Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy


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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Educational Philosophy

  1. 1. Philosophy P10100982 1 Providing Leadership Strategies with Six Realms of Meaning as it Relates to Education from a Philosophical Prospective P1010092 ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to examine how leadership strategies and the Six Realms of Meaning authored by Dr. William Kritsonis can be implemented from an educational philosophical prospective in education. The following six realms of meaning will be embedded as follows: Symbolics, Empirics, Esthetics, Synnoetics, Ethics, and Synoptics. Educational leaders see the phenomenon of the universal and contextual manifestation which will involve the terms metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and ontology appropriate to postmodernistic perspectives. 1
  2. 2. Philosophy P10100982 2 Introduction Leadership is traditionally thought of as a top down activity where followers follow. The postmodernistic and philosophical view of leadership focuses on the leader as leading through influence, not position, power or leverage. Leadership must be based on goodwill, action oriented and a building relationship that will be relational and interactional. As a general cultural phenomenon, it has such features as the challenging of convention, the mixing of styles, tolerance of ambiguity, the emphasis on diversity, acceptance of innovation and change, and stress on the contractedness’ of reality. Postmodernism is often seen by its proponents as bringing an end to metaphysics, ontology, epistemology, and so forth, on the ground that these types of discourse assume a fixed, universal reality and method of inquiry. Purpose of the Article The purpose of this article is to examine how leadership strategies and the Six Realms of Meaning concepts can be implemented in education as it focuses on an educational prospective to students learning. It will also explore “Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning” by Dr. William A. Kritsonis (2007) and postmodern leadership challenges. The emphasis will be on exploring postmodern views with the use of Symbolics, Empirics, Esthetics, Synnoetics, Ethics, and Synoptics. The concentration will be on how the educational institute students can benefit from fostering this hierarchy of modern change and structure of learning with a higher level of learning and leadership parallelism. The Leadership Challenge Leaders and Leadership are important because they serve as anchors which provides guidance in time of change and exhibits patterns which appear systematically, task oriented, 2
  3. 3. Philosophy P10100982 3 relations oriented and fundamental of leader behavior. Leadership is both a science and can be viewed as an art which uniquely in education can be a combination of empirics and esthetics. The leader can collectively implement science in a theoretical formulation which can be through observation and experimentation. The systematic and intimate portrayal context of esthetics which is embedded with art is a metaphor rendered with consistent movements, visuals and literature that will theorize leadership to a greater paradoxical doctrine. Implementing the Realms with Leadership Strategies The first realm, symbolics, comprises ordinary language, mathematics and various types of nondiscursive symbolic forms, such as gestures, rituals, rhythmic patterns, and the like. These meanings are contained in arbitrary symbolic structures, with socially accepted rules of formation and transformation (Kritsonis, 2007, p.11).Ordinary language uses communication, everyday speech, writing and knowledge. In the postmodernism world leaders can initiate true language which is more concerned with power because this theory embraces both the structure of language, and its ability to describe things in order to communicate and influence others (English, 2003, p. 15). In symbolic the leader in education can openly tap in and articulate decision making that uses autocratic style and strategies. Empirically, the second realm, includes the science of physical world, of living things, and of man. It provides factual descriptions, generalizations, and theoretical formulations and explanations that are based upon observation and experimentation in the world of matter, life, mind and society (Kritsonis, 2007, pg. 12). Science is concerned with matters of fact, different abstractions and assessments. In postmodernism science is simply a language game, a set of rules governed by linguistic habits that use non-scientific metanarratives to justify and legitimize larger social context (English, 2003, pg 13). Postmodernist prospective is that science in 3
  4. 4. Philosophy P10100982 4 education has to be real especially finding the theoretical framework which grasps students to fully comprehend in-depth science and its real meaning. Therefore, leaders should be able to use lessons which are strategically planned to incorporate the models of postmodernist and empirics to replace the metaphor dominant in education to vocally train those teachers to be effective individuals that will allow demands to take precedence over actions that requires improving the educational productivity of students. The third realm, esthetics contains the various arts, such as music, the visual arts, the arts of movement, and literature (Kritsonis 2007, p.12). In this realm, meanings “are concerned with the contemplative perception of particular significant things as unique objectifications of ideated subjectivities” (Kritsonis 2007, p. 12). Teaching music offers many classes of satisfaction to students as well as adults. Usually a teacher can work with learners of all cultures & ages experience the thrill of sharing thoughts and feelings with others and seeing others learn is so important in esthetics. Esthetics can help educators and administrators expose children who are not able to grasp things easily; but, with the use of visual art, movements and music then the patterns of sounds or art will be Synnoetics the fourth realm examines and embraces what Michael Polanyi calls “personal knowledge” and Martin Buber the “I-Thou” relation” (Kritsonis 2007, p. 12). Synnoetics signifies “relational insight” or direct awareness.” Personal or relational knowledge is concrete, direct, and existential (Kritsonis 2007, p. 12). In examining the knowledge strategies of leaders and teachers in schools need to acquire and use information for decision making in various areas of school development. Emphasis on personal knowledge strategies of school leaders and teachers are highly correlated to the perception of positive knowledge for safer environments in the school systems. It is quantifiable and supremely to state that personal 4
