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A Systematic Literature Review on Outcomes Associated with Believing in Free Will
By
William Tomos Edwards
Jump to visua...
2
Examples can be found in the “Excluded Studies” section of the References. Other studies didn’t
offer conclusions on the...
3
Regarding this
aspect of the
human condition
Believing in free will is associated
with
Number of studies
returning that
...
4
Behaviour and Outlook towards Others
52% of studies in this area return results indicating that belief in free will is a...
5
al., 2018), and experience good subjective well-being and good mental health broadly
conceived (Crescioni et al., 2016)....
6
References
Behaviour and Outlook towards Others
Bastart, J., Redersdorff, S., & Martinot, D. (2015). Le libre arbitre au...
7
Success in Life
Alquist, J. L., Ainsworth, S. E., & Baumeister, R. F. (2013). Determined to conform: Disbelief in
free w...
8
Goodyear, K., Lee, M. R., O’Hara, M., Chernyak, S., Walter, H., Parasuraman, R., & Krueger, F.
(2016). Oxytocin influenc...
9
Gooding, P. L. T., Callan, M. J., & Hughes, G. (2018). The association between believing in free
will and subjective wel...
10
Lynn, M. T., Van Dessel, P., & Brass, M. (2013). The influence of high-level beliefs on self-
regulatory engagement: Ev...
11
Genschow, O., Rigoni, D., & Brass, M. (2019). The hand of god or the hand of maradona?
believing in free will increases...
12
Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., & Brewer, L. E.
(2010). Personal philo...
13
Vierkant, T., Deutschländer, R., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., & Haynes, J. (2019). Responsibility
without freedom? folk judge...
14
Vonasch, A. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2013). Implications of free will beliefs for basic theory and
societal benefit: Cr...
15
Appendix 1
The following pages were randomly selected for review: Ten between p. 50 and p. 2000: 96,
1061, 1075, 1126, ...
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A systematic literature review on outcomes associated with believing in free will

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A systematic literature review on outcomes associated with believing in free will

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A systematic literature review on outcomes associated with believing in free will

  1. 1. 1 A Systematic Literature Review on Outcomes Associated with Believing in Free Will By William Tomos Edwards Jump to visual breakdown of results in Table 1 Literature Search Method One I searched Scholars Portal Articles searching “Anywhere” with the search terms “Vohs” AND “Schooler” in two separate fields. In this regard I could try and find every study that cited the controversial and widely cited study by Vohs and Schooler (2008) concerning morality and belief in free will. This returned 19 pages of results, sorted by relevance. I went through all 19 pages and selected every study that appeared to deal with belief in free will and behavioural outcomes based on the title of the study. Literature Search Method Two I used the same method as above only with the search terms “Free Will” and “Belief.” 11,630 pages were returned. I went through the pages in serial order, selecting articles with the same method as above until page 50. By that page the rate of relevant articles per page had been at 0 for over 20 pages. I used a random number generator function to select 15 more pages to review (Appendix 1). No relevant studies were found. Analysis and Assessment of Literature One more additional relevant study (Crone and Levy, 2019) did not appear in any of the searches described above but was brought to my attention through public debate. I have included it. Of the studies obtained through these methods only original primary research where the authors obtained and analyzed original data were included. I read over the abstract of each study and made notes about the results/conclusions. If the abstract did not give a thorough and concise overview of straightforward findings then I looked through the results. Whether the researchers were satisfied with analyses and results at a simple bivariate level, or decided to drill deeper with multivariate techniques and so on, I would always privilege the researchers reporting and conclusions above my own assessment of their data. Some studies were excluded because they had methodological issues or they had results that were trivial with regards to the debate about whether or not we should believe in free will.
