 1 3 7 2
  23. 23. 1 3 7 2
  24. 24. 1 3 7 250px150px350px100px
  25. 25. 1 3 7 250px150px350px100pxthe 1D size element
  26. 26. 1 3 7 2
  27. 27. 1 3 7 2area =2500px2area =7500px2area =17500px2area =5000px2
  28. 28. 1 3 7 2area =2500px2area =7500px2area =17500px2area =5000px2the area element
  29. 29. 1 3 7 2the count element
  30. 30. virtualwater.eu
  31. 31. 1 3 7 2
  32. 32. 1 3 7 2010
  33. 33. 1 3 7 2010red =green =blue =2552310red =green =blue =2551770red =green =blue =255680red =green =blue =2552050red =green =blue =25500red =green =blue =2552550
  34. 34. 1 3 7 2010red =green =blue =2552310red =green =blue =2551770red =green =blue =255680red =green =blue =2552050red =green =blue =25500the colour element
  35. 35. 1 3 7 24 6 1 2
  36. 36. 1 3 7 24 6 1 2010
  37. 37. 1 3 7 24 6 1 20102 4 2 1
  38. 38. 1 3 7 24 6 1 22 4 2 10101234
  39. 39. Gapminder - Hans Rosling
  40. 40. Automated tools:GapminderMany EyesWordleGoogle ChartsEtc.Spreadsheets (Excel, Numbers, etc.)Data analyis software (SPSS etc.)TableaueSankey!Etc.Web{Desktop{
  41. 41. Bespoke graphics software:IllustratorInDesignPremiereFlashProcessingPhP / HTML4Other programming languagesStills}Motion}Interactive{
  42. 42. or make physical graphics?
  43. 43. Stan’s Cafe: stanscafe.co.uk
  44. 44. sugarstacks.com
  45. 45. sugarstacks.com
  46. 46. sugarstacks.com
  47. 47. Will Stahl-Timmins22nd Feb 2010
  48. 48. Will Stahl-Timmins22nd Feb 2010
  49. 49. any questions?
  50. 50. Data visualisation workshop
  51. 51. what do you wantto learn from this masterclass?
  52. 52. Data Flow—Klanten,Bourguin,Ehmann& Heerden
  53. 53. Information isBeautiful—DavidMcCandless
  54. 54. www.maxgadney.com
  55. 55. Charles Joseph Minard
  56. 56. ISOTYPE – Otto and Marie Neurath
  57. 57. Harry BeckLondonTube map
  58. 58. Otl AicherMunich1972OlympicGamessignage
  59. 59. UK CARBON EMISSIONS2009ROAD USE114Mt195MtENERGYTRANSPORTBUSINESSRESIDENTIALAGRICULTUREWASTEINDUSTRIALPUBLIC SECTOR123Mt86Mt79Mt50Mt18Mt10Mt8MtPOWERSTATIONS 151MtSOLID FUELMANUFACTURE 16MtREFINERIES 15MtROAD 114MtCIVIL AVIATION 3MtMILITARY AIRCRAFT AND SHIPPING 3MtPASSENGER CARS 71MtHGVs 21MtLIGHT DUTYVEHICLES 15MtOTHER INDUSTRIALCOMBUSTION 54MtIRON AND STEEL– COMBUSTION 13MtMISCELLANEOUS INDUSTRIALAND COMMERCIAL COMBUSTION 9.4MtRESIDENTIALCOMBUSTION 74MtAEROSOLS AND METEREDDOSE INHALERS 2.8MtUSE OFOTHER CONSUMERPRODUCTS 1.6MtDIRECT SOILEMISSION 25MtENTERIC FERMENTATION 15MtSTATIONARY AND MOBILECOMBUSTION 4.5MtLANDFILL 16MtWASTE WATERHANDLING 1.7MtINCINERATION 0.3MtCEMENT PRODUCTION 3.7MtSINTER PRODUCTION 1.4MtNITRIC ACID PRODUCTION 1.1Mt