  5. 5. Philosophy P10100982 5 strategies also tend to influence the knowledge culture within schools. School leaders can center personal strategies that can maneuver the way students and staff seeks and tolerates new knowledge and how ideas are valued and used. Educational leaders should establish higher levels of personal knowledge strategies which will also likely result in a stronger belief in the quality process of decision making in schools. The knowledge strategies are not an exhaustive list but school leaders need to cultivate competent knowledge strategies amongst their staff members to consolidate the knowledge culture in schools. According to (English, 2003, pg 28), the state’s role in education has evolved slowly since the nineteenth century. At the time state involvement in education focused on creating local districts, academic requirements and compulsory education. It is evidently a pattern that leaders should critically identify the need to actively create a school environment that enables teachers to actively and intensively utilize the information to create new knowledge and enhance the knowledge and information culture in their schools. Ethics the fifth realm of meaning “includes moral meanings that express obligation rather than fact, perceptual form, or wariness of relation” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 13). Ethics “is a code of values to guide man’s choices and actions, the choices and actions that determine the purpose and the course of life” (Rand, 1964, p. 13). Right and wrong are deliberate actions and moral choices made by an individual have “both personal and impersonal elements” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 438). According to Kritsonis he states “ethics is everyone’s business”, I must state I am in agreement with him. English looks at the educational leader who promotes the success of all students by facilitating the development and stewardship of a vision (English 2003, pg. 103). Rand alludes to ethics as a code which is based on and derived from a metaphysics that is from a 5
  6. 6. Philosophy P10100982 6 theory about the fundamental nature of the universe in which man lives and acts. (Rand 1964, p. 55). Synoptics the sixth realm of meaning which refers to meanings that is comprehensively integrative. This realm includes history, religion, and philosophy (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 130). In the synoptic realm history, religion, and philosophy can be an overall learning plan for student academic achievement and success. Educational leaders must expand learning for students in the synoptic realm, as this will challenge their students to read and study more in-depth philosophy, religion, and history as it affect their world. Bloom’ taxonomy can also be used by leaders as a foundation of the principle in focusing on the fundamental disciplines in education. The postmodernist approach towards the educational leaders focuses on insisting that education is absolutely necessary in order to remain innovative and competitive in this increasingly global economy. Concluding Remarks In conclusion, it is important to understand how leadership strategies and the “Six Realms of Meaning” can be conceptualized and implemented into the educational systems; also how it focuses on students’ matriculation from a multidimensional perspective. The concept of exploring “Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning” authored by Dr. William A. Kritsonis (2007) and postmodern leadership challenges is a structure of learning environment that should be integrating in a post modernistic and theoretical dimension. 6
  7. 7. Philosophy P10100982 7 Reference English, F. (2003). The postmodern challenge to the theory and practice of educational administration. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas – Publisher, LTD. Kritsonis, W. A. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, Texas National Forum Journal Rand, A. (1964). The virtues of selfishness. New York: Penguin Putnam. 7
  8. 8. Philosophy P10100982 8 The Inescapable Dilemma of Ayn Rand and a Pragmatic look at Atlas Shrugged in Today’s World P1010092 ABSTRACT Ayn Rand's libertarian classic entitled the “Atlas Shrugged” proclaims her to be the prophet and hero of the teachings which will rid us of recession. This sudden popularity is odd and controls the markets in a less market regulation. Her intriguing thoughts during the twenty first century revolutionize the way we think of the economy in a recession period. This paper will explore the following six views as to how the economy was viewed in the 50’s and in the 21st century: 1. Who is Ayn Rand 2.Why Atlas Shrugged 3. Objectivism 4.Existence and morality 5. The Business World 6.The Woman strikes last as a leader 6. John Galt. 8
  9. 9. Philosophy P10100982 9 Introduction Our economy is currently faced with an economic land slide which is synonymous to the great depression of the sixties. American families are bracing for job loss, home foreclosures and a very dim future. As the situation escalates, states legislators and our president struggle desperately to seek answer to eliminate the problem. We need to jump start our economy to help working families who are bearing the brunt of the economic crisis. Ayn Rand’s alludes to multiple facets of her philosophy which compounds with human life, individualism, and the economical world into prospective. Ayn Rand can be associated as a drawing room capitalist, a theorist of subject where her pragmatic experience is opposite generalized and observation to all forms of socialism. Purpose of the Article The purpose of this article is to discuss some challenges and opportunities that humankind faces and how it relates to Ayn Rand philosophical view. This is seen through the eyes in Atlas Shrugged (1957) and the ideas that impact people’s lives with the contributions of John Galt and Galt’s Gulch. Ethics, moral principles that are viewed as a theoretical abstraction that has helped to make a distinction in relation to Ayn Rand Atlas Shrugged and society in the 21st century. The main focus will be to address the following topics: Who is Ayn Rand, Why Atlas Shrugged, Objectivism and Epistemology, Existence and Morality, The Business World, and the philosophical terms of metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, and ontology. Who is Ayn Rand. Rand’s philosophy stemmed from her upbringing under a Communist regime. The daily horrors that she had witnessed, including mass starvation and death, would forever change the way she saw the world. Ethics for Rand partly consists in articulating, understanding, and 9