  2. 2. 2 Examples can be found in the “Excluded Studies” section of the References. Other studies didn’t offer conclusions on the utility of believing in free will, but they did shed light on the nature of people’s beliefs in free will. Under References they can be found in the section “The Norms and Nature of People’s Belief in Free Will.” In total, 65 studies have been included that directly answer questions pertaining to the utility of believing in free will. I have classified these studies based on how their results link belief in free will to six different areas of the human condition. Table 1 and the sections that follow it give an overview of how many studies returned results in favour of and against believing in free will in each of those 6 areas. Some studies indicated that believing in free will supports behaviours that could have negative or positive consequences depending on context. Other studies indicated null results for believing in free will. I tried to classify studies in as precise and parsimonious a manner as was possible. Under references the studies are also arranged according to which of the 6 areas they pertain to, and a colour coded label is included next to each study indicating what kind of results from Table 1 are returned. The Norms and Nature of People’s Belief in Free Will The literature makes it clear that average people lean heavily towards compatibilism or contradictory and confused thinking (Feltz, 2015), depending on the optimism or pessimism of ones evaluation of the literature and personal view of the matter. Taking the situation apart, it’s easy to see that a significant swath of the population will not understand the precise mechanics of the debate nor the definitions and relationships concerning “compatibilism,” “incompatibilism,” and “libertarian free will.” Among student samples that are likely to have a better understanding of this discussion than the general population, compatibilist and libertarian free will tendencies are common (Sarkissian et al., 2010), and when research measures force the general population to think more deeply about the topic a distinctly compatibilist tendency emerges (Clark et al., 2019; Vonasch et al., 2018). The literature makes it clear that most people are going with their intuition. It is intuitive to perceive that there is cause and effect, and effects follow from causes. It is also intuitive to perceive that you are an “agent” with free will. Most people are simply embracing contradictory intuitions and living with the paradox in a manner very similar to Dan Dennett and Sean Carrol. It cannot be emphasized enough that most people are taking a very intuitive approach to the topic, and not willing, able, or interested to take a rigorously analytical approach.
  3. 3. 3 Regarding this aspect of the human condition Believing in free will is associated with Number of studies returning that result/conclusion As a percentage Behaviour and Outlook towards Others Compassionate, pro-social (PrSoc) 13 54.17% Cruel, anti-social (AnSoc) 3 12.5% Neutral behaviours and outlook (NBO) 6 25% No relationship (NRBO) 2 8.33% Success in Life Adaptive behaviour/outcomes (Adap) 7 50% Maladaptive behaviour/outcomes (Mala) 3 21.43% Neutral behaviour/outcomes (NSL) 3 21.43% No relationship (NRSL) 1 7.14% Punitive Attitudes and Retribution Decrease (DePun) 1 6.25% Increase (InPun) 13 81.25% No relationship (NRPA) 2 12.5% Subjective Well Being, Positive Affect, Adaptive Beliefs/Attitudes Increase (InSJWB) 18 94.74% Decrease (DeSJWB) 0 0% No relationship (NRSJWB) 1 5.26% Unfounded, Tenuous Beliefs Decrease (DeUten) 1 12.5% Increase (InUten) 5 62.55% No relationship (NRUten) 2 25% Basic, Reflexive, Adaptive Responses (Neural and Behavioural) Facilitates (FacRef) 7 100% Hinders (HinRef) 0 0% No relationship (NRRef) 0 0% Table 1: A breakdown of the results for and against believing in free will returned by research studies on the topic. Jump to beginning of paper. Jump to section containing “multiple kinds of results.”
  4. 4. 4 Behaviour and Outlook towards Others 52% of studies in this area return results indicating that belief in free will is associated with compassionate, pro-social behaviour and outlook towards others including feelings of gratitude (MacKenzie et al., 2014), intuitive co-operation (Protzko et al., 2016), and reduced prejudice (Zhao., 2014). 12% of studies have found belief in free will to be associated with cruel and anti- social outlook and behaviour, including behaviour in an experimental game (Caspar et al., 2017), perceiving people’s accidents as intentional (Genschow et al., 2019), and the construct “right wing authoritarianism” (Carey et al., 2013). Belief in Free Will has been demonstrated to be linked to things with a neutral moral character such as passionate love (Boudesseul et al., 2016), risky decisions (Schrag, et al., 2016), and the personality traits openness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability (Stillman et al., 2010). 