Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Jennifer T. Butcher, Dissertation Defense PPT.
An Examination of Factors Relatedto the Job Satisfaction andRetention of Alternatively CertifiedTeachersA Dissertation DefensebyJennifer T. ButcherDissertation Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.Prairie View A & M UniversityEducational LeadershipMarch 2009
Committee MembersWilliam Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.ChairDonald R. Collins, Ph.D.MemberDavid Herrington, Ph.D.MemberRonald Howard, Ph.D.Member
Dissertation DefenseFormatI. Statement of the ProblemII. Theoretical FrameworkIII. Purpose of the StudyIV. Research QuestionsV. MethodVI. Quantitative Major FindingsVII. Qualitative Major FindingsVIII. Review of LiteratureIX. Recommendations
Statement of the ProblemDue to the influx of new teachers fromalternative certification programs, it isimportant to address the problems ofattrition and identify strategies thatfocus on the retention of alternativelycertified teachers. There is a need todetermine if current alternativecertification programs and schooldistricts are providing the training,support, and continued monitoring ofalternatively certified teachers (Hill &Barth, 2004).
Theoretical Framework One theory guiding this study isderived from the economic labormarket theory of supply and demand. In the same vein, FrederickHerzberg’s theory of motivation andjob satisfaction which was developedfrom his studies of engineers andaccountants complements the supplyand demand theory.
Theoretical FrameworkSupporting Literature Numerous authors have described theapplication of the supply and demand theory tothe specifics of teacher labor markets in detail(Haggstrom, Darling-Hammond, & Grissmer,1988; Boardman, Darling-Hammond, & Mullins,1982). The supply for teachers is related to the number ofqualified individuals willing to teach at a given level ofoverall compensation. The demand can be defined as the number of teachingpositions offered at a given level of overallcompensation.
Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of the study was two-fold. To examine factors related to the jobsatisfaction and retention of alternativelycertified teachers. To examine factors related toalternatively certified teachers’ decisionto enter and remain in the teachingprofession.
Research QuestionsQuantitative1. What is the profile of alternativelycertified teachers in the selectedurban school district included inthis study?2. To what extent do alternativelycertified teachers feel supported asnovice public school teachers bythe district and administrators?
Research QuestionsQuantitative3. To what extent do alternativelycertified teachers feel committed toremain in the teaching profession?4. Is there a relationship betweenalternatively certified teachers’perception of support and theircommitment to remain in theteaching profession?
Null HypothesisH01: There is no statistically significantrelationship between alternativelycertified teachers’ perception of supportand their commitment to remain in theteaching profession?
Research QuestionsQualitative1.What do alternatively certifiedteachers report to be the reasonsfor entering the teachingprofession?2. What do alternatively certifiedteachers perceive to be the factorsthat assisted in their developmentas teachers?
Research QuestionsQualitative3. What do alternatively certifiedteachers perceive to be the factorsthat hindered their development asteachers?4. What do alternatively certifiedteachers report to be the reasonsthat they have remained in theteaching profession?
Research QuestionsQualitative5. What do alternatively certifiedteachers report about their earlyeducator preparation experiences?6. What strategies do the selectedurban school district employ toidentify and utilize factors thatencourage teacher job satisfactionand retention?
Method Quantitative Data was collected in the form ofa researcher developed questionnaire andsurvey. Descriptive statistics were used to acquire aprofile of participants of the study. Pearson’s Correlation was used to examinewhether a statistical significant relationshipexisted between alternatively certifiedteachers’ perception of support and theircommitment to remain in the teachingprofession.
Method Qualitative data was collected in the form ofstructured personal interviews. Member checking was utilized to give theinterview participants an opportunity to reviewand clarify their responses to the interviewquestions. Data was reduced and extracted by clusteringand coding. Data was used to identify emergent themes.
Method Subjects of the Study (Quantitative) Alternatively Certified Elementary TeachersGrades Kindergarten through fourth grade One major urban school district in Texas 85 alternatively certified teachers respondedout of 15057% rate of return
Method Subjects of the Study (Qualitative) 5 alternatively certified elementary teachers 2 Human Resources directors 8 elementary administrators 5 elementary mentors
Method Instrumentation Researcher developed questionnaire was used tocollect data related to the demographics ofrespondents in the study. Researcher developed survey was used to collect datarelated to the attitudes of alternatively certifiedteachers in regards to their retention in the fieldFive point Likert type instrument Researcher developed interview guide was used tocollect data from selected alternatively certifiedteachers, mentors, administrators, and HumanResources directors Pilot study was conducted using individuals that werenot included in the study
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1What is the profile of alternativelycertified teachers in the selectedurban school district included inthis study?
