Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY2_______________________________________________________...
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY4_______________________________________________________...
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY6_______________________________________________________...
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY8_______________________________________________________...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

Dr. W.A. Kritsonis - International Refereed Publication(s)


Published on

Dr. W.A. Kritsonis - International Refereed Publication(s)

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Dr. W.A. Kritsonis - International Refereed Publication(s)

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITYVOLUME 10, NUMBER 1, 20081Distribution Patterns of the Four FundamentalTemperaments among Secondary School Students in CrossRiver State, Nigeria: National and InternationalImplicationsDr. (Mrs.) Akon M. JoshuaFaculty of EducationCross River University ofTechnologyAkamkpa Campus, NigeriaProfessor Eno M. UkpongProfessor of EducationUniversity of CalabarCalabar, NigeriaDr. Monday T. JoshuaFaculty of EducationUniversity of CalabarCalabar, NigeriaWilliam Allan Kritsonis, PhDProfessor and Faculty MentorPhD Program in Educational LeadershipThe Whitlowe R. Green College of EducationPrairie View A&M UniversityMember of the Texas A&M University SystemVisiting Lecturer (2005)Oxford Round TableUniversity of Oxford, Oxford, EnglandDistinguished Alumnus (2004)College of Education and Professional StudiesCentral Washington UniversityTyrone Tanner, EdDAssociate ProfessorPhD Program in EducationalLeadershipPrairie View A&M UniversityDonald F. DeMoulinArgosy University - AtlantaABSTRACTThis study was designed to assess the distribution pattern of the four basictemperaments (Plegmatics, melancholics, sanquines and cholerics) among seniorsecondary school students in Cross River State of Nigeria. The study was a survey, andthe questionnaire was the data gathering instrument. The sample for the studyconsisted of 1080 students, drawn from senior classes of secondary schools in theresearch area using stratified random sampling technique. The research instrumenthad 40 items, with 10 items describing each of the four temperament types. Percentagesand bar charts were used to summarize the data collected. The research findingsshowed that there were more introverts (phlegmatics and melancholics) then there wereextroverts (sanquines and cholerics) in the population studied; and that the distributionpattern was not influenced by the gender and geographical location of the respondents
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY2_________________________________________________________________________________studied. It is recommended that all youth handlers (parents, counselors, teachers,church/youth workers, etc) should be knowledgeable in the temperaments of theirclients._____________________________________________________________________Introduction and Review of the LiteratureTemperament as a concept is said to be a combination of traits we inherit from ourparents, and it influences everything that we do including sexual activities. Temperament setsbroad guidelines on everyone’s behaviour pattern which will influence a person as long ashe/she lives. Also described as behaviour style, temperament also provides guidelines forvalue development especially among young growing adolescents. As put by Lahaye (1984),one way of learning to know oneself is the study of the four basic dominant temperaments.The four basic temperaments are melancholic, phlegmatic, sanguine and choleric (Mullins,1996, Lahaye, 1984; Hock, 1998). Secondary school students especially those in the seniorclasses fall in the range of 13 – 19 years. It is always a unique period laden with all mannersof behaviours which are greatly influenced by temperament types.Heineman (1995) quoted Thomas and Chess (1977) as stating that temperament canbe equated to the term “behaviour style”. Similarly, Santrock (1999, 179) definestemperament as an individual’s behaviour style and characteristic way of responding.Temperament makes an individual outgoing (or extroverted) or shy (or introverted). Lahaye(1984) and other adherents of the four basic temperaments show that each type presents itsown characteristic behaviour patterns. Lahaye also provides blends of temperaments.A person with melancholic temperament is an introvert and is gifted in many areas.This is because he is a self – disciplined, self – sacrificing and analytical individual. He isquiet and has inclination to reflection. The thinking of a melancholic person quickly turnsinto reflection, his thoughts being far reaching. The melancholic person is not satisfied withthe superficial, does not feel at home in a crowd for a length of time, and loves silence andsolitude life. A melancholic person is said to be occasionally passive and slow, not easilymoved into quick action. He is reserved, finds it difficult to make new acquaintances, andoften does not find the right words to express or describe his sentiments. Melancholics hardlyconsider things or issues unless they maintain calm and safe judgment. However,melancholics are critics, negative, resentful and excessively sensitive in the face of smallhumiliations. Often times, melancholics retire to themselves. They are often found injobs that need reasoning, critical calculations and deep thinking.Phlegmatic individuals are also introverts. They are calm, quiet, easy going andnever – get-upset individuals. The phlegmatic person is the easiest type of person to get alongwith (Lahaye, 1984), and by nature, the most likeable of all the four basic temperaments. Thephlegmatic person is dependable, efficient and organized. An individual with thistemperament is said to be loyal to authority. He does not like to accept leadership, but whenforced on him, he is a good leader since he can easily get along with others. Phlegmaticindividuals are known to have high value system. However, a person with phlegmatictemperament is known to be slow in making decisions and is a victim of procrastination.A person with sanguine temperament is an extrovert. He is outgoing, warm, friendlyand fun-loving. He is a talkative and loves social settings. A person with sanguinetemperament values tradition and security; he is pushful but carefree about issues in life. Heis easily given to elation of spirit and is not given to worries and anxiety. He often longs toexpress himself in public, loves to be heard and prefers group activities to individual work.However, a sanguine person is not organized and loves travelling to meet people.