  10. 10. Philosophy P10100982 10 applying abstract principles. Rand also believes there is room for objectivity in ethics, so the results of discursive processes would be entirely beside the ethical point. Why Atlas Shrugged Rand’s description of a socialist state taken over by “looters,” people who cannot create or produce ,but who seize power under the rubric of “fairness” is so spot on accurate of today’s administration that it is so scary. If you should ask any successful businessman or businesswoman who was randomly chosen to name the book that has most inspired them, you will undoubtedly hear one title repeated over and over: Atlas Shrugged Ayn Rand's epic novel. In Atlas Shrugged the great achievers were mainly businessmen, who, like businessmen today, live in a world that damns, shackles, and drains them. These achievers refuse to accept any form of treatment and they fight back. They go on strike, refusing to work in a society that at once depends on their achievements, but brands them immoral for seeking to profit from those achievements. Objectivism and Epistemology Objectivism is the systematic philosophy pioneered by Ayn Rand (1964) in the 20th century that encompasses positions on metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics, and aesthetics. “Objectivism” maintains that human beings cannot act automatically to further their own survival. Overtime without pay because you weren’t paid by time and you weren’t paid by work, only need (Rand, 1957, p. 609). In Atlas Shrugged (1957) the argument elicits that traits like independence and individual achievement, which currently drive the world, are actually virtues, and world view to central rational moral conduct. Objectivism holds us accountable that all knowledge comes ultimately through the rational interpretation of any given evidence of the senses by an individual for that particular individual. 10
  11. 11. Philosophy P10100982 11 In our society today in comparison to the past, most philosophers will agree that the ultimate standard that underlines objectivism, axiology and arbitrary postulate our emotional commitment. As individuals we must agree that objectivism is a subjective issue and that in our modern society we must challenge the ethical histories which exist. In metaphysics the view that reality is so often dependent on human consciousness integrates one philosophical view of the objectivist ethics. Existence and Morality The principle presented by Rand (1954) as a direct consequence of the metaphysical axiom that "Existence is Identity," and knowledge is identification the philosophical view of man’s life is the standard of morality, but looks at one’s life as a purpose (Rand, 1957, p. 928). Existence exists and the act of grasping that statement implies two corollary axioms: that something exist which one perceives and that one exists possessing consciousness, consciousness being the faculty of perceiving that which exists. (Rand 1957, p. 929) In our society individuals as well as philosophers distinguishes interesting notions; existence is at one familiar and rather elusive’ work for various reasons. Every so often we vividly see ourselves as none existing, but the logic is to abdicate the minds from the realm of why we exist. It is probably now reasonably clear that the question of existence is inextricably intertwined with the question of ‘exists and epistemology’. Morality can be view as a code of values along axiology which is link as the guiding of man’s choices and actions. The choices and actions that determine our purpose and the course of life perpetuate how we detect discovering and defining what is life; Atlas Shrugged is the morality of being rational within self-interest. In this nation of self centered ideology where the upcoming generations “morality” is taken to refer a crucial role in formulating ethical theories 11
  12. 12. Philosophy P10100982 12 without any boundaries. A society might have a morality that is primarily concerned with practices not related to whether other persons are harmed, but rather with what they regard as necessary for purity or sanctity. The Business World Who are the exploiter and the exploited? In today’s business world the enthusiasts’ of alternative business prepositions has increase in this millennium. Today bids, mergers, acquisitions and disposals involving European, U.S. and Asian companies are reported on a daily basis; while some are moving quickly into bankruptcy if deemed necessary. This is the 21st century that we are in perhaps in (Rand 1957), Atlas Shrugged had similar experiences during that era. In these post Enron days of corporate scandal, some of the millions of CEO’s are reaching out to (Rand, 1957, Atlas Shrugged) that have been around since over 45 years. Like Taggart, Rearden and Stadler in (Rand 1957) CEO’s in our society today strive to be real-life achievers who do far more to lift the world's standard of living. “Money is the material shape of the principle that men who wish to deal with one another must deal by trade and give value for value” (Rand, 1957, p. 410).In order to better utilize resources many companies around the world are capitalizing. It is always a belief that many people think that money is the root of all evil? Have you ever asked what the root of money is? Money is a tool of exchange, which can't exist unless there are goods produced and men able to produce them. Money is the material shape of the principle that men who wish to deal with one another must deal by trade and give value for value. Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears or of the looters, who take it from you by force. 12
  13. 13. Philosophy P10100982 13 Concluding Remarks In conclusion, Ayn Rand (1957) enlightened ferocious defense to society is reinforced by the boundaries of objectivist and the significance of an economy which has gone through the realms of changes. References Jones, Del, USA Today, Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/companies/management Kritsonis, W. A. (2005). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, Texas National Forum Journal Rand, A. (1957). Atlas Shrugged. (pp. 410, 611, 609, 928, 929) New York: Penguin Putnam. Rand, A. (1964). The virtues of selfishness. New York: Penguin Putnam. 13
