NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL, Volume 30, Number 2, 2013 - Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Editor-in-Chief - Website: www.nationalforum.com
NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNALVOLUME 30, NUMBER 2, 201330THE PRINCIPAL AS AN INSTRUCTIONALLEADERFred C. LunenburgSam Houston State UniversityABSTRACTThe principal’s primary responsibility is to promote the learning and success ofall students. In this article, I discuss how school principals can accomplish thisgoal by focusing on learning; encouraging collaboration; analyzing results;providing support; and aligning curriculum, instruction, and assessment.IntroductionDemands for greater accountability, especially appeals for theuse of more outcome-based measures, requires the principal to beinstruction oriented. Are the students learning? If the students are notlearning, what are we going to do about it? The focus on results; thefocus on student achievement; the focus on students learning at highlevels, can only happen if teaching and learning become the centralfocus of the school and the central focus of the principal (Blankstein,2010; Bulach, Lunenburg, & Potter, 2008).How can principals help teachers to clarify instructional goalsand work collaboratively to improve teaching and learning to meetthose goals? Principals need to help teachers shift their focus fromwhat they are teaching to what students are learning. We cannotcontinue to accept the premise that “I taught it; they just didn’t learnit.” The role of instructional leader helps the school to maintain afocus on why the school exists, and that is to help all students learn(Blase, Blase, & Phillips, 2010; Smylie, 2010).
31Shifting the focus of instruction from teaching to learning;forming collaborative structures and processes for faculty to worktogether to improve instruction; and ensuring that professionaldevelopment is ongoing and focused toward school goals are amongthe key tasks that principals must perform to be effective instructionalleaders in a professional learning community (Lunenburg & Irby,2006). This will require districtwide leadership focused directly onlearning. School principals can accomplish this by (1) focusing onlearning, (2) encouraging collaboration, (3) using data to improvelearning, (4) providing support, and (5) aligning curriculum,instruction, and assessment. Taken together, these five dimensionsprovide a compelling framework for accomplishing sustaineddistrictwide success for all children (Fullan, 2010; Lunenburg, 2003;Marzano & Waters, 2010).Focusing on LearningPrincipals can help shift the focus from teaching to learning ifthey insist that there are certain critical questions that are beingconsidered in that school, and principals are in a key position to posethose questions (DuFour, DuFour, & Eaker, 2008). What do we wantour students to know and be able to do? The focus in a professionallearning community is not on: Are you teaching, but are the studentslearning? How will you know if the students are learning? Thatpoints to student progress. How will we respond when students do notlearn? What criteria will we use to evaluate student progress? Howcan we more effectively use the time and resources available to helpstudents learn? How can we engage parents in helping our studentslearn? Have we established systematic collaboration as the norm inour school? These are the questions principals need to pose in order toshift the focus in schools from teaching to learning._____________________________________________________________FRED C. LUNENBURG
32 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION & SUPERVISION JOURNAL___Encouraging CollaborationA key task for principals is to create a collective expectationamong teachers concerning student performance. That is, principalsneed to raise the collective sense of teachers about student learning(DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, Karhanek, 2010). Then principals must workto ensure that teacher expectations are aligned with the school’sinstructional goals. Furthermore, principals need to eliminate teacherisolation so that discussions about student learning become acollective mission of the school (Elmore, 2005; Senge, 2001, 2006).Principals must develop and sustain school structures andcultures that foster individual and group learning. That is, principalsmust stimulate an environment in which new information andpractices are eagerly incorporated into the system. Teachers are morelikely to pursue their group and individual learning when there aresupportive conditions in the school, such as particularly effectiveleadership (English, 2008; Northouse, 2010). Schools where teacherscollaborate in discussing issues related to student learning are morelikely to be able to take advantage of internally and externallygenerated information. Teachers can become willing recipients ofresearch information if they are embedded in a setting wheremeaningful and sustained interaction with researchers occurs in anegalitarian context (Blankstein, Houston, & Cole, 2009).One popular collaboration structure is teacher teams. Schoolsare recognizing that teachers should be working together in teams asopposed to working individually in isolation in their classrooms. Highperforming teams will accomplish four different things (Smylie,2010): (1) They will clarify exactly what students should know and beable to do as a result of each unit of instruction. We know that ifteachers are clear on the intended results of instruction, they will bemore effective. (2) They will then design curriculum and shareinstructional strategies to achieve those outcomes. (3) They willdevelop valid assessment strategies that measure how well students areperforming. (4) Then they will analyze those results and work
