Good morning my name is Mr. Brown and today we will discuss how you can get in the zone by making right choices
Can any one tell us what they are?
To begin with class. Let me ask you this question what does the word choice mean? The dictionary defines the word as: Now class what does this mean to us: Students this means that we have the power to choose
RQ1-RQ4 are guided by Bandura, reciprocal determinism, RQ1 and RQ4 Piaget Logic, Abstract thought and problem solving Specifically, Bandura’s Social Learning Theory components of reciprocal determinism and symbolizing (Bandura, 1986); along with Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development Theory concepts of logic, abstract thought and problem solving were used as a foundation to this research (Wadsworth, 2003). These concepts help to address the underlying rationale for the research questions of this study In the middle of the model
Example: Attitudes of disrespected staff impact interactions with those who are in trouble for being disrespectful. Fostered in the environment, attitudes and program structure of the DAEP
Fostered in the social skills training and curriculum and program structure of the DAEP
Reference Slide Below
When Parental Education Training is in place African American male recidivism rates are lower. If the training is not in place, then recidivism rates are higher. The Parental Education Training is a strong predictor of African American male recidivism rates.
Of the participant schools in this study, program structure models that were implemented consistently included point systems, restrictive environments, and a focus on improving social skills. Most respondents answered this question in general terms as described above. Quantitative findings and reoccurring themes indicate that program structure models that incorporate parental involvement mentoring and individual counseling positively affect African American male middle school students.
Regarding identified aspects of parental involvement and African American male student’s recidivism rates, most respondents indicated that it was important to educate parents regarding the expectations of DAEP placement during the initial placement period. Parent education training such as, being well informed on gang related behaviors, signs of addiction /drug abuse, current trends and ways parents can support their student (i.e. routines for completing home work, creating dialog with your child
None of the respondents identified a specific social skills curriculum, but rather, indicated the use of various techniques and philosophies focus on improving social interactions, decision making and communication. The common responses regarding the incorporation of social skills curriculum and training included mentoring and individual counseling – both of which focus on building, maintaining and practicing appropriate relationships.
These trainings can be advantageous skills to educators who deal with a room full of students who have disciplinary problems. Further, educators who feel competent utilizing these skills consistently during their teaching can practice brief interventions with African American males who seem to benefit from the one to one intervention model.
Teachers should be selected who score well on the TSES prior to placement.
This participation should encourage a smoother transition process for the student and both campuses, as all aspects involved in the education experience of the student are motivated and involved in the DAEP placement and the efforts to deter recidivism.
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Donald Ray Brown, Jr., Dissertation Defense PPT.
REDUCING RECIDIVISM RATES FOR AFRICANAMERICAN MALES ENROLLED INMIDDLE SCHOOL DISCIPLINARY ALTERNATIVEEDUCATION PROGRAMSA Dissertation DefensebyDONALD RAY BROWN, JR.Dissertation ChairWilliam Allan Kritsonis, PhDPhD Program in Educational Leadership
Dissertation Committee MembersDr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation ChairDr. David E. Herrington, Committee MemberDr. Patricia A. Smith, Committee MemberDr. Lisa Hobson Horton, Committee MemberDr. Solomon G. Osho, Committee Member
DAEP Structure The structure of the Disciplinary AlternativeEducation Program (DAEP) both physically (bylocation separation) and operationally is intended tobe a deterrent. The average length of stay is between 16-45 days(Inter-Cultural Development Research Association,1999). Most DAEP’s Operate on a Point System that servesas an indicator of when the child might be ready toexit the program (TEA,2007).
Student Cultural Dynamics When looking at structure on a variety of culturallevels, there may be an underlying indication to theAfrican American student that this setting is moreculturally conducive to his learning experience. For the African American male, this environmentmay be an educational environment where theyreceive individualized education assistance in asmaller group setting. The rigid structure of a DAEP can be difficult totransition out of when students return to their homecampus/school of origin.