  14. 14. Philosophy P10100982 14 The Impact of Ayn Rand Cynicism Legacy and Ethics in Educational Leadership P1010092 ABSTRACT Ayn Rand was a major intellectual giant in the discipline of philosophy. During the 1930’s her thoughts and perception revolutionize the way we think and act out our moral conduct. Her philosophy is presented in the Aristotelian tradition with emphasis on metaphysical, naturalism, empirical reasoning in epistemology and self realization of our ethical values. This article will explore the following six philosophical thoughts: 1. Ethical Theory 2.Reason and Ethics 3. Objectivist Ethics 4.Ethics at work 5. Ethics of Emergency 6.Collectivized Ethics and 6. Aristotle view on Ethics. 14
  15. 15. Philosophy P10100982 15 Introduction Leader's moral duty expresses the proposing ethical dilemmas that articulate and mundane policies and structures that generalize precedents and connectedness that may have hidden ethical implications. Educational leaders are faced with a unique set of ethical demands and virtues that are most important and influential when articulating the vision or ideological goals. In our society today, there are some persons who have no regards for their ethical and moral standards. Intrinsically, would it be perceived ethical to employ a friend as a departmental administrative assistant who has the lowest score on a pre - interview test? If your friend’s child is enrolled in your department and has failed a particular class would you give that student a passing grade? When is it a good time as an educational leader for you to behave in an ethical manner? According to Ayn Rand’s perception of ethics, it can be rationalized as one’s self interest that is based on her view points to liberate the virtues of ethics. Purpose of the Article The purpose of this article is to discuss ethics and how it relates to Ayn Rand philosophical view and its impact on educational leadership and the impact on peoples lives . Ethics can be seen as a moral principle as it encompasses one’s value which relates to human conduct. The focus will be to reveal the different aspects of how educational leaders view ethics in the past and in the present. In order to address these issues the following topics will be explored: Ethical Theory, Reason and Ethics, Objectivist Ethics, Ethics at Work, Ethics of Emergencies, Collectivized Ethics and Aristotle views on Ethics. Ethical Theory 15
  16. 16. Philosophy P10100982 16 One of the most universal questions in educational leadership is what relationship factor exist between ethics as it relates to educational leadership. These contributing status quo branches include meta-ethics, normative ethics, applied ethics, moral psychology, and descriptive ethics and how each relates to the moral dimension of leadership. Ethics is a code of values that rationally guide one’s choices and his/her actions. It is an objective, metaphysical necessity for a man’s survival. Educational leadership prepositions that proper ethics gives practical guidance to help people think and direct their lives. It also aids one to define and attain his/her values, goals, and happiness. Everyone needs ethics because it is a virtue for survival. The telos of ethics is ones’ own survival and happiness. The realm of ethics includes those matters that are potentially under a man’s control. A man’s uncoerced volition is necessary to have an objective theory of morality. In essence, when an educational leader discovers ethics hypercritically it can be only through a volitional process of reason. Ayn Rand's (1964) book entitled The Virtue of Selfishness matches an equally provocative thesis about ethics. Ethics has always been seen as self interest and praising acts that are selfless in intent and calling a moral or immoral act that are motivated by self interest. Rand's ethic of self interest can be viewed as an integral to her advocacy of classical liberalism. Rand’s ethics identifies the good and bad according to the rational standard of value of an individual. Rand’s “Objectivist Ethics” focuses on what is, in reality, good or best for each unique individual human being (Rand, 1964). Such an ethics is rational, objective, and personal. Accordingly, an individual’s goal should be to become the best possible person in the context of who and what he/she is and of what is possible for that person. Rand further postulates that objective and contextual knowledge, including ethical knowledge, can be obtained through rational means. 16
  17. 17. Philosophy P10100982 17 Reason and Ethics Reason is man’s only proper judge of values and his only method to guide him to make a mental judgment. We live our lives as humans and our capacity for reason is what enables us to survive and flourish. We were not born knowing what is good for us; that is learned. On the other hand, we are born knowing how to achieve what is good or bad for us as an individual. There is still an issue of primacy; namely, is reason and should reason be the ultimate judge of moral actions? Many would surely say that it ought to be, but too frequently it is not. Emotion and desire overtake the moral agent in far too many cases where calm reason would have been more appropriate. Rand (1964), advocates rational self interest: one's interests are not whatever one happens to feel like; rather it is by reason that one identifies what is to one's interest and what is not. By the use of reason one takes into account all of the factors they can identify such as the consequences of potential courses of action, and adopts principled policies of action. Independence and integrity are also core virtues for Rand's account of self interest. Given that one must think and act by one's own efforts, being committed to the policy of independent action is a virtue. Given that one must both identify what is to one's interests and act to achieve them, a policy of being committed to acting on the basis of one's beliefs is the virtue of integrity. According to Rand (1964), policy of believing one thing and doing another is of course the vice of hypocrisy and self-destruction. Objectivist Ethics The Objectivist ethics is a subset of the Objectivist philosophy formulated by Ayn Rand (1964). Rand, 1964, p. 33) defined "ethics" as "a code of values to guide man's choices and 17