  60. 60. AuAgA PERIODIC TABLE OFWHAT’S LEFTCr MnCoPtCuCdZnSbAlCInPbMoPrNiPCeNdUPmSmEu GdTb Dy Ho Er TmYb LuTaSnTiWYRESERVES(IN YEARS)050100MANY RESOURCES THAT WEDEPEND ON ARE AVAILABLE TO US INLIMITED QUANTITIES. ACCORDING TO DATACOLLECTED BY WWW.INFORMATIONISBEAUTIFUL.NETIN 2011, IF USE KEEPS GROWING AT CURRENT RATES, ANDWE DON’T REUSE OR RECYCLE THE MATERIALS WE’VE ALREADYEXTRACTED, SOME ELEMENTS MAY SOON BE COMMERCIALLY INVIABLE TOEXTRACT. FOR EXAMPLE ANTIMONY, USED IN FIRE RETARDANTS ANDMICROELECTRONICS, COULD BE DEPLETED IN AS LITTLE AS 10 YEARS. CHROMIUM, USEDTO MAKE STAINLESS STEEL FOR KITCHENWARE, COULD BE GONE IN 12 YEARS.Sources: US Geological Survey, Adroit Resources, World Bureau of Metal Statistics, International Copper Study Group, World Gold Council,Minormetals.com, Roskill Nickel Report, Cordell et al (2009), Smil (2000), Silver Institute, World Nuclear Association, International Leadand Zinc Study Group, Wikipedia.U URANIUM32 YEARSWSnAgPrCeNd PmSmEu GdTb Dy Ho Er TmYb LuPPHOSPHORUS84 YEARSPbMoInANTIMONY10 YEARSSbPLATINUM108 YEARSPtALUMINIUM81 YEARSAlCHROMIUM12 YEARSCr COPPER28 YEARSCGRAPHITE23 YEARSCINDIUM13 YEARSLEAD15 YRSGOLD21 YEARSCdCuCADMIUM25 YEARSMANGANESE22 YEARSMOLYBDENUM20 YEARSAuCoMnNi NICKEL33 YEARSRARE EARTHS78 YEARSCOBALT21 YEARSSILVER18 YEARSTa TANTALUM58 YEARSTIN17 YEARSTi TITANIUM47 YEARSTUNGSTEN21 YEARSY YTTRIUM13 YEARSZn ZINC16 YEARSTRANSITIONMETALSPOORMETALSNONMETALSRARE EARTHS (LANTHANIDES)ACTINIDES
  61. 61. 1) increased resources2) reduced search3) enhanced pattern recognition4) perceptual inference5) perceptual monitoring6) manipulable mediumThomas, J. J. and K. A. Cook (2005). Illuminating the Path: TheResearch and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics. AvailableOnline at: http://nvac.pnl.gov/agenda.stm, IEEE Computer Society.!
  62. 62. 1) increased resources- high bandwidth of sensory information
  63. 63. 1) increased resources- high bandwidth of sensory informationvision - 12 MB/stouch - 1 MB/shearing, smell & taste - 1 MB/sNørretranders, T. (1999). The user illusion: cutting consciousnessdown to size. Penguin, London, UK.
  64. 64. 1) increased resources- high bandwidth of sensory informationNørretranders, T. (1999). The user illusion: cutting consciousnessdown to size. Penguin, London, UK.
  65. 65. time seriesgantt chartdata mapbubble chartspider/radar chartforest plotpie chartternary plotscatter plotbox plot
  66. 66. Information isBeautiful—DavidMcCandless
  67. 67. Will Stahl-Timmins22nd Feb 2010InformationGraphics:A ComprehensiveIllustrated Reference—RobertL. Harris
  68. 68. the role of the information designer
  69. 69. information person
  70. 70. information personinformationdesigner
  71. 71. information personinformationdesigner
  72. 72. information personinformationdesigner
  73. 73. informationinformationgraphicpersoninformationdesigner
  74. 74. informationinformationgraphicpersoninformationdesigner
  75. 75. informationinformationgraphicpersoninformationdesigner
  76. 76. Thank youDr Will Stahl-Timminsblog.willstahl.com@will-s-t

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