_____________________________________________________________FRED C. LUNENBURG 33together to come up with new ideas for improving those results.Regular assessment and analysis of student learning are key parts ofthe team’s process.Using Data to Improve LearningHow can schools gauge their progress in achieving studentlearning? Three factors can increase a school’s progress in achievinglearning for all students (Blankstein, Houston, & Cole, 2010; Love,2009). The primary factor is the availability of performance dataconnected to each student. Performance data need to be broken downby specific objectives and target levels in the school curriculum. Thenthe school is able to connect what is taught to what is learned. Thecurriculum goals should be clear enough to specify what each teachershould teach. And an assessment measure, aligned with thecurriculum, will indicate what students have learned (Popham, 2010a,2010b). Also, teachers need access to longitudinal data on eachstudent in their classroom. With such data, teachers are able todevelop individual and small-group education plans to ensure masteryof areas of weakness from previous years while also moving studentsforward in the school curriculum.The second factor is the public nature of the assessmentsystem. Annually, the school district should publish a matrix ofschools and honor those schools that have performed at high levels.This provides role models for other schools to emulate. At the schooland classroom levels, it provides a blueprint of those areas whereteachers should focus their individual education plans (IEPs) andwhere grade levels or schools should focus the school’s professionaldevelopment plans. The public nature of the data from theaccountability system makes clear where schools are. Data should bedisaggregated by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Englishlanguage proficiency, and disability. Performance of each subgroup ofstudents on assessment measures makes the school community awareof which students are well served and which students are not well
34 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION & SUPERVISION JOURNAL___served by the school’s curriculum and instruction.The third factor in gauging progress toward achieving studentlearning is the specifically targeted assistance provided to schools thatare performing at low levels. Before the advent of accountabilitysystems, it was not evident which schools and students neededhelp (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008). The first step is to target theSchools in need of help based on student performance data. Eachtargeted school is paired with a team of principals, curriculumspecialists/instructional coaches, and researchers to observe currentpractices; discuss student performance data with staff; and assist in thedevelopment and implementation of an improvement plan. Thetargeted schools learn how to align their program of professionaldevelopment to the weaknesses identified by the data. They learn howto develop an improvement plan to guide their activities and monitorthe outcomes of the activities, all of which are designed to raisestudent performance levels.Next, once a team of teachers has worked together andidentified students who are having difficulty, then the school faces thechallenge of how they are going to respond to the students who are notlearning (Murphy, 2010). The challenge is not simply re-teaching inthe same way in which teachers taught before, but providing supportfor teachers to expand their repertoire of skills and providing supportand time for students to get additional assistance they need in order tomaster those skills. When students are not learning, principals mustinsure that professional development programs are in place to giveadditional support to teachers and intervention strategies are in placeto give additional support to students (Joyce & Calhoun, 2010).Providing SupportTeachers need to be provided with the training, teaching tools,and the support they need to help all students reach high performancelevels. Specifically, teachers need access to curriculum guides,
_____________________________________________________________FRED C. LUNENBURG 35textbooks, or specific training connected to the school curriculum.They need access to lessons or teaching units that match curriculumgoals. They need training on using assessment results to diagnoselearning gaps (Downey, Steffy, Poston, & English, 2009). Teachersmust know how each student performed on every multiple-choice itemand other questions on the assessment measure. And training must bein the teachers’ subject areas. Only then can teachers be prepared tohelp students achieve at high levels.In addition to professional development for teachers, allschools need an intervention and support system for students who lagbehind in learning the curriculum. Schools need to provide additionalhelp to students who lag behind in core subjects, either in school, afterschool, on weekends, or during the summer. Boards of education andschool superintendents need to supply the financial resources to fulfillthis mandate. This involves acquiring materials, information, ortechnology; manipulating schedules or release time to createopportunities for teachers to learn; facilitating professional networks;and creating an environment that supports school improvement efforts(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008).A focus on student learning usually means changes incurriculum, instruction, and assessment - that is, changes in teaching.The history of school reform indicates that innovations in teaching andlearning seldom penetrate more than a few schools and seldom endurewhen they do (Elmore, 2005). Innovations frequently fail because theindividuals who make it happen - those closest to the firing line -classroom teachers, may not be committed to the effort or may nothave the skills to grapple with the basic challenge being posed (Fullan,Hill, & Crevola 2006; Fullan & St. Germain, 2006). Principals need toinsure that teachers have the skills to help all students perform at highlevels.