  18. 18. Philosophy P10100982 18 actions that determine the purpose and the course of life." She refers to the Objectivist ethics in particular as "selfishness," as reflected in the title of her primary book on ethics, “The Virtue of Selfishness”. Rand did not use the term in a negative connotations that it usually has, but to refer to a form of rational egoism. “Objectivism” is a philosophy developed by Ayn Rand (1964) in the 20th century that encompasses positions on metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics, and aesthetics. The Objectivist ethics proudly advocates and upholds rational selfishness which means the values required for man’s survival qua man (Rand, 1964, p. 34). “Objectivism” maintains that human beings cannot act automatically to further their own survival. For man, the conceptual faculty is his tool for any form of survival. The Objectivist ethics holds man’s life as the standard of value and his own life as the ethical purpose of every individual man (Rand, 1964, p. 27). According to Kritsonis (2005), the ethical language is used to alter feelings and behavior, so as to produce more harmonious satisfaction of desires and interest. Objectivist ethics is “the morality of life and that the ethical theory has brought the world to its present state”. (Rand, 1964, p. 37). In our society today in comparison to the past, most philosophers will agree that the ultimate standard of ethics is whim; meaning arbitrary postulate or emotional commitment. As individuals we must agree that ethics is a subjective issue and that in our modern society we must challenge the ethical histories which exist. In metaphysics, the view that reality is so often dependent on human consciousness integrates one philosophical view of the objectivist ethics. 18
  19. 19. Philosophy P10100982 19 Ethics at Work The philosophical view of human regarding ethics can often be seen as contradicting. More so, in our society individuals’ work for various reasons. Every so often we vividly see ourselves in positions within work environments that are quite comprehensive and empirical. Ayn Rand (1964) contends that the emotions in order to pay off in the coin of happiness must be programmed correctly. The moral and necessity of being ethical in our work is irrational and incoherent. In addressing the philosophical ethics in ones’ daily work life, the ambiguous swindle of altruists becomes induce and daring. For example, at a particular HBCU university there was a job vacancy in a department. The job was advertised by the Human Resource Department and five persons applied for the job. All of the five applicants were interviewed for the job. Prior, to the applicants selection for the interview one of the requirement was to complete a skills typing test. The interview process was completed, but the selection committee members were brief about one of the participants. The person selected for the job had the lowest score on the skills typing test. The empirical results indicated that the person selected for the job had very close relationship with the hiring department head. The morality of this is when this becomes ethical or unethical. The question to ask is when does ethics becomes real ethics in the work place. There is more dichotomizations and exhortation, but bad metaphysics doctrinates what Ayn Rand initialize ethics to be within us humans. Ethics of Emergencies Emergencies are unchangeable and not unexpected events within limited time and creates conditions under which human survival is impossible. In an emergency the primary goal is to combat the disaster and escape the danger to rectify normal conditions under which human 19
  20. 20. Philosophy P10100982 20 survival is feasible. “If a man accepts the ethics of altruism, he suffers in proportion to the degree of his acceptance” (Rand, 1964, sp. 49). For example, Phil is on Spring break with his family in the Cayman Island. Phil and his Dad decided to take a swim in the sea which is calm. Moments after they are far out at sea they suddenly realized that they are surrounded by several black head sharks. Phil who is an Olympian swimmer can swim much faster than his dad; his dad tells him to swim to shore to save his life. Moments later the sharks began to attack Phil dad, the life guards tried to rescue him but he was killed by the sharks prior to getting any assistance. The psychological result from such incident implicates that as individuals the subject of asking when it is ethical to save another person life in the case of an emergency becomes a reality. The results of altruism may be observed in the fact that a great many people approach the subject of ethics by asking such questions as: “Should one risk one’s life to help a man drowning” (Rand, 1964, p. 49). In our daily lives people tend to help those who are in need, however, it is important to differentiate when helping becomes unselfish or profoundly egoistic. The rational welfare of helping my son or daughter from drowning is no different from another person who helps his/her wife from drowning but panics then spends the rest of his or her life in loneliness. The altruist ethics is based on metaphysics that man by his very nature is helpless and doomed; emergencies, disasters and catastrophes are the norm to combat ones primary goal in an emergency (Rand, 1964). Collectivized Ethics The notion of collectivism presupposes that one is required to live for the benefit of a collective whole, such as a society. Under this system, certain policies are decreed as beneficial for the majority and are to be carried out at the expense of other individuals. It is by this principle 20
  21. 21. Philosophy P10100982 21 that public projects are instituted within a society, such as public health-care systems, welfare programs, and public parks. The ends of these projects are the benefits they provide to the majority; the means by which these projects are carried out are those produced by individuals through money, labor, and other means. Rand (1964) opposes the idea of collectivized ethics because it devalues individuals. The defense for advocates of indefinite global economic growth is that it is needed to eradicate collectivized ethics in our society. This argument is at best disingenuous by any reasonable assessment in terms of indulging in altruistic politics. Ethics are implemented in the psyche of a man as he learns to observe the events around him. Most of the times, ethics are planted in man's mind as a result of learned behavior. He is taught that to lie is wrong as a tenet of life. If he lies and is caught, then the punishment received is faulty and inconsistent. Collectivized ethics will also imply that the ethical perspectives of such a member is vivid and rancorously (Rand, 1964). Aristotle Views on Ethics Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences (“Richard Kant, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy”, n.d.). Aristotle views ethics as an order to improve peoples’ lives, and therefore its principal concern is the nature of human well-being. Aristotle follows Socrates and Plato in taking the virtues to be central to a well- lived life. Aristotle concept towards metaphysics is built around the progressive narrowing of the word being until its primary meaning was discovered. His first description required the one acting choose an action knowingly, out of a stable equilibrium of the soul, and for its own 21
