Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Jennifer T. Butcher, Dissertation Proposal Defense PPT.
An Examination of Factors Related tothe Job Satisfaction and Retention ofAlternatively Certified TeachersA Dissertation ProposalPresented byJennifer ButcherDissertation CommitteeWilliam Allan Kritsonis, PhD., ChairDonald R. Collins, PhD., MemberDavid Herrington, PhD., MemberRonald Howard, PhD., MemberOctober 2008
Introduction• The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLB) requires that all academicteachers be highly qualified.• Taking proactive steps to prepare andretain highly qualified teachers requiressystematic effort of education,mentorship, and motivation (Rosenow,2005).
Introduction• Teacher attrition and job shortagesare largely due to teacherdissatisfaction and pursuit of otherjobs (Ingersoll, 2001).• Studies have shown that higheremployee satisfaction leads toincreased customer satisfaction(Rosenow, 2005).
Background of the Problem• Statistics gathered over a five year periodindicated that approximately 25,000people, per year, were certified to teachthrough alternative routes (Feistritzer &Chester, 2003).• Effective alternative teacher certificationprograms should have a strong academiccourse work component, field–basedlearning in the classroom, and supportfrom qualified mentors (Feistritzer &Chester, 2003).
Statement of the Problem• Due to the teacher shortage and the influx ofnew teachers from alternative certificationprograms, it is important to address theproblem of attrition and identify strategies thatfocus on the retention of alternatively certifiedteachers.• There is a need to determine if currentalternative certification programs and schooldistricts are providing the training, support, andcontinued monitoring of alternatively certifiedteachers.
Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of this study is toexamine factors related to the jobsatisfaction and retention ofalternatively certified teachers. Thisstudy will examine factors related toalternatively certified teachers’decision to enter and remain in theteaching profession.
Research QuestionQuantitative1. What trends are occurring in thecomparative numbers ofalternatively certified teachers andthe numbers of traditionallycertified teachers over a period offive years within a selected urbandistrict?
Research QuestionQuantitative2. Is there a relationship between thepercentage of alternativelycertified teachers and thepercentage of traditionally certifiedteachers in the elementary schoolsof a selected urban school district?
Research QuestionsQualitative1. What do alternatively certified teachersreport to be the reasons for entering theteaching profession?2. What do alternatively certified teachersperceive to be the factors that assistedin their development as teachers?
Research QuestionsQualitative3. What do alternatively certified teachersperceive to be the factors that hinderedtheir development as teachers?4. What do alternatively certified teachersreport to be the reasons that they haveremained in the teaching profession?
Research QuestionsQualitative5. What do alternatively certified teachersreport about their early educatorpreparation experiences?6. What strategies does the selected urbanschool district employ to identify andutilize factors that encourage teacherjob satisfaction and retention?
Null HypothesisHo1: There is no statisticallysignificant relationship in thecomparative numbers ofalternatively certified teachers andthe numbers of traditionallycertified teachers over a period offive years within a selected urbandistrict.
Null HypothesisHo2: There is no statisticallysignificant relationship betweenthe percentage of alternativelycertified teachers and thepercentage of traditionally certifiedteachers in the elementary schoolsof a selected urban school district.
Theoretical Framework• One theory guiding this study is derivedfrom the economic labor market theory ofsupply and demand.• In the same vein, Frederick Herzberg’s theory ofmotivation and job satisfaction which wasdeveloped from his studies of engineers andaccountants complements the supply and demandtheory.
Significance of the Study• Provide alternative certification programs withinformation regarding areas of concern that canbe incorporated into their programs.• Provide mentors with information on how theycan better guide the novice teachers.• Provide administrators with informationregarding the critical role that alternativelycertified teachers have on their campus.• Provide district human resources directors withinformation regarding the needs of alternativelycertified teachers.
Assumptions• Interviews will provide information withreasons why alternatively certifiedteachers remain in the teachingprofession.• Respondents of the study will honestlygive the reasons for alternativelycertified teachers job satisfaction andretention.• Data will be recorded and analyzedaccurately by the investigator.
Limitations of the Study• Research will reflect only on oneurban school district in Texas.• Data will only be obtained fromelementary schools within theselected urban school district.