36 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION & SUPERVISION JOURNAL___Aligning Curriculum, Instruction, and AssessmentPrincipals need to ensure that assessment of student learning isaligned with both the school’s curriculum and the teachers’ instruction(English, 2000; Popham, 2010a). When they are well constructed andimplemented, assessment can change the nature of teaching andlearning. They can lead to a richer, more challenging curriculum;foster discussion and collaboration among teachers within and acrossschools; create more productive conversations among teachers andparents; and focus stakeholders’ attention on increasing studentachievement.For curriculum goals to have an impact on what happens inclassrooms, they must be clear. When school districts, administrators,and students are held accountable for results, more specificity isneeded in implementing the curriculum. In a high-stakesaccountability environment, teachers require that the curriculumcontain enough detail and precision to allow them to know what thestudents need to learn.Professional learning communities attempt to align theirassessment measures with their curriculum. English (2000) encouragesschools to consider three principles in this endeavor. First,assessments not based on the curriculum are neither fair nor helpful toparents or students. Schools that have developed their own assessmentmeasures have done a good job of ensuring that the content of theassessment can be found in the curriculum. That is, children will notbe assessed on knowledge and skills they have not been taught. Thisis what Fenwick English refers to as “the doctrine of no surprises.”However, the same is not true when schools use generic, off-the-shelfstandardized tests. Such tests cannot measure the breadth and depth ofthe school’s curriculum. Second, when the curriculum is rich andrigorous, the assessments must be as well. Assessments must tap boththe breadth and depth of the content and skills in the curriculum.Third, assessments must become more challenging in each successivegrade. The solid foundation of knowledge and skills developed in the
_____________________________________________________________FRED C. LUNENBURG 37early grades should evolve into more complex skills in the latergrades.If one accepts the premise that assessment drives curriculumand instruction, perhaps the easiest way to improve instruction andincrease student achievement is to construct better assessments(Popham, 2010a, 2010b; Yeh, 2001). According to Yeh (2001), it ispossible to design force-choice items (multiple-choice items) that testreasoning and critical thinking. Such assessments could requirestudents to use facts, rather than recall them. And questions couldelicit content knowledge that is worth learning.To prepare students to think critically, teachers could teachchildren to identify what is significant. Teachers could model thecritical thinking process in the classroom, during instruction, throughassignments, in preparing for assessments, and in the content of theassessment itself. By aligning content with worthwhile questions incore subject areas, it may be possible to rescue assessment andinstruction from the current focus on the recall of trivial factualknowledge. Assessment items could be created for a range of subjectsand levels of difficulty. Then there would be little incentive forteachers to drill students on factual knowledge.ConclusionThe instructional leadership of the principal is a critical factorin the success of a school’s improvement initiatives and the overalleffectiveness of the school. The primary responsibility of the principalis to promote the learning and success of all students. Schoolprincipals can accomplish this goal by focusing on learning,encouraging collaboration, using data to improve learning, providingsupport, and aligning curriculum, assessment, and instruction.