  3. 3. AKON M. JOSHUA, ENO M. UKPONG, MONDAY T. JOSHUA, WILLIAM ALLAN KRITSONIS,TYRONNE TANNER, DONALD F. DEMOULIN__________________________________________________________________________________3A person with choleric temperament is an extrovert. He is hot – tempered, quick,active, strong – willed, independent, and productive. He can make decisions easily forhimself and others. A choleric person thrives best in activities, is domineering and bossy,using other people to accomplish his ends. He also values traditions and is focused. Acholeric is pushful, easily hurt, and reacts very strongly to praise and blame. He is not givento worry and anxiety, is decisive in movement and has a lot of energy output. The cholericwill always insist on acceptance of his ideas in any issue that affects him.Many theories in the last couple of years have been proposed for the understanding oftemperament, but as put by Hodgetts (1984), values, perceptions and attitudes are importantcomponents of an individual’s behaviour. One of such theories is William Schutz’sFundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientations (FIRO) theory, which is applicable inunderstanding temperament. The theory has three major needs namely; inclusion need inwhich people call attention to themselves and wish to be included in a group, such as thesanguines and cholerics, while others have low inclusions needs, such as the melancholics andthe phlegmatics. The FIRO theory also presents the control need, in which people wish toestablish relationship with others in relation to power and authority. Those with cholerictemperament seem to have higher control need than the melancholic and phlegmatic persons.The last form of need in the FIRO theory is the affection need. This need focuses onestablishing relations with others in terms of love and friendship. Those with sanguinetemperament often exhibit high desired affection, while those with melancholic temperamenthave low affection need as they do not like to act close to other people. It is to be noted thatmixed temperaments or blends of temperaments do exist in which one temperamentdominates another. A human being is said to possess at least two temperaments, onedominating over another.According to Thomas and Chess (1977), quoted by Heineman (1999), temperamentcan be measured using questionnaire or interview. Therefore, temperament can be measured.Researchers who study temperaments often develop items describing respondents’behavioural tendencies in general terms. The temperament dimensions are then scored bysumming up the scores across the items. A higher score is always an indicator of one’stemperament type (Kawaguchi, 1998). In Lahaye’s temperament blob, the scoring rangesfrom “least like me” (1) to “most like me” (5). At the end of the scoring, only scores of 3 – 5,are regarded as being high enough to indicate person’s temperament.One longitudinal study reported by Kawaguchi (1998) was to assess genderdifferences in temperament and adolescent – parent same cross – gendered relationships. Thestudy assessed gender differences over 10 years in 776 children. The results showed thatgender differences peaked at adolescence period. In a related online personality testconducted by John (2003), the researchers found that out of 150 respondents, 83% ofthem were found to be introverts, while the remaining 17% by implication wereextroverts. Similarly, a related psychiatric study done by David Janowsky showedthat 74% of those he studied were introverts (that is either melancholic orphlegmatic), while the remaining 26% were either choleric or sanguine (extroverts).These research results are revealing.Research on Temperament Conducted AbroadIn recent years, the behaviour of youths in the society has been of greatconcern to all. Temperament is said to be behaviour styles inherited form parents.The major problem addressed in this study derives from the fact that most of researchwork on temperament was conducted abroad. There is the serious need to conduct a
  4. 4. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY4_________________________________________________________________________________similar study in the Nigerian setting, in Cross River State in particular. Therefore, theproblem of the study is that of finding the answer to the poser: “what is the pattern oftemperaments (melancholic, phlegmatic, choleric and sanguine) among secondaryschool students in Cross River State?There is no readily available answer to this poser, hence the study is designedto address this issue.Purpose of the StudyThe major purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine the pattern ofdistribution of temperaments (being behaviour styles) among secondary schoolstudents in Cross River State of Nigeria.Only one research question was used in the study and is stated here:What is the distribution pattern of the four dominant/basictemperaments among secondary school students in CrossRiver State, Nigeria?MethodologyThe research design for the study was survey, and this was selected because itallowed for drawing inferences. Surveys study populations by selecting samples fromchosen populations. Surveys also focus on people, their beliefs, opinions, attitudesand behaviours. The instrument used for data collection in