No Child Left Behind• The language in the bill states schoolsare expected to hire only “highlyqualified” teachers, ensure that allteachers are assigned to teach in theirfield, are fully licensed, and meet othercriteria outlined in the law (Trahan,2002).• Alternative route certification programsare one example of states’ and cities’attempts to fill urban classrooms withhighly qualified teachers (Easley, 2006).
Alternative CertificationPrograms• Alternative teacher certification hasbecome an increasingly popular strategyfor addressing both teacher quality andteacher shortages (Darling-Hammond,2005).• One out of four Texas teachers hired inthe last three years came into theteaching workforce through alternativecertification (May, Katsinas, and Moore,2003).
Recruitment of TeachersPrincipals are often reluctant to hirealternatively certified teachers because ofthe amount of work and support requiredand problems that these teachers mayhave with regard to discipline, lessonplanning, student interaction,assessments, and instructional strategiesin their first one to two years in theclassroom (Wang, 2007).
Recruitment of TeachersImproving working conditions andsalaries are helpful steps towardrecruiting an adequate number ofteachers, but giving them chancesto learn and grow as they practicetheir craft is the best way to retainquality teachers in our nation’sclassrooms (Gray & Smith, 2005).
Induction / MentoringA number of studies have foundthat well-designed mentoringprograms raise retention rates fornew teachers by improving theirattitudes, feelings of efficacy, andinstructional skills (Darling-Hammond, 2003).
Professional Development• Essential for teachers to receive currentinformation in the field of education.• Allows an opportunity for teachers’ tostrengthen weak areas.• Should be a priority in developing acampus plan.• Opportunities to enhance one’s teachingability will lead to meeting the needs ofthe students (Trahan, 2002).
Teacher Retention• According to Greiner & Smith (2004), studiesfound links between teacher retention and statemandated teacher certification scores andteacher education preparation programs.• Teachers’ feelings about administrative support,resources for teaching, and teacher input intodecision making are strongly related to theirplans to stay in teaching and to their reasonsfor leaving (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Ingersoll,2001).
Job SatisfactionThe main contributors to high levelsof teacher job satisfaction areworking with children (particularlywhere teachers can develop strongprofessional relationships), theintellectual challenge of teachingand employee autonomy andindependence (Spear, Gould, andLee, 2000).
Research DesignResearch Method – Mixed methodsusing a complementary design. Thisincludes descriptive and correlationalanalysis of existing data as well as dataobtained from open-ended interviewquestions and surveys.
Research Design• Trend analysis will be used to identifythe staffing patterns comparingalternatively certified teachers totraditionally certified teachers.• Trend analysis refers to the concept ofcollecting information and attempting tospot a pattern, or trend, in theinformation.• Descriptive trends will be used toexamine emerging trends.
Subjects of the StudyQuantitativeQuestion 1:• Alternatively and Traditionally CertifiedTeachers from 65 schools in a selected districtQuestion 2:• Alternatively and Traditionally CertifiedTeachers from 30 elementary campuses in a selecteddistrictQualitative• Alternatively Certified Teachers with 3 or more years ofteaching experience from 30 elementary campuses in aselected district• 15 Mentors• 15 Administrators• 2 Human Resources Directors
Instrumentation• The researcher developed a questionnaire thatwill be used to collect data related to theattitudes of alternatively certified teachers inregards to their retention in the field.• A semi-structured interview technique will beused to collect data from selected alternativelycertified teachers, mentors, administrators, andhuman resources directors.
Validity and ReliabilityA pilot study will be conducted forthe questionnaire and interviewguide to ensure reliability. Itemswill be reviewed for logical validity.
Data Collection and Recording• The questionnaires will be delivered viaelectronic mail to the alternativelycertified participants. Informationpertaining to distribution and due dateswill also be included with the delivery.• Responses will be coded to assureidentity protection.• Data from the questionnaires will beplaced in tables and graphs.• Data from the district and respondentswill be secured in a bank vault for seven years.