38 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION & SUPERVISION JOURNAL___REFERENCESBlankstein, A. M. (2010). Failure is not an option: 6 principles formaking student success the only option (2nd ed.). ThousandOaks, CA: Sage.Blankstein, A. M., Houston, P. D., & Cole, R. W. (2008). Sustainingprofessional learning communities. Thousand Oaks, CA:Corwin Press.Blankstein, A. M., Houston, P. D., & Cole, R. W. (2009). Buildingsustainable leadership capacity. Thousand Oaks, CA: CorwinPress.Blankstein, A. M., Houston, P. D., & Cole, R. W. (2010). Dataenhanced leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Blase, J., Blase, J., & Phillips, D. Y. (2010). Handbook of schoolimprovement: How high-performing principals create high-performing schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Bulach, C., Lunenburg, F. C., & Potter, L. (2008). Creating a culturefor high-performing schools: A comprehensive approach toschool reform. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., Poston, W. K., & English, F. W. (2009).50 ways to close the achievement gap (3rd ed.). ThousandOaks, CA: Corwin Press.DuFour, R., DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (2008). Revisiting professionallearning communities at work: New insights for improvingschools. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Karhanek, G. (2010). Raisingthe bar and closing the gap: Whatever it takes. Bloomington,IN: Solution Tree.Elmore, R. F. (2005). School reform from the inside out: Policy,practice, and performance. Boston, MA: Harvard EducationPublishing Group.English, F. W. (2000). Deciding what to teach and test: Developing,aligning, and auditing the curriculum. Thousand Oaks, CA:Corwin Press.English, F. W. (2008). The art of educational leadership: Balancingperformance and accountability. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
_____________________________________________________________FRED C. LUNENBURG 39Fullan, M. (2010). All systems go: The change imperative for wholesystem reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Fullan, M., Hill, P., Crevola, C. (2006), Breakthrough. ThousandOaks, CA: Corwin Press.Fullan, M. & St. Germain, C. (2006). Learning places: A field guidefor improving the schooling. Thousand Oaks, CA: CorwinPress.Joyce, B, & Calhoun, E. (2010). Models of professional development:A celebration of educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Love, N. (2009). Using data to improve learning: A collaborativeinquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Lunenburg, F. C., & Carr, C. S. (2003). Shaping the future: Policy,partnerships, and perspectives. Lanham, MD: Rowman &Littlefield.Lunenburg, F. C., & Irby, B. J. (2006). The principalship: Vision toaction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. O. (2008). Educationaladministration: Concepts and practices (5th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth/Cengage.Marzano, R. J., & Waters, T. (2010). District leadership that works:Striking the right balance. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.Murphy, J. (2010). The educator’s handbook for understanding andclosing achievement gaps. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership: Theory and practice (5th ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Popham, W. J. (2010a). Educational assessment: What school leadersneed to know. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Popham, W. J. (2010b). Classroom assessment: What teachers need toknow. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice HallSenge, P. M. (2001). Schools that learn. New York, NY: Doubleday.Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of thelearning organization (revised ed.). New York, NY:Currency/Doubleday.Smylie, M. A. (2010). Continuous school improvement. ThousandOaks, CA: Corwin Press.
40 NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION & SUPERVISION JOURNAL___Yeh, S. S. (2001). Tests worth teaching to: Constructing state-mandated tests that emphasize critical thinking. EducationalResearcher, 30, 12-17.Reprinted with permission from National FORUM Journals, Houston,TX