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Demographic Characteristics of Alternatively Certified Teachers Gender Years of Teaching Experience Grade Level Taught Career Goals Reason for applying for alternative certification Prior Teaching Experience Undergraduate Degree Undergraduate Major Undergraduate University Attended Graduate Degree Graduate Major Graduate University Attended
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1GenderFemale 83.5%Male 16.5%
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Teaching ExperienceYears0-5 51.7%6-10 35.3%11-15 7.1%16-20 2.4%
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Career GoalRemain a Classroom Teacher 34.1%Educational Support System 41.2%Administrator 20.0%Remain in education until 4.7%
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Reason for Applying for Alternative CertificationRetirement 1.2 %Job Layoff 4.7 %Job Dissatisfaction 15.2 %Love of Teaching 42.4 %Something that was 16.5%always desiredPassion for working 17.6%with childrenOther 2.4%
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Prior Teaching ExperienceNone 14.1%Trainer at previous job 14.1%Teaching in a religious 27.1%sectorDaycare Teacher 14.1%Other 30.6%
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Undergraduate DegreeBA 68.2%BS 31.8%
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1 Undergraduate Majors of Respondents 22 different majors reportedTop 3 Undergraduate Majors (28.2%) respondents majored in Psychology (9.4%) respondents majored in Communications (9.4%) respondents majored in Business Universities Attended for Undergraduate Degree 30 universities reportedTop 3 Universities attended for undergraduate degree (27.1%) respondents attended University of Houston (11.8%) respondents attended Sam Houston StateUniversity (8.2%) respondents attended Stephen F. AustinUniversity
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Graduate DegreeNone 82.3%MEd 5.9%MA 5.9%MBA 3.5%
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1Graduate MajorNone 82.3 %Curriculum and 4.7%InstructionCounseling 3.5%Social Work 1.2%Physics 3.5%Business 2.4%AdministrationCriminal Justice 1.2%Educational 1.2%Administration
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1University Attended for Graduate DegreeNone 82.3%Texas Southern 1.2 %Prairie View A&M 7.0%University of Phoenix 3.5%University of Texas 1.2%ArlingtonCenter of Advance 1.2%Research Mexico CityUniversity of Central 1.2%FloridaLamar 1.2%Georgetown University 1.2%
Review of LiteratureQuantitative ResearchQuestion 1It is extremely difficult to create a profileof the typical alternative certificationcandidate. Alternative certificationprogram participants are a diverse groupof individuals who defy generalizations(Humphrey and Weschsler, 2007).
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 2To what extent do alternativelycertified teachers feel supported asnovice public school teachers by thedistrict and administrators?
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 2 71.7% of the respondents agreed that the district offeredprofessional development opportunities specificallydesigned for new alternatively certified teachers. 85.9% of the respondents agreed that the quality of theprofessional development offered to new teacherssupported the quality of instruction provided to theirstudents. 78.8% of the respondents agreed that as a new teacherthey met with their mentor at least once a week. 83.4% of the respondents agreed that their mentorprovided emotional support during the first year.
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 2 78.8% of the respondents agreed that their mentorprovided instructional support during the first year. 84.7% of the respondents agreed that the mentoringprogram at their school was beneficial. 84.7% of the respondents agreed that the principal attheir school supported and encouraged alternativelycertified teachers. 78.8% of the respondents agreed that as a new teacher,the principal met with them to discuss their progress.
Review of LiteratureQuantitative ResearchQuestion 2 Staff development must be implementedby each school system in order tomaintain a skilled and knowledgeablestaff (Rebore, 2007). The benefits of mentorship programs notonly reduce attrition rates among newteachers, but also improve teachingcapabilities (Mullinix, 2002).
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 3To what extent do alternativelycertified teachers feel committed toremain in the teaching profession?