this study was aquestionnaire constructed by the researchers. The population used for the studyconsisted of all the students in the senior classes of secondary schools in the researcharea. The research area was Cross River State, which is one of the 36 States in theFederal Republic of Nigeria, and one of the 6 States in the South-South geo-politicalZone of the country. These students numbered 51, 979 in the year of the study being2005/2006 school year. This number was made up of 27, 497 males and 24, 482females in 227 secondary schools under three Education Zones. The Education Zoneswere Calabar Zonez consisting of seven (7) local government areas, Ikom Zone withsix (6) local government areas and Ogoja zone with five (5) local government areas.The stratified random sampling method was used to select one thousand andeighty (1080) students of senior secondary classes to constitute the study sample. Ineach Education Zone, six (6) schools were randomly selected, thus making a total ofeighteen (18) schools from the three Education Zones. All the schools selected weremixed public schools where males and females attended the same schools and studiedtogether in the same classes. Senior secondary 1 – 3 students were used because oftheir maturity. In each school, thirty (30) male students and thirty (30) femalestudents were randomly selected for the study, giving a total of sixty (60) students perschool, and 1080 students for the 18 schools selected.
  5. 5. AKON M. JOSHUA, ENO M. UKPONG, MONDAY T. JOSHUA, WILLIAM ALLAN KRITSONIS,TYRONNE TANNER, DONALD F. DEMOULIN__________________________________________________________________________________5The instrument (the questionnaire) was constructed by the researchers andvetted by experts in educational research, measurement and evaluation andeducational psychology. This was to ensure face and content validity. Theinstrument had 40 items divided into 4 sections, each containing 10 statements thatdescribed characteristic behaviour tendencies of a particular temperament type usingthe Likert scale. The respondents were to tick ( ) one out of five possible responsesof ‘most like me’, ‘more like me’, ‘Like me,’ ‘less like me’, and ‘least like me’.These responses were scored 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. The scores for arespondent on the 10 items for each temperament type were summed up. Where anindividual obtained the highest score indicated his/her temperament type.Reliability of the instrument was done using Croncbach Co–efficient Alphaand the reliability estimates of the four sections ranged .75 to .83. The copies of thequestionnaire were personally administered by the researchers with the assistance ofthe teachers in the classes sampled. At the end of the rigorous exercise, 1060 of the1080 completed copies of the instrument (constituting 98%) were found useable forthe study. The data collected were subjected to simple percentages and bar charts.Data Analysis and ResultsBar chart and percentages were used as the data analysis techniques to answerthe one main research question of this study. Figure I shows the data analysis andresults of the distribution pattern of the four basic temperaments among therespondents using bar charts..Figure 1: Bar Chart showing the distribution pattern of the four basictemperaments among sampled secondary school students.The result presented in Figure I shows the distribution pattern of the four basictemperaments among secondary school students in Cross River State. The pattern350300250200150100500332311176241Phlegmatics Melancholics Sanguines Cholerics
  6. 6. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY6_________________________________________________________________________________shows that of the 1060 respondents in the study, 332 (constituting 31.3%) werephlegmatics, 311 (constituting 29.3%) were melancholics, 176 (constituting 16.6%)were sanguines and 241 (constituting 22.7%) were cholerics. By projection in thepopulation, there are more phlegmatics and melancholics (and these two groups areusually referred to as “introverts)” than there are sanguines and cholerics (who arealso referred to as “extroverts”).In order to have an in-dept study of the exhibition of temperaments by thestudents, the distribution pattern of the four basic temperaments by gender andgeographical location were investigated.(i) Distribution pattern of temperament by genderThe bar chart showing this is presented as Figure 2Figure 2. Bar chart showing the distribution pattern of the four basictemperaments by gender.The result in Figure 2 shows that among the male respondents, 164 (30.4%) werephlegmatics, 161 (29.5) were melancholics, 92 (17.0%) were sanguines and 123(22.8%) were cholerics. The result also shows that among the females, 168 (29.8%)were phlegmatics, 150 (28.8%) were melancholics, 84 (16.2) were sanguines and 118(22.7%) were cholerics.The distribution of the four basic temperaments among the students as pergender shows that the frequencies of the respondents in the four basic temperamentsamong males and females were almost the same.200150100500164Phlegmatics Melancholics Sanguines Cholerics1681611509284123 118MalesFemalesKey