  22. 22. Philosophy P10100982 22 sake. The knowing in question turned out to perceive things as they are, as a result of the habituation that clears our sight. Rand was greatly influenced by Aristotle work; Rand's greatest influence was Aristotle, especially Organon ("Logic"); she considered Aristotle the greatest philosopher. In particular, her philosophy reflects an Aristotelian epistemology and metaphysics both Aristotle and Rand argued that "there exists an objective reality that is independent of mind and that is capable of being known. Although Rand was ultimately critical of Aristotle's ethics, others have noted her egoistic ethics "is of the eudaemonistic type, close to Aristotle's own. The greatest distinction is that Rand epistemology did however conflict with Aristotle's at least on some level. Ayn Rand work is often praised for her reflection on the philosophy of her predecessor. She agreed with most aspects of his ethics accept for one crucial concept, the fact the he did not specifically plot an “ought to” list for individuals; thus, Aristotle does not tell his readers what is “morally right.” Rand expounds upon this by formulating a “scientific process” for individuals to achieve eudaimonia. Rand discredits Aristotle’s position that the ultimate life and ultimate happiness are only reachable by a select few by explaining that her method is equally attainable by all (Rand 1964). Concluding Remarks In conclusion, Ayn Rand philosophy of ethics gives defining and attaining values. Her philosophy is that ethics and morals are judged in relation to achieving specific ends with the final end being an individual’s life or flourishing. The act of deciding necessitates the investigation of how our action pertains to what is ethical for one’s own life. 22
  23. 23. Philosophy P10100982 23 References Ayn Rand encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/r/rand.htm Kraut, Richard, Aristotle’s Ethics, Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristole-ethics/ Kritsonis, W. A. (2005). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, Texas National Forum Journal Rand, A. (1964). The virtues of selfishness. New York: Penguin Putnam. Liberalism vs Objectivism. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://www.ojectivistcenter.org/cth-32-2119_qa.aspx 23
  24. 24. Philosophy P10100982 24 Providing Postmodernism Strategies As It Relates To Leadership & Change in the Jamaican Educational System P1010092 ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to make suggestions on implementing Fenwick W. English recommendations for Postmodernism for school administrators. Postmodernism isn’t about replacing one version of truth or science with another. It is about challenging and opening up the central premise that sets borders (English 2003, p. 3). Utilizing the post- modernistic approach towards education in Jamaica is the beginning to how the integrated education system can be interlocked. Introduction Postmodernism is the prevailing factors that theorizes within educational administration which is theoretical, that is, it proffers no theory to center any specific practice, but rather it is open to consider all claims and the theories define and supported (English 2003, p. 3). Postmodernism is not just a philosophical movement it has such features as the challenging of convention, the mixing of styles, tolerance of ambiguity, the emphasis on diversity, acceptance of innovation and change, and stress of contractedness. Postmodernism is the discourse 24
  25. 25. Philosophy P10100982 25 providing a broader focus for administrators and institution. The difference and similarity erupting from processes of institutions and the accelerating circulation that focuses on learning and the increasingly dense and frequent cross-cultural interactions, and the unavoidable intersections of knowledge. Purpose of the Article The purpose of this article is to provide postmodernism strategies which can be implemented by administrators in the Jamaican educational school system. Postmodernist have developed a special kind of vocabulary where words and phrases represent peculiar references which mark discourse (English 2003, p. 6). As English had demonstrated, it is distinctly evident that the rich body of literature developed in Jamaican language patois is an example of their usage in sentences. Therefore, the focus will be to address the following topics: Discipline for students, Safety of students, Motivating students, Classroom structure for students, School Culture, Building Classroom Communities, Improving student learning, Conflict Resolution, and Student Retention. Discipline for Students It is my belief that in Jamaica some schools are under administered and under led. The department of education administrators should be accountable for the conditions and be engaged in strategies in having the educational system knowledge base and embodied in a paradox postmodern enshrined. The most rudimentary requirements for improving discipline for students with the offset of school administrators structuring and conceptualizing postmodernism denominates the principles of discipline. 25