Student Cultural Dynamics Multiple researchers have indicated thatthere is an overrepresentation of AfricanAmerican males in DAEP settings and in ourprison systems (Tobin & Sprague, 2000;TEA, 2007;). There is a correlation between thesedisciplinary experiences for African Americanmales (Parham & McDavis, 1987; TexasAppleseed, 2007).
Institutionalization These issues specifically influence the AfricanAmerican male because of the culture ofinstitutionalization in the black community. Institutionalization conveys the message of externallocus of control, hopelessness and cyclicaldegradation of the individual experiencing it. The structure and practices an African Americanmale experiences in the DAEP can in someinstances, be the expected cultural norm.
Statement of the Problem There are DAEP structural factors such as programming,operational styles and intervention components that couldcontribute to the over representation of recidivism for AfricanAmerican Males in DAEP’s. The recidivism rate of 6th-8thgrade African American malesreturning to alternative school settings is a growing problem ineducation (IDRA, 1999). Students who experience multiple transitions between DAEP’sand Regular Education Settings (RES’s) tend to have difficultyadjusting in America’s Public Education System and life’schallenges (Perkins, 1991).
Statement of the Problem Disciplinary Alternative EducationProgram (DAEP) literature related tooverrepresentation of African American male6th-8thgrade Middle School students does notadequately reflect structural factors thatcould reduce recidivism rates.
Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to investigate factorsthat reduce or eliminate high rates of recidivism forAfrican American male students enrolled in middleschool alternative education programs. Identifying best practices that produce low to norecidivism rates for African American male studentsenrolled in alternative education programs can beimplemented to improve DAEP success outcomes.
Theories Guiding the StudyReciprocal DeterminismSymbolizationLogicAbstract ThoughtProblem SolvingSocial &CulturalInfluenceBandura Piaget
Theories Guiding the StudyBandura’s Reciprocal Determinism Theory Behavior influences and is influenced bypersonal factors and social environment. Most external influences affect behaviorthrough cognitive processing. Behavior is conditioned through the use ofconsequences.
Theories Guiding the StudyPiaget’s Cognitive Development Theory:Formal Operational Stage Begins at age 12 and lasts throughadulthood Thinking hypothetically, conceptualization,outcomes and consequences Organized approach to problem solving
Significance of the Study Data gathered in this study highlightedstructural procedures and interventions thathelped to reduce or eliminate the percentageof African American males who return to thealternative education program after asuccessful completion. This study provided information that can helpimprove alternative education for all students.
Assumptions Piaget and Bandura paradigms support theassumption that institutionalization impacts:1. Interpersonal communication2. Worldviews3. Social and cultural interactions
Assumptions DAEP’s maintain institutional structure andprogramming by utilizing discipline measuresthat stagnate development processes relatedto logic, abstract thought and problemsolving skills that occur during adolescence. Identifying and improving upon structure,program components and Teachers’ Senseof Teacher Efficacy can only lead toimprovements in DAEP visit outcomes.
Limitations of the Study This study was limited to investigating AfricanAmerican male middle school students enrolled inDAEP’s located in South East Texas. Several large school districts did not have dataavailable through TEA regarding their districts DAEP. Demographics such as social economic status,parent marital status and TEA recognized schoolswere not taken into account for this study.
Sampling MethodsHomogeneous cases: Specifically, onlyAlternative Education Programs wereselected for this study.Within the study, criterion casesampling was used in each alternativesetting to identify the targetedpopulation.
Themes from Literature How DAEP’s were formed (Zweig 2003;TEA2007) DAEP Structure and Program (Aron, 2003) Best Practice Guidelines (McCreight, 1999;TEA, 2007) Overrepresentation of students in DAEPsetting (IDRA,1999; Skiba, Michael & Abra2000; Zweig, 2003)
Research Design This was a exploratory qualitative study thatallowed the researcher to first collectqualitative data and use the findings to givedirection to quantitative data collection(Frankel & Wallen, 2006). Interviews were coded for the emerging andcontrasting themes. Surveys were scored using a Likert scale.