80AUTHORSFollowing is a list of the authors published in this issue. We encourage youto contact any author(s) and establish a dialogue to give positive feedbackabout the article.Casey Graham BrownDept. Educational LeadershipTexas A&M University-CommerceP.O. Box 3011Commerce, TX 75429-3011Kriss Kemp-GrahamDept. Educational LeadershipTexas A&M University-CommerceP.O. Box 3011Commerce, TX 75429-3011JoHyun KimDept. Educational LeadershipTexas A&M University-CommerceP.O. Box 3011Commerce, TX 75429-3011Fred C. LunenburgDept. Educational LeadershipSam Houston State UniversityP.O. Box 2119Huntsville, TX 77341-2119Robert SteeberRegion XI Education Service Center3001 North FreewayFort Worth, TX 76106Adrian VegaEctor County ISD802 N. Sam HoustonOdessa, TX 79761
81NFEAS JOURNALNATIONAL ALUMNI HONOR ROLL OF PUBLISHED WRITERSCharles M. Achilles (15)*Glenn AckerMichele Acker-Hocevar (2)Charles F. AdamsSam Adams (2)Roselia Alaniz (2)Scott AllenLeonard L. AmburgeyNeil G. Amos (2)Bobby D. AndersonRobert H. Anderson (5)John O. Andes (3)Tracy AndrusRichard L. AndrewsVincent A. Anfara, Jr.Kirk S. AnkeneyJeffery P. AperCharles T. Araki (3)John D. ArmstrongPenny S. ArnoldShundra Arrington-WarrenElvis H. ArterburyGarth J. BabcockJohn S. Backes (2)Kenny BadenRichard A. BaggettCristian BahrimGeorge W. BaileyMax A. Bailey (2)Sandra S. Bailey (2)Dr. H.P. BainCarol E. BakerBrian D. BarnhartDavid E. BartzMargaret R. BasomLori A. BeachJack L. BealI.R. Bearden (2)Mary Jo Beck (3)Edgar H. Bedenbaugh (2)James A. BelascoEdwin D. BellAlfredo H. BenavidesEphraim Ben BaruchPatricia A. BennettVince BenoitRichard L. BergMichael J. BersonAuthella M. BessentE. Wailand BessentLoren E. BetzSharon I. BevinsDavid A Binder (2)Harold L. Bishop (2)J.M. Blackbourn (10)Richard Blackbourn (22)Amy L. BlantonJoseph J. Blasé (2)Jack BlendingerGerald R. Boardman (3)Gordon C. BobbettBrian D. BoeseMatthew BogganJames T. BoldingRex W. BolingerSheila Strike-BollaDiane BootheJohn BorbaArthur Borgemenke (2)Richard Thomas BothelDaniel J. BoudahLynn K. BradshawEd BrandGary V. BransonJason BreauxFrank C. BrocatoBarbara BrockJames D. BrodzinskiLesley H. Browder, Jr.Casey G. Brown (2)Genevieve BrownGilbert C. BrownJohn A. Brown (3)Kathleen M. BrownMichelle BrownRic BrownKimberly Brown-HeadrickDale BrubakerMartha BrucknerDarlene Y. BrunerMiles T. Bryant (3)Robert Buchanan (4)Janiece BuckDennis BunchDaryl V. BurckelI. Emett Burnett, Jr. (4)Amy Burkman (2)Steven BuschBeth A. ButlerRonald ByrdGerald J. CalaisJames CampbellJanis CampbellJoseph P. Cangemi (4)James L. CappsRichard A. CappsEllen M. Caprio (2)Chris CaremH.H. CarpenterDan B. CarrJohn C. CarrDixie CarwileHolly B. CaseyRussell N. Cassel (2)William B. Castetter (11)Daniel P. CawdreyTony W. CawthonCevat CelepDavid Center (2)Stephanie ChaffinsLynne Chalmers (2)John D. Chamley (2)Edward W. Chance (10)Patti L. ChancePaul Chapman (2)Donna CharltonLaDonna ChildersRonald B. ChildressGrace Butler Chisolm* Indicates number of times published in NFEAS JOURNAL