  26. 26. Philosophy P10100982 26 The understanding and discourse on student discipline in Jamaican schools focuses on standards and the control of students. The importance of education in a postmodernist’s world places emphasis on the teacher /student relationship as well as the feelings about school and its importance. Trust is a critical aspect for student discipline because this helps to achieve learning and organize behavior. The incipient behavior of students challenges authority to nipping the behavior in the bud. Some instances, students will react to the behavior of other students, but control with a moral basis is very critical. Modernism has depersonalized and dehumanized schools and the leaders who inhabit them by robbing them of any voice or morality or moral values (English, 2003, p. 28). Student discipline continues to be a major concern of the general public in Jamaica with the students in public as well as private schools. The problem of student discipline is especially acute in an age of accountability and it does have an impact on the learning administered through the nation’s schools. As English indicate” educational administration will have to push the decentered human and morality back from the margins into a more dynamic view that leaders are storytellers (English, 2003, p. 29). Therefore, the underlying effect to curve discipline within the Jamaican schools lies with the ministry of education administrators and the transformation of a multi paradigmatic approach in a wide variety of breakthroughs to conceptualize change within a postmodern era. Safety of Students As soon as children enter the school grounds their safety and security is one of the administrators’ priorities. The Ministry of Education Department must be committed to ensuring a safe and happy environment for each child attending school. This safe learning environment has to be maintained by a range of strategies designed to prevent violence and promote positive 26
  27. 27. Philosophy P10100982 27 relationships including: programs on conflict resolution, peer support, anti-racism programs, anti-discrimination and harassment programs, student leadership and mediation training programs. The postmodern school must be free from bullying and harassment. A national movement to get parents/caregivers involved and urged them to immediately report cases of bullying or harassment to the school administrators is legendary. All schools must create and have discipline policies which outline the consequences for those who bully or harass in any hidden form or fashion. The attitude of establishing interchangeability of humans in our schools should call for a collaborative need that contains on-site security systems and procedures. The case of becoming vulnerable and congruent is somewhat a discourse for school administrators in Jamaica. It will be important for the students to be safe in their environment and in order to formulate the patterns as administrators we need to conduct criminal record checks on all permanent and casual teachers who seek employment with the Ministry of Education. The ability to negotiate and make the necessary arrangements with other agencies and the education systems to prevent pedophiles from getting teaching jobs in our schools is relevant. Motivating Students In general some students seem naturally enthusiastic about learning, but many need or expect their teachers to inspire, challenge, and stimulate them: Effective learning in the classroom depends on the teacher's ability to maintain the interest that brought students to school. Whatever level of motivation the students bring to the classroom will be transformed, for better or worse, by what happens in that classroom. The Ministry of Education administrators have to advocate for teachers to engage all students by providing positive reinforcements that are frequent, simple, and easy to implement. 27
  28. 28. Philosophy P10100982 28 Motivation clearly is a part of a web of factors determining behavior and involving many processes. In considering motivation we must take into account the motives or feelings in that person that are important for learning in school. These include anxiety, curiosity, the need to achieve, motives of self-expression and self-enhancement, and physiological drives such as hunger and thirst. Raising awareness of the issues of hunger, poverty and their impact on the Jamaican students is a primary goal for the commitment to improving the quality of life in this country educational system. It will be inherited to reconsider that the empirical content demonstrated in the Jamaican school systems that there is no single way for motivating all of students. Motivation for these students is usually separated in two different categories; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. These are related to the goal orientation of the student because the intrinsic motivation is determined by an interest in learning and mastery, curiosity and preference for challenge that will lead to the student mastery goal orientation. The postmodernism principle of the extrinisic motivation is determined by the external rewards, money, teacher/parent approval and this will eventually lead to a performance goal orientation for these students. The school administrator as the expert is empowered to do the things which are moral and liberating and these two types of motivation will therefore influence the type of learning and the strategies that the student will use. Classroom Structure for Students Many administrators, teachers and staff are operating schools in the same manner they did when they started in the system years ago. Modernism in schools according to (English 28
  29. 29. Philosophy P10100982 29 2003) can be viewed through a bureaucratic leadership. The theoretical concept was created by Frederick Taylor and his development of the scientific management workplace. The classroom structure in postmodernism undermines modernism for a valuable resource based on how the physical environment is organized to facilitate student success in learning. The educational administrator must understand that the classroom structure is vital and it is a powerful factor when setting up the environment for success by letting students know what is expected and what to do next. Classroom structure and curriculum takes into account the developmental stage of students also the concept of the self-contained classroom continues to influence the schedule and classroom organization. To propose the intuition that at the beginning of each school year it is expected that students will work together in small and large groups to achieve many learning objectives throughout the school year. In short the concept that educational administrator should start off right away on the first day of school building classroom structure in these effective schools. School Culture Jamaican culture signifies a rich combination of various traditions that have settled the island and the first Taino settlers. Language and culture vary enormously in the human realm and give compound, multiple meanings to the same phenomena (English, 2003, p. 13). Mitigating postmodern schools become more autonomous, they create new identities and establish unique school cultures. Postmodernism express the infuriating fact that the school’s culture is inextricably linked to classroom culture. School culture is the behind the scenes context that reflects the values, beliefs, norms, traditions, and rituals that build up over time as students in schools will work together. School culture is critical to understanding the dynamics behind any thriving community, and the deep structure of school life that holds the key to the main 29