Population and Sample The target population for this study wereAfrican American male 6th-8thgrade DAEPMiddle School students. Active participants included six buildingprincipals, three counselors and fortyteachers. Participants for the study were selectedthrough purposive sampling-subjectsbecause of some common characteristic(Patton 1990).
Instrumentation and Pilot StudyPermission was obtained from Dr. AnitaWoolfolk Hoy to use the Teachers’Sense of Teacher Efficacy Scale.A nine question pilot study was used toidentify program structurecharacteristics and program practices.
Data CollectionSurveysPilot Interview QuestionsTo ensure confidentiality, each DAEPcampus was coded with alpha andnumberExisting TEA Data
Data Analysis Quantitative data was collected on Teachers’ Senseof Teacher Efficacy retracted from their responses tothe instrument, Teachers’ Sense of Teacher EfficacyScale. Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale was designed tomeasure efficacy in student engagement,instructional practices and classroom management. Each item was measured on a 9-point scaleanchored with the notations: “nothing, very little,some influence, quite a bit, a great deal”.
Research Question #1 Is there a relationship between Teachers’Sense of Efficacy score, best practices, andAfrican American male student recidivismrates in disciplinary alternative educationsettings?– Teacher Self Efficacy Scale (TSES)– Best Practices being Utilized– TEA DAEP Data
Research Question #2 How does each program structure modelaffect African American male studentrecidivism rates in an alternative setting?– Administrator interview questions– TEA DAEP Data
Research Question #3 What aspect of parental involvementinfluences African American male studentrecidivism rates?– Administrator interview questions– TEA DAEP Data
Research Question #4 What influence does the Social SkillsCurriculum have on African American malestudent recidivism rates?– Administrator interview responses– Best practices being utilized by DAEP
Findings of the Study•Summary•Conclusions•Recommendations
Summary of Data AnalysisData was collected on DAEP programstructure, best practices, teacher’ssense of efficacy scale scores, parentalinvolvement and social skills curriculumfor each school.
Summary of Data AnalysisA Pearson r correlation coefficient wascalculated to determine if a relationshipexisted between the variables andAfrican American male recidivism rates.
Summary of Data AnalysisData analyses were based onresponses to TSES, interviewquestions, identified best practices andrecidivism data collected from TEA.
Summary of Data Analysis It was hypothesized that there will be no significantrelationship in the structure of the DAEP’s, theinterventions used in the DAEP’s and the Teachers’Sense of Teacher Efficacy of the teachers working inthe DAEP’s and their impact on reducing the rate ofrecidivism for African American males in grades 6-8enrolled in alternative education programs. Failed to reject the Null hypothesis.
Summary of Data AnalysisForty 6ththrough 8thgrade teachers, sixbuilding principals and three counselorsparticipated in the study that involvedsix DAEP campuses.
Summary of Data AnalysisData collected from the TSES werescored. Best practices were identifiedthrough the six administrators andthree counselor interviews. Recidivismdata was determined by data collectedfrom TEA.
Summary of Data AnalysisAll data received from the forty-nineparticipants of the DAEPs who agreedto participate were analyzed and codedbased on emerging themes of thoseinvolved.
Data Conclusions RQ1Is there a relationship between Teachers’ Sense of Efficacyscore, best practices, and African American male studentrecidivism rates in disciplinary alternative education settings?Correlations1 .384 -.227.453 .6666 6 6.384 1 -.745.453 .0906 6 6-.227 -.745 1.666 .0906 6 6Pearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NEfficacyInInstructionalStrategiesBestPracticeTotalRecidivismDataEfficacyInInstructionalStrategiesBestPracticeTotalRecidivismData
Data ConclusionsThe correlation between AfricanAmerican male recidivism data andTeachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scalescore was not significant at the .05level (significance of .666>.05).