QuantitativeQualitative Qualitative• Demographic Data of Alternatively Certified Teachers• Comparative Numbers of Alternatively Certified Teachers and TraditionallyCertified Teachers (Over a five year period as reported by a selected urbandistrict)• Percentages of Alternatively Certified Teachers and Traditionally Certified Teachers(In the elementary schools of a selected urban district)Interviews of Alternatively CertifiedTeachers, Mentors, SchoolAdministrators, and HumanResources DirectorsQuestionnaires of AlternativelyCertified TeachersAnalysis of Data
Analysis of Data (Quantitative)CorrelationalResearchQuestion 1Hypothesis IndependentVariablesDependentVariableStatisticalMeasurementWhat trendsare occurring inthecomparativenumbers ofalternativelycertifiedteachers andthe numbers oftraditionallycertifiedteachers over aperiod of fiveyears within aselected urbandistrict?There is nostatisticallysignificantrelationship inthe comparativenumbers ofalternativelycertifiedteachers andthe numbers oftraditionallycertifiedteachers over aperiod of fiveyears within aselected urbandistrict.Two Groups:1) AlternativelyCertifiedTeachers2) TraditionallyCertifiedTeachersPearson’s rcoefficientofcorrelationNumber ofAlternativelyCertifiedTeachersandTraditionallyCertifiedTeachers
Analysis of Data (Quantitative)CorrelationalResearchQuestion 2Hypothesis IndependentVariablesDependentVariableStatisticalMeasurementIs there arelationshipbetween thepercentage ofalternativelycertifiedteachers andthe percentageof traditionallycertifiedteachers in theelementaryschools of theselected urbandistrict?There is nostatisticallysignificantrelationship inthe percentageof alternativelycertifiedteachers andthe percentageof traditionallycertifiedteachers in theelementaryschools of theselected urbandistrict.Two Groups:1) AlternativelyCertifiedTeachers2) TraditionallyCertifiedTeachersPearson’s rcoefficientofcorrelationPercentage ofAlternativelyCertifiedTeachersandTraditionallyCertifiedTeachers
Analysis of Data (Qualitative)Surveys/Questionnaire& InterviewsData will bepresented intabular form toshow categories& frequencies.The weightedmean will becomputed forretentionfactors.Responses forquestions will becategorizedinto emergentthemes. Thesewill be presentedin tabular formshowing thecategories withcorrespondingfrequencies andpercentages.Inputs from theselected teachers,mentors,administrators, andHR directors willbe identified,summarized andexplained.
References• Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Solving the dilemmas ofteacher supply, demand, and quality. New York:National Commission on Teaching and America’sFuture.• Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Keeping good teachers:Why it matters, what leaders can do. Association forSupervision and Curriculum Development, 7-13.• Darling-Hammond, L. (2005). Prepping our teachers forteaching as a profession. The Education Digest, 22-27.• Easley, J. (2006). Alternative route urban teacherretention and implication for principals’ moralleadership. Educational Studies, 32(3), 241-249.• Feistritzer, C.E., and Chester, D. T. (2003). Alternativeteacher certification. National Center for EducationInformation.
References• Gray, D.L. & Smith, A.E. (2005). No teacher left behind.Kappa Delta Pi Record, 42(1), 7-9.• Greiner, C.S. & Smith, B.S. (2004). Determining theeffect of selected variables on teacher retention.Education, 126(4), 653 -659.• Hoy, W.K. and Miskel, C.G. (2005). Educationaladministration: Theory, research, and practice. NewYork, NY: McGraw-Hill.• Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teachershortages: an organizational analysis. AmericanEducational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.• May, P.B., Katsinas, S.G., and Moore, L. (2003).Alternative teacher certification programs and Texascommunity colleges. New Directions for CommunityCollege, 121.
References• Rosenow, D. (2005). Stress, burnout and self-esteemamong educators. Journal of Border EducationalResearch, 4, 87-90.• Spear, M., Gould, K., and Lee, B. (2000). Who would be ateacher? A review of factors motivating anddemotivating prospective and practicing teachers(Slough, UK, NFER).• Trahan, C. (2002). Implications of the no child left behindact of 2001 for teacher education. Washington, DC.(Eric Document Reproduction Service No.ED477723).• Wang, C. (2007). The alternate route teachers’ transitionto the classroom: Preparation, support, andretention. NASSP Bulletin 91(1) 98-113.