  7. 7. AKON M. JOSHUA, ENO M. UKPONG, MONDAY T. JOSHUA, WILLIAM ALLAN KRITSONIS,TYRONNE TANNER, DONALD F. DEMOULIN__________________________________________________________________________________7(ii) Distribution pattern of temperament by geographical locationThe bar chart showing this is presented as Figure 3.Figure 3. Bar chart showing the distribution pattern of the four basictemperaments by geographical location.For geographical location in the urban areas, 175 (constituting 33%) werephlegmatics, 154 (constituting 29.1%) were melancholics, while 97 (constituting18.3%) were sanguines and 79 (constituting 14.9%) were cholerics. In the rural areas,157 (constituting 29.6%) were phlegmatics, also 157 (constituting 29.6%) weremelancholics, 79 (constituting 14.9%) were sanguines and 137 (constituting 25.8%)were cholerics. The distribution pattern of the four basic temperaments as pergeographical location shows that the frequencies were almost the same among urbanand rural dwellers in each temperament type.Discussion of FindingsThe findings of this study showed that the greatest percentage of the studentsunder study were phlegmatics (31.3%), followed by melancholics (29.3%). The leastpercentage of students in the sample were the sanguines (16.6%), followed bychlolerics (22.7%).As per sex, the result showed that there is no serious difference in thedistribution pattern among males and females with regard to basic temperament types.Among males studied, 30.4% were phlegmatics, 29.8% were melancholics, 22.8%cholerics and 17% were sanguines. Among the females, 32.3% were phlegmatics,28.8% were melancholics, 22.7% were cholerics and 16.2% were sanguines.Interestingly, these results agree with research finding of Kawaguchi (1998) whofound that in his assessment of gender differences in temperament, adolescent boysand girls reported remarkably similar characteristics. By interpretation, those studiedshowed almost equal number of introverts and extroverts among the males andfemales.200150100500175Phlegmatics Melancholics Sanguines Cholerics157 154 1579779 97137UrbanRuralKey
  8. 8. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCHOLARLY ACADEMIC INTELLECTUAL DIVERSITY8_________________________________________________________________________________Concerning the distribution of temperaments according to geographicallocation, the finding of the study showed that the greatest percentage of therespondents who were phlegmatics (33%) reside in the urban area, while 29.6% of thesame temperament type live in the rural area. This was followed by melancholicswith 29.1% in the urban area, and 29.6% in the rural area. The least of thetemperament type residing in the urban area was sanguine (18.3%) while 14.9% ofthose with sanguine temperament live in the rural area. This is followed by cholerics,with 19.6% living in the urban area and 25.8% of the same temperament type living inthe rural area.The result showed that the distribution pattern of the four basic temperamentsamong respondents was similar with almost the same number of respondent in eachtemperament type. The temperament types were evenly distributed in both the urbanand rural area of the area of study. Thus, the distribution patterns of the four basictemperaments are not affected by the gender and geographical location of thosestudied.It is quite interesting how the creator of mankind mixes up people in term oftemperaments for a balance in behaviour within a given society. One can imaginewhat a particular society will look like if there were only introverts (phlegmatics &melancholics) or only extroverts (sanguines and cholerics).Conclusion and RecommendationsNature has made a good mix of people in the world – while some areintroverts (phlegmatics and melancholics), others are extroverts (cholerics andsanguines). For area of study, there appears to be more introverts than extroverts inthe world particularly among secondary school students in Cross River State. Theresearchers therefore recommends that every parent, teacher, preacher, counsellor andother youth handlers should seek to know the temperament of each adolescent underthem. This is necessary in enhancing counseling and parenting practices andtherapies, since temperament affects everything that one does.ReferencesHeinaman, P. L. (1995). Temperament theory. Retrieved August 24, 220, fromhttp://pmc/, G. (1998). The four temperaments. Wisconsin: Catholic Apostolate Press.Hodgettes, R. M. (1980) Modern human relation at work (2nded.). New York: TheDryden Press.Kawaguchi, M. C. (1998, January). Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughterstemperament, gender and adolescent – parent relationship. Miller PalmerQuarterly, 1, 1 – 8.Lahaye, T. (1984). Why you act the way you do. Illinois: Living Books TyndaleHouse.
  9. 9. AKON M. JOSHUA, ENO M. UKPONG, MONDAY T. JOSHUA, WILLIAM ALLAN KRITSONIS,TYRONNE TANNER, DONALD F. DEMOULIN__________________________________________________________________________________9Mullins, L. J. (1996). Management and organizational behaviour (4thed.). London:Macmillan.Santrock, J. W. (1999). Life span development (7thed.). New York: McGraw – Hill._____________________________________________________________________Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and ManuscriptPreparation Editor, NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS, Houston,