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83NFEAS JOURNALNATIONAL ALUMNI HONOR ROLL OF PUBLISHED WRITERSHarold E. Fuqua, Jr.MaryAnn C. GainesKaren S. Gallagher (2)R.J. GallagherOlga Flores GarciaA. Warren GarrettJessica Garrett-Staib (3)Gene GeisertWilliam Georgia (2)W. Gregory Gerick (2)Chhanda GhoseFrederick John Gies (5)Michael B. GilbertKelly GillespieThomas E. GlassClement Glenn (2)Ernest R. Goeres (2)Eugene L. GolandaKeith GoldhammerDeborah GonzalezLuz E. GonzalezJohnny L. GoodJohn I. Goodlad (2)Dorothea GordonJudith R. GordonWilliam M. GordonRichard A. GortonFara M. GoulasMarvin W. GouldMarilyn L. Grady (6)*Patricia L. GrahamS. Penny GrayBernal L. GreenEdward T. GreenMarci Greene (4)Bobbie Jean GreenleeKimberly G. GriffithRonald GrossSteven J. GrossRoslin GroweCharles W. GuditusRobert D. GuilloryBruce GunnLorraine J. GuthJohn W. GuytonBill HallBrandi HallJ. Floyd HallMichael L. HallDean Halverson (4)M. K. HamzaHerbert M. HandleyDwight HareRichard A. HartnettE. Jean Harper (2)Benjamin M. Harris (3)L.A. HarrisPatricia Simms HarrisonKaren E. HartLynn HartleRichard HartnettJan E. HasbrouckHamid HassanKevin HatchPamela A HaviceBree A. HayesKaren HayesRichard L. HayesStephen P. HencleyLaVelle HendricksRegina P. HendrixMargaret R. Heeney (2)Beverly A. HeimannRichard S. HeislerLula J. HenryWilma J. HenryChuck HermanDouglas HermondDavid Herrington (2)Stephenie M. HewettReggie HighBeverly HillLarry W. HillmanChantell W. HinesMack T. Hines III (2)Charles HinmanMaria HinojosaJoe Ann HinrichsMarilyn A. HirthJ. Gardner Hobbs (2)Tim HobbsLisa D. Hobson(1)Patricia Hoffman-MillerMitch HolifieldDavid HolmanBrandi Holt (2)H. H. HooperMary Ann HootenDianne D. HorganJulie E. HorineLinda HouckJane B. HuffmanChristopher HughesTeresa A. Hughes (2)William HughesWilliam HunterCharlotte HutchensJames W. HynesJoanne InghamBeverly J. IrbyElmer J. Ireton (4)Madelyn Isaacs (2)Richard E. IshlerAlmeda R. JacksRoy L. JacobsSuzanne G. James (2)Teresa JayroeThomas JeffreyMargaret JenkinsKathleen S. JenneyRicardo JerezPing JiKent F. JohansenAnnabel M. Johnson (2)Judy A. JohnsonMargaret M. JohnsonShirley JohnsonWilliam L. Johnson (3)April Jones* Indicates number of times published in NFEAS JOURNAL
84__________________________________________________________________NFEAS JOURNALNATIONAL ALUMNI HONOR ROLL OF PUBLISHED WRITERSDon Jones (7)Linda T. JonesTeresa JordanMonday T. JoshuaMohammad KabbaniBrad KahrsJoseph A. Kariotis (2)Daniele KassKatherine L. Kasten (2)Jerry KasterMalcolm KatzBarbara KeanW. Sean Kearney (2)John Keedy (2)JoAnn KelloggKriss Kemp-GrahamAlbert L. Kennard (2)Thomas A. KerstenLloyd C. Kilmer (3)JoHyun Kim (2)Dan L. King (2)David I. KinmanLloyd KinnisonCatherine J. KirklandJune A. KischAnn G. KleinColleen KleinMary Alice KleinRhonda KlineStephen J. Knezevich (2)Dianne M. KochambaGeorgianna L. KoenigJohn W. KohlRobert B. KottkampBruce W. Kowalski (3)Casimir J. KowalskiTheodore J. KowalskiThomas L. Krepel (3)William J. KritekMary Alice Kritsonis (4)William Kritsonis (95)Bernita KrummLori KupczynskiSherry A. LahrR.M. LalikJames La PlantY.L. Jack Lam (4)Michael LangenbachGayle A. LangisNan LangowitzRaymond F. LattaJames D. Laub (5)*Paul A. Leary (6)Linda LaBauve LeBertTheresa LeeDonald K. LemonBarbara LeonardRex LeonardB. Charles LeonardLeon M. LessingerPaula E. LesterJoel M. LevineRafael LewyCarol N. LigonClaudette Merrell LigonsH. Edward LilleyEdward R. Lilly (3)Ronald A. LindahlElizabeth C. LindebergJimmy D. LindseyDaniel LippyWalter ListonChing-Jen LiuMartha J. Livingston (2)Ann LockledgeJudith LoredoGary LounsberryTerry L. LovelaceOtis LoVetteGuat Tin LowDonald C. LuederFred C. Lunenburg (2)James E. LyonsJames E. MacAlisterFaith MacMurtrieAngus J. MacNeilCleborne D. MadduxRichard P. ManattTerri L. MangioneRobert M. Maninger (2)Nicholas MansorTom ManyJay MarinoFrank W. Markus (5)Robert L. Marshall (19)James A. MartinSharon B. MartinJohn Jay MarinoRoderick R. Matheson (2)Myrna Matranga (4)Lewis B. Mayhew (2)Melissa McBrideCathy McCaffreyBob McCaigLinda McCallWill E. McCarther (2)Donna McCawDebra Ray McCartney-SimonJohn McCartySusan McClellandJohnny E. McGahaJames O. McDowelleCharles S. McElroy (2)Mildred L. McGeeMichael C. McKennaDonna McLaughlinLarry McNealLinda MorfordMarlene J. MorganRichard Meckley (4)Robert L. MedcalfCharles MeisgeierRobbie Kendall-MeltonAllen MenloNorma T. MertzPhillip E. MessnerJim MezaGeorge Michel (4)Eva MidobucheJohn W. Miller* Indicates number of times published in NFEAS JOURNAL