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 3 92.9% of the respondents agreed that they are committedto teaching as a career. 89.4% of the respondents agreed that they are satisfiedwith their teaching career. 82.3% of the respondents agreed that they are satisfiedwith the degree of administrative support they receive attheir school. 77.6% of the respondents agreed that they are satisfiedwith the duties required for their work. 83.5% of the respondents agreed that they intend to stayin teaching more than five years.
Review of LiteratureQuantitative ResearchQuestion 3Teachers’ feelings aboutadministrative support, resourcesfor teaching, and teacher input intodecision making are strongly relatedto their plans to stay in teachingand to their reasons for leaving(Darling-Hammond, 2007; Ingersoll,2001).
Major FindingsQuantitative ResearchQuestion 4 Is there a relationship between alternatively certifiedteachers’ perception of support and their commitment toremain in the teaching profession? Null Hypothesis:H01: There is no statistically significant relationshipbetween alternatively certified teachers’ perception ofsupport and their commitment to remain in the teachingprofession. Pearson’s r = .236 is significant at the p<.05 level ofsignificance. Correlation is significant at the .05 level (2-tailed). Therefore,the null hypothesis is rejected. There was a statistically significant relationship betweenalternatively certified teachers’ perception of support andcommitment to remain in the teaching profession.
Review of LiteratureQuantitative ResearchQuestion 4Lack of administrative support canimpact a teacher’s decision to leavethe profession (Busch, Pederson,Espin, and Weissenburger, 2001).
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 1What do alternatively certifiedteachers report to be the reasons forentering the teaching profession?
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 1 Always wanting to teach “Some always wanted to be a teacher, but for financialreasons did something else or family told them that itwas not the best profession” (HR1). Parents and family members were teachers “I have always had a desire to become a teacher. Thisdesire may have been influenced by having a motherin the profession; however, I have always viewedteaching as an opportunity to make a difference” (T2).
Review of LiteratureQualitative ResearchQuestion 1Studies demonstrate that people do notstart looking for new jobs because ofmoney; rather they seek careers inorganizations that increase their sense ofvalue and offer them an opportunity forempowerment, career mobility, personalgrowth, and opportunities to acquire newskills. This may include alternativelycertified teachers (Rosenow, 2005).
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 2What do alternatively certifiedteachers perceive to be the factorsthat assisted in their developmentas teachers?
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 2 Observance of teachers “My development as a teacher has been mainly from myclassroom experience and observance of my fellow teachers”(T4 ). Professional development “Staff development is provided in areas such as classroommanagement, subject area, dealing with special populations,technology, and communication with parents” (ADM2). Mentor program “Mentors are chosen based on strength. I match mentorswith mentees according to grade level and subjects taught”(ADM1).
Review of LiteratureQualitative ResearchQuestion 2 Staff development must be implementedby each school system in order tomaintain a skilled and knowledgeablestaff (Rebore, 2007). Teacher mentors should be selectedbased on their ability to developcurriculum, personal interests,educational philosophies, and compatiblepersonalities (Mullinex, 2002).
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 3What do alternatively certifiedteachers perceive to be the reasonsthat hindered their development asteachers?
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 3 Lack of classroom management Not having contact with children prior tothe first year teaching “They did not have the student teachingexperience. They lack student management.They did not have the opportunity to watchveteran teachers. They did not have theopportunity to accumulate prior classroomobservation hours while they were in college”(ADM2).
Literature ReviewQualitative ResearchQuestion 3Alternatively certified teachers’limited preparation impacts theirsense of efficacy as well as jobsatisfaction (Easley, 2006).
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 4What do alternatively certifiedteachers perceive to be the reasonsthat they have remained in theteaching profession?
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 4 Love for children Love for teaching “I have a love for teaching, and I find joy inthe students I work with every day. It’samazing to see their light bulbs go off and tosee them grow” (T1). Found their niche Rewarding field
Review of LiteratureQualitative ResearchQuestion 4The main contributors to high levelsof teacher job satisfaction areworking with children particularlywhere teachers can develop strongprofessional relationships (Spear,Gould, and Lee, 2000).
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 5What do alternatively certifiedteachers report about their earlyeducator preparation experiences?