8.33% of studies return null results in this area. I have tried to be as non-partisan as possible in the classifications. Success in Life 50% of studies in this area return results indicating that belief in free will is associated with adaptive behaviours like dieting (Ent et al., 2014), academic performance (Feldman et al., 2016), internal locus of control, and success on the job (Stillman et al., 2010). 21.43% of studies return maladaptive outcomes such as belief in an external locus of control (Laurene et al., 2011), lack of knowledge in math and the physical sciences (Mogi, 2013), and one study found that addiction treatment providers who believe in the free-will model of addiction use more drugs and alcohol than treatment providers who believe in the disease model (Schaler, 1997). 21.43% of studies return results demonstrating that belief in free will is associated with behaviours and beliefs that could be adaptive or maladaptive based on the context such as autonomous action instead of conformity (Alquist et al., 2013; Moynihan et al, 2019), and risky decisions (Schrag et al., 2016). One Study found null results in this area with free will belief not correlated with locus of control (Stroessner et al., 1990). Punitive Attitudes and Retribution 81.25% of studies support results such that greater belief in free will is associated with greater support and desire for punishments against wrong doers. Only one study found the opposite conclusion (Viney et al., 1982). 12.5% of studies returned null results for free will belief and retribution. Subjective Well Being, Positive Affect, Adaptive Beliefs/Attitudes 94.74% of studies in this area return results indicating that those who believe in free will find more meaning in life (Seto et al., 2015), are less anxious (Weisman et al., 2017), are confident in their ability to make decisions (Feldman et al., 2014), are satisfied with their jobs (Feldman et
  5. 5. 5 al., 2018), and experience good subjective well-being and good mental health broadly conceived (Crescioni et al., 2016). One study found that belief in free will had a null relationship with satisfaction with life, stress, and depression when controlling for “belief in personal control” (Gooding et al., 2018). Unfounded, Tenuous Beliefs 62.55% of studies returned results indicating that believing in free will is associated with believing in credulous things such as the paranormal (Mogi, 2013; 2014), dualism (Forstmann, & Burgmer, 2018), and religiosity (Carey & Paulhus, 2013). One study found that treatment providers who believe in free will with respect to addiction have a more rational world view (Schaler, 1997). 25% of studies have indicated no relationship between belief in free will and measures like religiosity and religious coping (Brown, 2017; Yilmaz et al., 2018) Basic, Reflexive, Adaptive Responses (Neural and Behavioural) In this area of the literature 100% of studies indicate that reduced belief in free will -particularly when experimentally lowered through researcher manipulations- results in basic, low level responses and mechanisms being compromised. This includes participants being unable to effectively regulate their approach to simple cognitive tasks (Rigoni et al., 2013) seemingly due to appropriate neural mechanisms not acting as they should (Goto et al., 2014; 2018). Neural markers of error detection (Rigoni et al., 2015), and the readiness potential (Rigoni et al., 2011) have been shown to be compromised in people who were induced to disbelieve in free will.
  6. 6. 6 References Behaviour and Outlook towards Others Bastart, J., Redersdorff, S., & Martinot, D. (2015). Le libre arbitre au service du jugement émis envers des victimes de sexisme. Psychologie Francaise, 60(3), 223-236. doi:10.1016/j.psfr.2015.03.001 (PrSoc) Baumeister, R., Masicampo, E. J., & DeWall, C. (2009). Prosocial benefits of feeling free: Disbelief in free will increases aggression and reduces helpfulness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(2), 260-268. doi:10.1177/0146167208327217 (PrSoc) Caspar, E. A., Vuillaume, L., Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama,Pedro A., & Cleeremans, A. (2017). The influence of (dis)belief in free will on immoral behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 8 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00020 (AnSoc) Crone, D. L., & Levy, N. L. (2019). Are free will believers nicer people? (four studies suggest not). Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10(5), 612-619. doi:10.1177/1948550618780732 (NRBO) Harms, J., Liket, K., Protzko, J., Schölmerich, V., Harms, J., Liket, K., . . . Schölmerich, V. (2017). Free to help? an experiment on free will belief and altruism. PLoS ONE, 12(3) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.017319 (PrSoc) Highhouse, S., & Rada, T. B. (2015). Different worldviews explain perceived effectiveness of different employment tests. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 23(2), 109-119. doi:10.1111/ijsa.12100 (NBO) MacKenzie, M., Vohs, K., & Baumeister, R. (2014). You Didn’t have to do that: Belief in free will promotes gratitude. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(11), 1423- 1434. doi:10.1177/0146167214549322 (PrSoc) Protzko, J., Ouimette, B., & Schooler, J. (2016). Believing there is no free will corrupts intuitive cooperation. Cognition, 151(Complete), 6-9. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.02.014 (PrSoc) Stillman, T. F., & Baumeister, R. F. (2010). Guilty, free, and wise: Determinism and psychopathy diminish learning from negative emotions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 951-960. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.05.012 (PrSoc) Vohs, K. D., & Schooler, J. W. (2008). The value of believing in free will: Encouraging a belief in determinism increases cheating. Psychological Science, 19(1), 49-54. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 9280.2008.02045.x (PrSoc) Zhao, X., Liu, L., Zhang, X., Shi, J., Huang, Z., Zhao, X., . . . Huang, Z. (2014). The effect of belief in free will on prejudice. PLoS ONE, 9(3) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091572 (PrSoc)
  7. 7. 7 Success in Life Alquist, J. L., Ainsworth, S. E., & Baumeister, R. F. (2013). Determined to conform: Disbelief in free will increases conformity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49(1), 80-86. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.08.015 (NSL) Ent, M. R., & Baumeister, R. F. (2014). Embodied free will beliefs: Some effects of physical states on metaphysical opinions. Consciousness and Cognition, 27(Complete), 147-154. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2014.05.001 (Adap) Feldman, G., Chandrashekar, S. P., & Wong, K. F. E. (2016). The freedom to excel: Belief in free will predicts better academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 90(Complete), 377-383. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.043 (Adap) Li, J., Zhao, Y., Lin, L., Chen, J., & Wang, S. (2018). The freedom to persist: Belief in free will predicts perseverance for long-term goals among chinese adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 121(Complete), 7-10. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2017.09.011 (Adap) Vonasch, A. J., Clark, C. J., Lau, S., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2017). Ordinary people associate addiction with loss of free will. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 5(Complete), 56-66. doi:10.1016/j.abrep.2017.01.002 (Adap) Punitive Attitudes and Retribution Clark, C. J., Luguri, J. B., Ditto, P. H., Knobe, J., Shariff, A. F., Baumeister, R. F., . . . Baumeister, R. F. (2014). Free to punish: A motivated account of free will belief. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(4), 501-513. doi:10.1037/a0035880 (InPun) Clark, C. J., Baumeister, R. F., & Ditto, P. H. (2017). Making punishment palatable: Belief in free will alleviates punitive distress. Consciousness and Cognition, 51(Complete), 193-211. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2017.03.010 (InPun) Clark, C. J., Shniderman, A., Luguri, J. B., Baumeister, R. F., & Ditto, P. H. (2018). Are morally good actions ever free? Consciousness and Cognition, 63(Complete), 161-182. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2018.05.006 (InPun) Clark, C. J., Winegard, B. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2019). Forget the folk: Moral responsibility preservation motives and other conditions for compatibilism. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00215 (InPun) Feldman, G., Wong, K. F. E., & Baumeister, R. F. (2016). Bad is freer than good: Positive– negative asymmetry in attributions of free will. Consciousness and Cognition, 42(Complete), 26- 40. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2016.03.005 (InPun)
  8. 8. 8 Goodyear, K., Lee, M. R., O’Hara, M., Chernyak, S., Walter, H., Parasuraman, R., & Krueger, F. (2016). Oxytocin influences intuitions about the relationship between belief in free will and moral responsibility. Social Neuroscience, 11(1), 88-96. doi:10.1080/17470919.2015.1037463 (InPun) Krueger, F., Hoffman, M., Walter, H., & Grafman, J. (2014). An fMRI investigation of the effects of belief in free will on third-party punishment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(8), 1143-1149. doi:10.1093/scan/nst092 (InPun) Nahmias, E., Morris, S., Nadelhoffer, T., & Turner, J. (2005). Surveying freedom: Folk intuitions about free will and moral responsibility. Philosophical Psychology, 18(5), 561-584. doi:10.1080/09515080500264180 (InPun) Plaks, J. E., & Robinson, J. S. (2015). Construal level and free will beliefs shape perceptions of actors' proximal and distal intent. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00777 (InPun) Shariff, A. F., Greene, J. D., Karremans, J. C., Luguri, J. B., Clark, C. J., Schooler, J. W., . . . Vohs, K. D. (2014). Free will and punishment: A mechanistic view of human nature reduces retribution. Psychological Science, 25(8), 1563-1570. doi:10.1177/0956797614534693 (InPun) Viney, W., Waldman, D., & Barchilon, J. (1982). Attitudes toward punishment in relation to beliefs in free will and determinism. Human Relations, 35(11), 939-949. doi:10.1177/001872678203501101 (DePun) Subjective Well Being, Positive Affect, and Adaptive Beliefs/Attitudes Alquist, J., Ainsworth, S., Baumeister, R., Daly, M., & Stillman, T. (2015). The making of might- have-beens: Effects of free will belief on counterfactual thinking. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(2), 268-283. doi:10.1177/0146167214563673 (InSJWB) Baldissarri, C., Andrighetto, L., Gabbiadini, A., & Volpato, C. (2017). Work and freedom? working self‐objectification and belief in personal free will. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56(2), 250-269. doi:10.1111/bjso.12172 (InSJWB) Feldman, G., Baumeister, R. F., & Wong, K. F. E. (2014). Free will is about choosing: The link between choice and the belief in free will. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55(Complete), 239-245. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.07.012 (InSJWB) Feldman, G., Farh, J., & Wong, K. F. E. (2018). Agency beliefs over time and across cultures: Free will beliefs predict higher job satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 44(3), 304- 317. doi:10.1177/0146167217739261 (InSJWB)
  9. 9. 9 Gooding, P. L. T., Callan, M. J., & Hughes, G. (2018). The association between believing in free will and subjective well-being is confounded by a sense of personal control. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00623 (NRSJWB) Li, C., Wang, S., Zhao, Y., Kong, F., & Li, J. (2017). The freedom to pursue happiness: Belief in free will predicts life satisfaction and positive affect among chinese adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 7doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02027 (InSJWB) Lynn, M. T., Muhle-Karbe, P. S., Aarts, H., & Brass, M. (2014). Priming determinist beliefs diminishes implicit (but not explicit) components of self-agency. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01483 (InSJWB) Seto, E., Hicks, J., Davis, W., & Smallman, R. (2015). Free will, counterfactual reflection, and the meaningfulness of life events. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6(3), 243-250. doi:10.1177/1948550614559603 (InSJWB) Seto, E., & Hicks, J. A. (2016). Disassociating the agent from the self: Undermining belief in free will diminishes true self-knowledge. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(7), 726-734. doi:10.1177/1948550616653810 (InSJWB) Unfounded, Tenuous Beliefs Forstmann, M., & Burgmer, P. (2018). A free will needs a free mind: Belief in substance dualism and reductive physicalism differentially predict belief in free will and determinism. Consciousness and Cognition, 63(Complete), 280-293. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2018.07.003 (InUten) Mogi, K. (2014). Free will and paranormal beliefs. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00281 (InUten) Basic, Reflexive, Adaptive Responses (Neural and Behavioural) Goto, T., Ishibashi, Y., Kajimura, S., Oka, R., & Kusumi, T. (2014). Belief in free will promotes the transition from exploitation to exploration in decision making through sympathetic activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 94(2), 220-220. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.08.873 (FacRef) Goto, T., Ishibashi, Y., Kajimura, S., Oka, R., & Kusumi, T. (2018). Belief in free will indirectly contributes to the strategic transition through sympathetic arousal. Personality and Individual Differences, 128(Complete), 157-161. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2018.02.036 (FacRef)
  10. 10. 10 Lynn, M. T., Van Dessel, P., & Brass, M. (2013). The influence of high-level beliefs on self- regulatory engagement: Evidence from thermal pain stimulation. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00614 (FacRef) Rigoni, D., Kühn, S., Sartori, G., & Brass, M. (2011). Inducing disbelief in free will alters brain correlates of preconscious motor preparation: The brain minds whether we believe in free will or not. Psychological Science, 22(5), 613-618. doi:10.1177/0956797611405680 (FacRef) Rigoni, D., Kühn, S., Gaudino, G., Sartori, G., & Brass, M. (2012). Reducing self-control by weakening belief in free will. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(3), 1482-1490. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2012.04.004 (FacRef) Rigoni, D., Wilquin, H., Brass, M., & Burle, B. (2013). When errors do not matter: Weakening belief in intentional control impairs cognitive reaction to errors. Cognition, 127(2), 264-269. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2013.01.009 (FacRef) Rigoni, D., Pourtois, G., & Brass, M. (2015). ‘Why should I care?’ challenging free will attenuates neural reaction to errors. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10(2), 262-268. doi:10.1093/scan/nsu068 (FacRef) Multiple Kinds of Results Bergner, R. M., & Ramon, A. (2013). Some implications of beliefs in altruism, free will, and nonreductionism. The Journal of Social Psychology, 153(5), 598-618. doi:10.1080/00224545.2013.798249 (PrSoc) (InSJWB) Boudesseul, J., Lantian, A., Cova, F., & Bègue, L. (2016). Free love? on the relation between belief in free will, determinism, and passionate love. Consciousness and Cognition, 46(Complete), 47-59. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2016.09.003 (NBO) Carey, J. M., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). Worldview implications of believing in free will and/or determinism: Politics, morality, and punitiveness. Journal of Personality, 81(2), 130-141. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00799.x (AnSoc) (InPun) (InUten) Crescioni, A. W., Baumeister, R. F., Ainsworth, S. E., Ent, M., & Lambert, N. M. (2016). Subjective correlates and consequences of belief in free will. Philosophical Psychology, 29(1), 41-63. doi:10.1080/09515089.2014.996285 (PrSoc) (InSJWB) Feldman, G., & Chandrashekar, S. P. (2018). Laypersons’ beliefs and intuitions about free will and determinism: New insights linking the social psychology and experimental philosophy paradigms. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9(5), 539-549. doi:10.1177/1948550617713254 (PrSoc) (Adap) (InSJWB)
  11. 11. 11 Genschow, O., Rigoni, D., & Brass, M. (2019). The hand of god or the hand of maradona? believing in free will increases perceived intentionality of others’ behavior. Consciousness and Cognition, 70(Complete), 80-87. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2019.02.004 (AnSoc) (InUten) Laurene, K., Rakos, R., Tisak, M., Robichaud, A., & Horvath, M. (2011). Perception of free will: The perspective of incarcerated adolescent and adult offenders. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 2(4), 723-740. doi:10.1007/s13164-011-0074-z (InPun) (InSJWB) (Mala) Mogi, K. (2013). Cognitive factors correlating with the metacognition of the phenomenal properties of experience. Scientific Reports, 3 doi:10.1038/srep03354 (NBO) (Mala) (NRPA) (InSJWB) (InUten) Monroe, A. E., Brady, G. L., & Malle, B. F. (2017). This Isn’t the free will worth looking for: General free will beliefs do not influence moral judgments, agent-specific choice ascriptions do. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(2), 191-199. doi:10.1177/1948550616667616 (NRBO) (NRPA) (InSJWB) Moynihan, A. B., Igou, E. R., & van Tilburg, W. A. P. (2017). Free, connected, and meaningful: Free will beliefs promote meaningfulness through belongingness. Personality and Individual Differences, 107(Complete), 54-65. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.11.006 (PrSoc) (InSJWB) Moynihan, A. B., Igou, E. R., & van Tilburg, W. A. P. (2019). Lost in the crowd: Conformity as escape following disbelief in free will. European Journal of Social Psychology, 49(3), 503-520. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2499 (NSL) (InSJWB) Weisman de Mamani, A., Weintraub, M. J., Gurak, K., Maura, J., Martinez de Andino, A., & Brown, C. A. (2017). Free will perceptions, religious coping, and other mental health outcomes in caregivers of individuals with dementia. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 29(4), 226-247. doi:10.1080/15528030.2016.1193096 (InSJWB) (NRUten) Schaler, J. a. (1997). Addiction beliefs of treatment providers: Factors explaining variance. Addiction Research & Theory, 4(4), 367-384. doi:10.3109/16066359709002970 (Mala) (DeUten) Schrag, Y., Tremea, A., Lagger, C., Ohana, N., Mohr, C., Schrag, Y., . . . Mohr, C. (2016). Pro free will priming enhances “Risk-taking” behavior in the iowa gambling task, but not in the balloon analogue risk task: Two independent priming studies. PLoS ONE, 11(3) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152297 (NBO) (NSL)
  12. 12. 12 Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., & Brewer, L. E. (2010). Personal philosophy and personnel achievement: Belief in free will predicts better job performance. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(1), 43-50. doi:10.1177/1948550609351600 (NBO) (Adap) (InSJWB) Stroessner, S. J., & Green, C. W. (1990). Effects of belief in free will or determinism on attitudes toward punishment and locus of control. The Journal of Social Psychology, 130(6), 789-799. doi:10.1080/00224545.1990.9924631 (NRSL) (InPun) Yilmaz, O., Bahçekapili, H. G., & Harma, M. (2018). Different types of religiosity and lay intuitions about free Will/Determinism in turkey. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 28(2), 89-102. doi:10.1080/10508619.2018.1425062 (NBO) (NRUten) Zemel, O., Einat, T., & Ronel, N. (2018). Criminal spin, self-control, and desistance from crime among juvenile delinquents: Determinism versus free will in a qualitative perspective. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62(15), 4739-4757. doi:10.1177/0306624X18781208 (PrSoc) (Adap) The Norms and Nature of People’s Belief in Free Will (Some studies from previous sections also included here) Clark, C. J., Winegard, B. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2019). Forget the folk: Moral responsibility preservation motives and other conditions for compatibilism. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00215 Compatibilism Feltz, A. (2015). Experimental philosophy of actual and counterfactual free will intuitions. Consciousness and Cognition, 36(Complete), 113-130. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2015.06.001 Compatibilist and/or poor mental models Forstmann, M., & Burgmer, P. (2018). A free will needs a free mind: Belief in substance dualism and reductive physicalism differentially predict belief in free will and determinism. Consciousness and Cognition, 63(Complete), 280-293. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2018.07.003 Libertarian Free Will/ Compatibilism Monroe, A. E., Dillon, K. D., & Malle, B. F. (2014). Bringing free will down to earth: People’s psychological concept of free will and its role in moral judgment. Consciousness and Cognition, 27(Complete), 100-108. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2014.04.011 Compatibilist Nahmias, E., Morris, S., Nadelhoffer, T., & Turner, J. (2005). Surveying freedom: Folk intuitions about free will and moral responsibility. Philosophical Psychology, 18(5), 561-584. doi:10.1080/09515080500264180 Compatibilism
  13. 13. 13 Vierkant, T., Deutschländer, R., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., & Haynes, J. (2019). Responsibility without freedom? folk judgements about deliberate actions. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01133 semi-compatibilism. Vonasch, A. J., Baumeister, R. F., & Mele, A. R. (2018). Ordinary people think free will is a lack of constraint, not the presence of a soul. Consciousness and Cognition, 60(Complete), 133-151. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.002 Most people are Dan Dennett style Compatibilists SARKISSIAN, H., CHATTERJEE, A., DE BRIGARD, F., KNOBE, J., NICHOLS, S., & SIRKER, S. (2010). Is belief in free will a cultural universal? Mind & Language, 25(3), 346-358. doi:10.1111/j.1468- 0017.2010.01393.x Most students were believers in libertarian free will. Those who believe in determinism tended to be compatibilist. Most student respondents tended towards libertarian free will. Excluded Studies Chernyak, N., & Kushnir, T. (2014). The self as a moral agent: Preschoolers behave morally but believe in the freedom to do otherwise. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15(3), 453-464. doi:10.1080/15248372.2013.777843 Trivial and tangential conclusions Fahrenberg, J., & Cheetham, M. (2008). Assumptions about human nature and the impact of philosophical concepts on professional issues: A questionnaire-based study with 800 students from psychology, philosophy, and science. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology, 14(3), 183-201. Retrieved from http://resolver.scholarsportal.info/resolve/10716076/v14i0003/183_aahnatsfppas Due to the way data is reported no meaningful conclusions can be drawn. Other reported conclusions were of trivial significance. Lau, S., Hiemisch, A., & Baumeister, R. F. (2015). The experience of freedom in decisions – questioning philosophical beliefs in favor of psychological determinants. Consciousness and Cognition, 33(Complete), 30-46. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2014.11.008 Conclusions with trivial importance Racine, E., Sattler, S., & Escande, A. (2017). Free will and the brain disease model of addiction: The not so seductive allure of neuroscience and its modest impact on the attribution of free will to people with an addiction. Frontiers in Psychology, 8 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01850 Focused on how variables like education influence free will belief in the narrow context of addiction. Doesn’t shed light on outcomes associated with belief and lack of belief in free will
  14. 14. 14 Vonasch, A. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2013). Implications of free will beliefs for basic theory and societal benefit: Critique and implications for social psychology. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(2), 219-227. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.2012.02102.x Original data appears to be collected and reported on here but this paper is technically a rebuttal and the original research is not reported on with the normal rigor and procedures of a scientific study. For this reason it is excluded. Weisman de Mamani, A., Weintraub, M. J., Tauler, C. C., Gurak, K., Maura, J., Mejia, M. G., & Sapp, S. (2014). Religion and free will perceptions as coping mechanisms in caregivers of individuals with dementia: A review of the literature. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 26(2-3), 201-214. doi:10.1080/15528030.2013.829017 Literature review with case study that seems to have methodological issues.
  15. 15. 15 Appendix 1 The following pages were randomly selected for review: Ten between p. 50 and p. 2000: 96, 1061, 1075, 1126, 1312, 1517, 1600, 1711, 1728, 1846. Five between p. 10,000 and the last page: 10873, 10904, 10911, 11001, 11076.

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