85NFEAS JOURNALNATIONAL ALUMNI HONOR ROLL OF PUBLISHED WRITERSLaura K. MillerRobert MillwardClydie K. MitchellBob MoawadJanet MonroeDianne S. MonteithCynthia MontgomeryPaula MontgomeryWilliam G. Monahan (2)R. Wayne MondyLamar Moody (3)Rock D. MooreMada Kay MoreheadMisti M. MorganNancy T. MorrisStanton MorrisRhonda Collins MortonMonte C. MosesMary MosleyLynn Moss(1)Anthony MuhammadSharon MukesCarole Heitman Murphy (2)Richard K. MurrayJudith NelsonJorge O. NelsonClyde NewmillerEverett NicholsonLautrice NicksonMary NichterDiane M. NiederriterHarold L. NixonDavid NoonanDonald M. NormanSharon Jenkins NormanCynthia J. Norris (3)Ellen Elms NotarAnna Dimy NguyenBarbara A. Nye (2)Celeste OakesFidelis E. OboRodney T. OgawaKaren OkeaforPeter F. OlivaCharleen B. OlliffMyrna R. Olson (2)Roger G. OlstadWm. James O’Neill (3)Carolyn L. O’Rourke (2)Joseph J. OrzeNick OsborneJoseph Pacha (3)Anita M. Pankake (2)Carol PanzerRosemary Papalwis (6)Bobby PapasanMarjorie L. PappasLouis V. ParadiseFred R. ParkerDavid J. Parks (2)John J. PatersonEstelle Pau-on-LauJames S. Payne (2)*Kay E. PayneHugh I. PeckBarbara PedersenJeffrey PedersenBarry A. PelphreyGary L. Peltier (3)Rebecca Robles-Piña (2)Gus PenixJenny PenlandRobin PerezGeorge PerreaultRichard P. PerryChris L. Peters (2)Arthur L. PetterwayLonnie PhelpsVicki Bohling-PhilippiWilliam K. Poston, Jr.Judy C. PierceWilliam E. PilandDonald L. Piper (2)Janet L. PladsonMarsha A. PlaykoJudith A. PonticellSusan G. Praeger (3)Doris PraterVincent PresnoJewel L. PrestageLouis H. PrimaveraJean ProutAdam G. PughJoe RaelinCharles E. RailsbackGlenda C. Rakes (4)Thomas A. Rakes (3)Rangasamy RamasamyHelen RamirezDana RappVicky RashMarilyn RauthClaudia ReedDianne Reed (3)Donald R. ReedLouis Reed (2)William Michael Reid (3)David H. Reilly (2)Susan Bob ReisAugustina H. ReyesDesmond RiceGeorge Ann RiceMargaret L. RiceGordon RichardsonJames D. Ricks (2)Dennis R. RidleyJack D. Riegle (2)Kenneth RippeAnne Marie RisenD. Michael Risen(2)Sam RitchieSandra H. RitterRuth Ann Roberts (4)Kathleen RoneyLuis Alfredo RosadoLee RossMarta A. RothStanley William RothsteinMark A. Runco* Indicates number of times published in NFEAS JOURNAL
86__________________________________________________________________NFEAS JOURNALNATIONAL ALUMNI HONOR ROLL OF PUBLISHED WRITERSJoseph F. RyanKetty M. SarouphimRobert SarrelAnthony Saville (2)Joe E. Savoie (3)L.E. ScarrRobert F. SchererPhillip SchlechtyLoretta SchmidtCharles SchmitzElizabeth SchmitzLiz SchmitzGail Theierbach-SchneiderMary Jo SchneiderMartin Schoppmeyer (2)Robert G. SchraderDawn SchuenemannLaura SchulteMariellen F. ScottIrene SeayJoyce SellersCynthia H. ShabbHelen M. Sharp (2)William L. Sharp (4)Catherine A. ShawMaryFriend ShepardSusan SheridanJoseph W. ShowalterJohn SikulaNancy Sindelar (2)Brenda Scofield SingletonCharles A. SloanAlexis SmereckyCy J. SmithEdwin R. SmithJerry L. SmithMichael Clay SmithPatricia A. SmithDonald W. Smitley (2)Bobbie C. SmothersKarolyn J. Snyder (5)Kristen M. SnyderTimothy D. SnyderPat SocoskiMargaret SolomonNorman SommersJoseph C. Sommerville (2)Paul A. SpanoPatricia M. SparksRichard K. Sparks, JrDeitra E. SpenceGerald E. SroufeRobert StalcupMarilyn