  30. 30. Philosophy P10100982 30 catastrophic educational success. The postmodernity concept will analyze what kind of culture pervades your school. Many of which will sub rationalize whether the schools culture of students feeling like they are a family. One positive way to balance school culture, and then strive to improve it, is through the breakthroughs which are incorporated in improving the objectivity of modernizing the educational system. Building Classroom Communities Postmodernity does expand the idea of a community. It does open up the whole area of leadership to a broader perspective than has usually been the case (English, 2003, p. 26). Moving into a postmodern view every classroom, like every community, has its own distinct culture, values, and rules. In Jamaica children belong to many different communities whether it is a residential area or even in the ghetto. Once students enter into this knowledge base hierarchy no matter where they came from the building is pictured as a community in the classroom. The teachers should create a common and predictable cultural experience that will help these students feel connected to others no matter what the circumstances are. An important strategy which education administrators should note is that a community is built around the shared interests, values, and goals of its members. The postmodernist with theorize that the culture of your classroom community changes each year as children change and even in some cases you will change. In essence one year, you have may have a group of students who loves singing reggae songs, and you will make singing an important part of your classroom life. Another year, the students may be concerned about the welfare of those students who come to school without any shoe. The it that isn’t an it, postmodernism rejects the underpinnings of modernism (English 2003, p. 11). The issue of students without shoes becomes the focus of a long-term study. The reason to change within a 30
  31. 31. Philosophy P10100982 31 dominance period will tell from one year to the next what dominant interests or events will emerge and how students will define their classroom community and the content within. Improving Student Learning Different learning environments can be created in the classroom to help students learn better. Students need to be given opportunities to continually improve their skills and demonstrate knowledge; this can be accomplished through regular teacher feedback and encouragement. The educational administrative body will have to capitalize on student learning responds by proposing ambitious and extraordinary plans. They will systemized advances in research on learning and incorporate it into educational practices. Conflict Resolution Conflict resolution can be embraced as a key component to quality education. It is the responsibilities of the educational administrators to enforce conflict resolution programs that can help schools promote both the individual behavioral change necessary for responsible citizenship and the systemic change necessary for a safe learning environment. The postmodern prospective is critical and imbedded in conflict resolution skills which are essential to the life in schools, and the Jamaican communities. Student Retention The complex issue of student retention is a principal component of the access, retention postmodernism view that will gradually lead to the graduation mosaic and a few other issues in higher education generate as much interest, argument, and inquiry from inside and outside the academy. Some steps that can be taken towards student retention includes; calling students on the telephone if they are absent; make an appointment with them to discuss attendance, make-up 31
  32. 32. Philosophy P10100982 32 work; get feedback periodically from students, socialize with students as your "style" permits by attending their clubs or social activities, by having lunch with them, by walking with them between classes, conduct a personal interview with all students sometime during the semester, provide positive reinforcement whenever possible; give students a respectful answer to any question they might ask, listen intently to students' comments and opinions. Using a lateral thinking technique will add to ideas rather than dismissing them, students feel that their ideas, comments, and opinions are worthwhile. Be honest about your feelings, opinions, and attitudes toward students and toward the subject matter. Don't be afraid to admit that you don't know all the answers. If a student tells you something in confidence, respect that confidence. Avoid making value judgments (verbally or non-verbally) about these confidences. The epistemological shift will enhances student’s intellectual and personal growth and strengthens student’s connection with the Jamaican school system. Concluding Remarks In conclusion, the postmodern strategies demonstrated throughout this paper can be adopted by educators in the Jamaica educational system. The focus of changing and introducing vulnerable and philosophical support for the educational system in Jamaica which will help students with unthinkable breakthroughs. The daunting effect to translating and formulating the schools into a postmodern establishment can help the vision and techniques used in constructing encroached knowledge base structures. As indicated by Kritsonis he states that meanings are contained in arbitrary symbolic structures, with socially accepted rules of formation and transformation (Kritsonis, 2007, p.11). Therefore, incorporating this power knowledge principle and the empirical effects will help the dominated educational movement in this country. 32
  33. 33. Philosophy P10100982 33 .References English, F. (2003). The postmodern challenge to the theory and practice of educational administration. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas – Publisher, LTD. Kritsonis, W. A. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, Texas National Forum Journal 33