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S T U D E N T D R U G T E S T I N G 2


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Founder of National FORUM Journals – Over 4,000 Professors Published

Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these refereed, peer-reviewed periodicals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision – now acclaimed by many as the United States’ leading recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration, leadership, and supervision.
In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of applied educational researchers world-wide with those of practitioners in education. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes academic scholarly refereed articles daily on the website: Over 500 professors have published online. In January 2007, Dr. Kritsonis established Focus: On Colleges, Universities, and Schools.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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S T U D E N T D R U G T E S T I N G 2

  1. 1. <ul><li>Student Drug Testing </li></ul><ul><li>William Allan Kritsonis, PhD </li></ul>
  2. 2. Vernonia School District v. Action <ul><li>The Student Athlete Drug Policy adopted by School District 47J in the town of Vernonia, Oregon, authorizes random urinalysis drug testing of students who participate in the District's school athletics programs. We granted certiorari to decide whether this violates the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pottawatomie County et al. v. Earls <ul><li>In the case of the Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County et al. v. Earls et al., the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a drug-testing program for students involved in competitive extracurricular activities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bean v. Tulia I.S.D <ul><li>Tulia ISD has a policy of random drug testing for students participating in athletics and other extra-curricular activities for grades 7-12. </li></ul><ul><li>Amos Bean, a student within the Tulia ISD, claimed that the drug-testing policy violated his rights under the U.S. and Texas constitutions. Under the U.S. District Court ruling, Bean is now required to pay the school’s taxable court costs. Alan Bean, father of Amos, is currently undecided on appealing the ruling. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why drug test students <ul><li>Drugs have far more serious adverse effects on adolescents than on adults </li></ul><ul><li>Some drugs can cause serious problems with memory and learning, as well as difficulty in thinking and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>may cause long-lasting damage to brain areas that are critical for thought and memory. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effects of drug testing <ul><li>Prevent dropout rates </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a safer school env ironment </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent violence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Risk of drug test <ul><li>Not 100% accurate </li></ul><ul><li>More than one test may need to take place </li></ul><ul><li>Students drug test must remain confidential </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of drug testing <ul><li>Urine </li></ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat Patch </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Fluids </li></ul>
  9. 9. When drug test are positive <ul><li>Not to be used for punishment but timely intervention and appropriate treatment </li></ul><ul><li>the school's crucial next step is to contact the parents and help them stop their child's drug use </li></ul><ul><li>refer the student to a trained substance-abuse counselor, who can perform a drug assessment and determine whether the child needs treatment or other specialized help </li></ul><ul><li>school will want to perform follow-up drug tests on students with positive results to make sure they stay drug free </li></ul>
  10. 10. Students beating the test <ul><li>Some drink large amounts of water </li></ul><ul><li>Some add bleach, salt or vinegar to their sample </li></ul><ul><li>May use other drug free friends to leave samples of urine </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion <ul><li>The aim of drug testing is not to trap and punish students who use drugs. It is, in fact, counterproductive simply to punish them without trying to alter their behavior. If drug-using students are suspended or expelled without any attempt to change their ways, the community will be faced with drug-using dropouts, an even bigger problem in the long run. The purpose of testing, then, is to prevent drug dependence and to help drug dependent students become drug free. </li></ul>