Data ConclusionsAlthough there were no statisticallysignificant differences between theseconstructs, there was a strong negativecorrelation between DAEP bestpractices and recidivism.
Data ConclusionsThe more consistently best practicesused at the participating DAEP thelower the DAEP recidivism rates werefor African American Males in grades 6-8th.
Data ConclusionsHigher TSES scores were also found atschools with lower recidivism rates forAfrican American Males in grades 6-8th.
Data ConclusionsThe school that had the least bestpractices had the lowest TSES scoresand had the highest recidivism rates forthe population studied.
Data ConclusionsThe correlation between ParentalEducation Training and AfricanAmerican male recidivism rates wassignificant at the .05 level (significanceof .019>-.885).
Data ConclusionsRQ2: How does each program structuremodel affect African American malestudent recidivism rates in analternative setting?
Data ConclusionsProgram structure models that wereimplemented consistently includedpoint systems, restrictive environments,and a focus on improving social skills.
Data ConclusionsAs stated by DAEP 5 representative “we makethis school as uncomfortable as possible, weprovide an environment of care but also anenvironment that’s uncomfortable. To not beable to go to basketball games and footballgames and participate in all the activities.Hopefully, all these goodies that have beentaken way from the kids will encourage themto get out of here and stay out of here.”
Data ConclusionsRQ3 What aspect of parentalinvolvement influences AfricanAmerican male student recidivismrates?
Data ConclusionsRegarding parental involvement andAfrican American male student’srecidivism rates, most respondentsindicated that it was important toeducate parents regarding theexpectations of DAEP placementduring the initial placement period.
Data ConclusionsDAEP 20 representative stated “parentingprograms we have are done outside schoolhours, parents are invited, and we havesome brochures. We really don’t have toomuch parent involvement. We try to callparents when they are doing good, and wetry to call parents when we need some helpfrom the parents.”
Data ConclusionsRQ4 What influence does the SocialSkills Curriculum have on AfricanAmerican male student recidivismrates?
Data ConclusionsNone of the respondents identified aspecific social skills curriculum.However, the respondents preferredthe use of various techniques andphilosophies that focus on improvingsocial interactions, decision makingand communication.
Data ConclusionsMentoring programs and individualcounseling – both of which focus onbuilding, maintaining and practicingappropriate relationships were cited asbeing effective techniques to improvesocial skills for African American males.
Data Conclusions According to DAEP 5 assistance with transition is animportant part of the socializing process “Weimplemented a transition plan...I implemented a transitionclass for the first five days that they set foot on thiscampus and the transition class allow them to kind of getin the front door, get a little comfortable with theirsurroundings they’re all in one classroom but they knowthey’ve crossed over from being where they were into anew place. We do some conflict resolution with them, wehave them set goals.”
ImplicationsThe major implications of this study were as follows: To some extent recidivism of AfricanAmerican Males was affected by the programstructure, teacher sense of efficacy andDAEP best practices implemented atindividual DAEP campuses.
Implications Program structure, which includes the extentto which DAEP best practices areincorporated and implemented at eachcampus seems to impact the DAEPexperience for African American Malestudents.
Implications A holistic approach to programming, whichincorporates improved socializationprocesses along with teachers who feeleffective in their abilities to teach students inthe DAEP setting allow for somerehabilitation and reflection on the part of thestudent.
ImplicationsExtensive DAEP setting specifictraining along with preparation shouldbe provided for educators who work inthe DAEP environments.
ImplicationsDAEP setting specific training – shouldinclude verbal management ofaggressive behaviors, mediation,reflective listening, empatheticresponses and modeling appropriateassertive communication.
ImplicationsTSES should be considered whenselecting educators for the DAEPsetting.
ImplicationsDue to the special needs of DAEPstudents, it is important that aneducator feel competent and confidentin teaching.
ImplicationsTeachers should be selected whoscore well on the TSES prior toplacement.