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 5 Enrolled in Alternative Certification Program “I think that they should complete all class work andreceive certification before being placed in aclassroom. The state should have set standards for allprograms. The basic classes should be likeuniversities. They should have more classroommanagement and lesson cycle informationincorporated in their program. They should receive allnecessary training before being placed in theclassroom to deal with children” (ADM 5). Working as a substitute teacher Volunteered in an after school program Taught pre-school
Review of LiteratureQualitative ResearchQuestion 5Considering that No Child Left Behind iscalling for a qualified teacher in everyclassroom, a concern with nontraditionalteachers is that they are actually theteacher of record who may not yet have ahigh degree of confidence in theirteaching ability (Desjean-Perrotta, Flores,and Steinmetz, 2004).
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 6What strategies do the selectedurban school district employ toidentify and utilize factors thatencourage teacher job satisfactionand retention?
Major FindingsQualitative ResearchQuestion 6 Mentors/Campus Mentor Programs “The district assigns experienced teachers to mentorour incoming teachers. I feel this is a good program,because it gives the new teachers someone to lean onfor guidance” (M1). Staff Development “The district offers several professional developmentopportunities that have benefited me in several ways. Ihave attended training on classroom management,learning styles, and organization. These types ofworkshops have helped me tremendously” (T3).
Review of LiteratureQualitative ResearchQuestion 6Studies found that districts that providedestablished pre-service, induction andstaff development programs that factoredin the professional background andpersonal histories of alternativelycertified teachers tended to retain moreof these teachers (Wang, 2007).
Recommendationsfrom the Study Alternative teacher certification programsshould provide opportunities for classroomobservations and field experiences in teachingenvironments prior to entering the classroomas the teacher of record. Alternative teacher certification programsshould provide training preparedness in theareas of designing classroom instruction,assessment, and classroom management.
Recommendationsfrom the Study Principals should provide opportunitiesfor alternatively certified teachers toobserve novice teachers. Principals should conduct a needsassessment of first year alternativelycertified teachers to determine theirconfidence of preparedness for theclassroom.
Recommendationsfrom the Study Principals should ensure that mentoringsupports are in place for alternativelycertified teachers, and provide time forcollaboration between mentors andmentees. Principals should provide professionaldevelopment opportunities foralternatively certified teachers inclassroom management, technology, andareas based on needs assessment.
Recommendations forFurther Study A study could be conducted with middleschools and/or high schools inexamining factors related to the jobsatisfaction and retention of alternativelycertified teachers. A study could be conducted in examiningthe impact of mentoring on the retentionof alternatively certified teachers.
Recommendations forFurther Study A study could be conducted in examiningthe impact of student academicachievement on the retention ofalternatively certified teachers. A study could be conducted evaluatingselected Alternative CertificationPrograms and teacher retention.
ReferencesBoardman, A., Darling-Hammond, L., and Mullin, S. (1982). A frameworkfor the analysis of teachers’ demand and supply. Economics of EducationReview, 2(2), 127-155.Busch, T.W., Pederson, K., Espin, C.A. & Weisenburger, J.W. (2001).Teaching students with learning disabilities: perceptions of a first-yearteacher. Journal of Special Education, 35, 100-104.Darling-Hammond, L. (2007b). Evaluating no child left behind. The Nation,11-18.Desjean-Perrotta, B., Flores, B., and Steinmetz, L. (2004). Teacher efficacy:A comparative study of university certified and alternatively certifiedteachers. Action in Teacher Education, 26(2), 37-46.Easley, J. (2006). Alternative route urban teacher retention and implicationfor principals’ moral leadership. Educational Studies, 32(3), 241-249.Haggstrom, G., Darling-Hammond, L., and Grissmer, D. (1988). Assessingteacher supply and demand. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
ReferencesHumphrey, D. and Wechsler, M. (2007). Insights into alternativecertification: Initial findings from a national study. Teachers CollegeRecord, 109 (3), 483-530.Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: anorganizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3),499-534.Mullinix, B.B. (2002). Selecting and retaining teacher mentors.Washington, DC. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No.ED477728).Rebore, W. (2007). Human resources administration in education. Boston,MA: Allyn and Bacon.Rosenow, D. (2005). Stress, burnout and self-esteem among educators.Journal of Border Educational Research, 4, 87-90.Spear, M., Gould, K., and Lee, B. (2000). Who would be a teacher? A reviewof factors motivating and demotivating prospective and practicing teachers(Slough, UK, NFER).
An Examination of Factors Relatedto the Job Satisfaction andRetention of Alternatively CertifiedTeachersA Dissertation DefensebyJennifer T. Butcher