StanardRobert SteeberBetty E. Steffy (2)Dolores A. StegelinCarl R. Steinhoff (2)Todd Stephens (2)Anthony StevensShirley B. StowWilliam Streshly (4)Michael E. SullivanSam L. SullivanBruce Swindle (3)Marilyn TallericoStephanie B. TarverJim TateRaymond G. Taylor, Jr. (5)Susan M. TendyLoretta A. TerryPaul M. TerryW.R. ThayerConn ThomasM. Donald Thomas (3)Jon E. TravisE. John TurnerEric TwadellRalph W. TylerDan A. UnruhC. Robert UtermohlenThomas C. Valesky (6)*Johan W. van der JagtKaren VanderVenJames P. Van KeurenSharon VanMetreJames J. Van Patten (5)Curtis Van VoorheesDorothy Vasquez-LevyJeanette VeatchAdrian VegaFrederick P. VendittiPhillip N. VendittiDeborah A. Verstegen (2)Joyce P. VinceletteTheopolis VinsonEdward WalkerYiping WanGuilan WangMary Ann WardFernelle L. WarrenWenifort WashingtonLemuel W. WatsonKaren M. WattJames C. WattsOlga WattsWilliam C. Weeks ChristopherS. WeilerDan WeinlesRobert M. Weir, Jr.George R. WellsPamela WellsSteven Wells (2)Suzanne Wesson (2)Joan E. WestPhilip T. West (3)Janet WhaleyThomas G. WheelerNorman L. WhislerKathryn S. WhitakerMarcia E. O’Neill-WhiteBrent Edward WholebenThomas G. Wicks, IIIJana WidderRichard WiederspahnLouis WildmanSam T. Wilkes* Indicates number of times published in NFEAS JOURNAL
87NFEAS JOURNALNATIONAL ALUMNI HONOR ROLL OF PUBLISHED WRITERSCynthia Williams Frances C. Worthey Virginia F. ZieglerFrankie Keels Williams Robert Yager Steve ZinkgraffJames A. Williams Stuart Yager (2) Perry A. Zirkel (4)Robyne Carol Williams Darlene Yanez Linda A. Zurplus (2)Charles L. Willis (4) LingLing YangBen Wilson, Jr. (5) Ginder A. YarchaHarold E. Wilson (2) Niveen YaseenCynthia Wilson Lucian Yates, III (2)Patricia Potter Wilson Hilary Lauren YeagerMari J. Wirfs Phillip YoungDonald Wise Joseph A. YoungKay D. Woelfel Ken M. YoungW.C. Wolf, Jr. (5) Raymond J. YoungFred Wood Russell L. YoungJames A. Wood (3) Betty R. YungCynthia S. Woody Ernest ZamoraCarol A. Woolbright Sally J. ZepedaDode Worsham Yixin Zhang* Indicates number of times published in NFEAS JOURNALWRITERS OF BOOK REVIEWSRobert H. AndersonJohn AndesMildred H. BaileyWilliam J. BaileyMichael J. BersonC. Robert BlackmonJohn A. BrownRichard A. CappsDan B. CarrThomas A. ClintonDonna J. ColeDonald G. ColemanDavid FlightFrederick John Gies (16)*Cathy L. Guerra-SaktaHurst Hall (2)Stephen HarperSamuel T. HarrisLil HoehnPaul L. KimmelmanJune Kisch (2)Mary Alice KritsonisWilliam KritsonisCharles LeonardWill E. McCartherSusan MorrisonTerry Oberg (3)William J. O’Neill (5)Robert C. O’Reilly (2)Sandra riceSteve PriceJames D. RicksLouis RobisonStern A. RoufaCharles W. Ryan (3)Kathryn S. WhitakerChuck L. Willis (3)* Indicates number of times published in NFEAS JOURNAL
88__________________________________________________________________NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALSFounded 1982NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONALADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNALSince1983NATIONAL FORUM OF APPLIED EDUCATIONALRESEARCH JOURNALSince1987NATIONAL FORUM OF SPECIAL EDUCATION JOURNALSince 1989NATIONAL FORUM OF TEACHER EDUCATION JOURNALSince 1990INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMICINTELLECTUAL DIVERSITYSince 1996NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS-Online DivisionSince 1997NATIONAL FORUM OF MULTICULTURAL ISSUES JOURNALSince 2003INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, ANDADMINISTRATIONSince 2004NATIONAL JOURNAL: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and SchoolsSince 2006SCHOOLINGSince 2010NATIONAL FORUM JOURNAL OF COUNSELING AND ADDICTIONSince 2012Worldwide Website: www.nationalforum.com
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