ImplicationsDAEPs should incorporate individualcounseling, mandatory parenteducation training and mentoringprograms as interventions to deterrecidivism for African American Male 6-8th grade students.
Implications Respondents in this study indicated that theAfrican American male population tended torespond well to individual counseling andmentoring – with speculation leaning towardsthe individualized interactions of these typesof interventions.
ImplicationsDAEPs should encourage homecampuses to partake in more activeroles during the DAEP and homecampus transition processes.
ImplicationsTEA should require improved reportingof DAEP data from school districts.
ImplicationsTEA should offer improved accessibilityof DAEP data for purposes of research,trend identification and policyrecommendations.
ImplicationsIndividual DAEPs should record andtrack recidivism data
Recommendations for Further Study A study could be conducted to further explore theextent of the relationship between African AmericanMale DAEP participants and African American Maleswho become involved with the Criminal JusticeSystem. A study could be conducted which focuses on theDAEP experience and African American male DAEPstudent characteristics. A study could be conducted to determine moretrends and outcomes regarding DAEP recidivism.
Recommendations for Further Study A study could be conducted using internet surveytool participation versus in person interviews. A study could be conducted to explore DAEP AfricanAmerican Males grades 6-8thpersonal characteristics(for example: self esteem, social class, resiliency)and the impact on recidivism. A study could be conducted to include more districtDAEPs.
Recommendations for Further Study A study could be conducted to explore TSESscores related to teaching DAEP AfricanAmerican males, grades 6-8th. A study could be conducted to explore theimpact of DAEP specific trainings on TSESscores of teachers in DAEP settings.
SummaryThe purpose of this study was to investigatefactors that reduce or eliminate high rates ofrecidivism for African American male studentsenrolled in alternative education programs.Data gathered in this study indicates thatstructural procedures and interventions such asparent training, mentoring and individual counselinghelp to reduce or eliminate the percentage of AfricanAmerican males who return to the disciplinaryalternative education program after a successfulcompletion.
References Aron, L. Y. (2003). Towards a Typology of Alternative EducationPrograms: A Completion of Elements from the Literature. TheUrban Institute, 3, 1-30. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Cortez, A. (1999). Intercultural Development Research Association Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs in Texas – What isKnown; What is Needed. Forest Ecology and Management. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to Design and EvaluateResearch in Education Sixth Edition. 1221 Avenue of the Americas,New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
References McCreight, C. (1999). Best practices for Disciplinary AlternativeEducation Programs in Texas. Laredo, TX: Texas A&MInternational University. Parham, T.A., & Mc Davis, R.J. (1987). Black men, an endangeredspecies: Who’s really pulling the trigger? Journal of Counselingand Development, 66, 24-27. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods(2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Perkins, K. R. (1991). The Influence of Television Images on BlackFemales Self-Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness. Journal ofBlack Psychology, 22(4), 453-469.
References Skiba, R. J., Michael, R. S., & Abra , N. C. (2000). Sources of Racialand Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment. The Color ofDiscipline, , 1-21. Tobin, T. & Sprague, J. (2000). Alternative Education Strategies:Reducing Violence in School and the Community. Journal ofEmotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8(3), 1-22. Texas Education Agency, . (2007). Commissioners Rules Concerningthe Standards for the Operation of School District DisciplinaryAlternative Education Programs. DAEP Standards Proposed, , 1- 6.
References Texas Appleseed. (2007). Projects : School-to-Prison Pipeline, Impactof "Zero Tolerance" and Discretionary School Discipline Policiesin Texas. Retrieved Mar. 23, 2008, fromhttp://www.texasappleseed.net/projects_school-to-prison.shtml. Wadsworth B. J. (2003). Piagets Theory of Cognitive and AffectiveDevelopment: Foundations of Constructivism. : Pearson . Zweig, J.M. (2003). Vulnerable youth: Identifying their need foralternative educational settings. Washing-ton, DC: The UrbanInstitute.