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  1. 1. Copyright © 2005CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING William KritsonisPAGE 32 All Rights Reserved / ForeverThis book is protected under the Copyright Act of 1976. Uncited Sources,Violators will be prosecuted. Courtesy, National FORUM Journals CHAPTER 12 TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLINGKEY POINTS1. Approximately 1,300 universities and colleges offer teacher education pro- grams.2. The number of students enrolled in teacher education dropped significantly during the 1970s and early 1980s.3. The critical reports of the early 1980s and mid 1990s cited several weak- nesses in teacher education programs.4. Reforms have been initiated in the majority of university teacher education programs.5. The Carnegie Report and Holmes Group have made the most significant impact on teacher education reform.6. Teacher certification has changed very little during the past 50 years.7. Many states have alternative certification standards.8. It is difficult to predict if teacher shortages will be widespread. Shortages will continue to exist in “special needs” areas such as special education, foreign language, science and mathematics, remedial education, computer science, and bilingual education.
  2. 2. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 33CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA ANDSCHOOLINGA. OVERVIEWThis chapter provides information about how teachers are trained and certified.The reform actions in teacher education resulted from the critical reports thatare discussed, as well as current practices in teacher education. Also presentedare teacher testing requirements and how teachers can be certified using alter-native certification methods.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSADMISSION STANDARDS - most states now require minimum test scores toenter teacher education programs. The tool most often used is the student’sGPA. GPA requirements are on an upward swing.ALTERNATIVE CERTIFICATION - teacher licensure obtained through oth-er than traditional coursework in education courses.CARNEGIE REPORT - the Carnegie Report focused on similar areas as theHolmes Group. One additional recommendation was a suggestion for the cre-ation of a National Board of Professional Teaching Standards to determine theknowledge and skills teachers need to have and how to assess these skills.CERTIFICATION - must have a bachelor degree before certification; earn aminimal number of credit hours in various courses, including general educationcourses, professional education courses in the student’s teaching field, and stu-dent teaching. Certification for specialized positions such as principal, schoolpsychologist, guidance counselor, and so on requires a prescribed amount ofgraduate level study and teaching experience.EXIT CRITERIA - many colleges of education have begun to require teachersto pass exit exams such as the National Teacher Examination (NTE). Even ifthe university does not require the test, numerous states currently require theexam for teacher certification.FIVE-YEAR PROGRAM - for many years, some critics of teacher educationprograms have encouraged colleges and universities to expand training pro-grams to five years.HOLMES GROUP - a group of about 100 research universities that issued areport in 1986 calling for major reforms in teacher education.NATIONAL TEACHER EXAM (NTE) - an exit exam that a teacher has topass as a requirement for teacher certification.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 34PEDAGOGY - the art, science, or profession of teaching.REFORMS - colleges of education around the country are currently engagedin major revisions of their training programs to better meet the needs of stu-dents. The Holmes Group recommended five areas of change: (a) abandon un-dergraduate teacher education programs for a liberal arts undergraduate empha-sis and a master’s level focus on pedagogy; (b) create the position of careerprofessional teacher who would be involved with teaching, administration, andteacher education; (c) implement evaluation models for teachers and universitytraining programs; (d) create partnerships between schools of education andschool districts; (e) develop models for collaboration between teachers and ad-ministration.TEACHER EDUCATION - programs designed to train prospective teachers inpedagogy.TEACHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM - elementary education majorsrange from 12 to 78 credit hours, with a mean of 30 hours, some require 50semester hours of professional education courses; secondary, 12 to 47 hours,mean of 28 hours, require more than 30 semester hours for graduation. Theyalso take methods courses.TEACHER TESTING - testing new teachers is a controversial issue. TheNEA long opposed teacher testing and has just recently reversed its opposi-tions to testing. The AFT has a long-term record of supporting teacher testing.In addition to testing new teachers, some states have passed testing require-ments for veteran teachers.C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. What is the status of teacher education? Despite the large number of teacher education programs, the enrollment in these programs has declined sharply since 1970. In 1969, 24% of all col- lege bound students in the U.S. planned to major in teacher education. This number had dropped to less than 5% in 1982. From 1970 to 1986, the number of students graduating from teacher education programs dropped from 314,000 to under 90,000. One reason for the drop in numbers has been the decline in the status of teaching. The reasons for declining enrollments in teacher education programs are complex and include more than lower teacher status. One obvious reason for the lower number of education majors is the lack of available jobs. In the 1960s, teaching jobs were taken by approximately 25% of all college graduates. When the market became over-supplied with qualified teachers at the end of the 1960s, graduates from liberal arts programs who could be-
  4. 4. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 35 come certified with minimal additional training found no jobs were avail- able. The result was that fewer undergraduates majored in education. Now the ratio of graduates to job openings has reversed. The number of public school teachers in schools is expected to increase from the present 2.2 million to more than 2.4 million in 2002. This demand for teachers should lead to an increase in the number of undergraduate ma- jors in teacher education. Generally, teacher education is becoming more practical and reality based. Competency-based teacher education, school based centers for preparing teachers, early field experience in elementary and secondary schools are some of the most recent trends. Fifth-year and five-year programs are being introduced in hopes of developing reflective teachers. Teachers are being prepared to use the latest technology, to work with students having special needs, and to teach in diverse environments.2. What are the major criticisms of teacher education? a. admission standards are so low that anyone can enroll in teacher educa- tion programs; b. education majors take too much coursework on “how to teach” and not enough on “what to teach”; c. the general education program for prospective teachers is less rigorous than that required of other majors; d. anyone who gains admission to a teacher education program will un- doubtedly graduate because the academic standards are so low. Other criticisms include the overall quality of education majors, poor abili- ties of teacher education faculty, and the lack of general education courses taken by education majors.3. How have universities responded to criticisms related to teacher train- ing? Colleges of education around America are currently engaged in major revi- sions of their training programs to better meet the needs of students. Some of the changes include: (a) improving the quality of teacher education ma- jors; (b) revising the curriculum; (c) increasing funding for teacher educa- tion; and (d) developing alternative certification requirements. Some university teacher education programs require more field experience than student teaching. For example, students may enroll in three different field experiences. In addition to the normal student teaching, education majors enroll in an introductory field experience where they are involved in a school improvement project with a cooperating local school district.
  5. 5. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 36 In addition to implementing better screening of students at the beginning of teacher education programs, many universities have begun to require teachers to pass exit examinations such as the National Teachers Examina- tion. Even if the university does not require an exit test, numerous states currently require tests as a requirement for teacher certification. Other states will implement certification test requirements. Of tests used, the NTE is required most often. In response to criticisms by the Holmes Group and in the Carnegie Report, many universities and colleges are expanding their teacher education pro- grams to five years.4. How are teachers certified in most states? Most states require that all individuals have a bachelor’s degree before they can be certified. Most states also require that students earn a minimal number of credit hours in various courses, including general education courses, professional education courses, courses in the student’s special- ized teaching field, and student teaching.5. What is alternative certification and what is its status? With teacher shortages being severe in some areas (i.e., science and math, special education, foreign languages, remedial education, computer sci- ence, bilingual education), and emerging criticisms of traditional teacher education programs, states have opted to initiate alternative methods to certify teachers other than through traditional college of education degree programs. Numerous states have implemented alternative certification pro- visions since the mid-1990s.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. What are some of the major criticisms aimed at teacher education programs? a. admission standards are so low that anyone can enroll in teacher educa- tion programs; b. education majors take too much coursework in “how to teach” and not enough coursework in “what to teach”; c. the general education program for prospective teachers is less rigorous than that required of other majors; d. anyone who gains admission to a teacher education program will un- doubtedly graduate because the academic standards are so low.
  6. 6. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 372. What are some of the reforms that have been made recently in teacher education programs? a. expanding teacher education programs to five years; b. implementing exit criteria; c. improving the curriculum; d. improving the quality of teaching education majors.3. What are the elements of The Kritsonis Advanced Knowledge Level of Thinking Model? The purpose of the The Kritsonis Advanced Knowledge Level of Think- ing Model is to illustrate students’ potential knowledge level of thinking. A teacher has an advanced knowledge level of thinking because of educa- tion, training, or experience. These experiences can never be totally im- parted to the learner. The teacher can go only so far because learners are deficient in their maturity, storage of information, education, training, and experience. At best, the teacher may hope to bring students to a knowledge level of thinking approaching the 50% level. Although teachers try, they can never impart a total of 100% of their knowledge because the learner has limited experiences. Therefore, if learn- ers are to advance beyond the 50% knowledge level of thinking, they must accept the responsibility for gaining additional experiences and training along with educating themselves. By doing so, the student advances past the 50% level toward gaining an advanced level of thinking.
  7. 7. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 384. What is the National Education Code of Ethics? Preamble The educator, believing in the worth and dignity of each human being, rec- ognizes the supreme importance of the pursuit of truth, devotion to excel- lence, and the nurture of democratic principles. Essential to these goals is the protection of freedom to learn and to teach and the guarantee of equal educational opportunity for all. The educator accepts the responsibility to adhere to the highest ethical standards. The educator recognizes the magnitude of the responsibility inherent in the teaching process. The desire for the respect and confidence of one’s col- leagues, of students, of parents, and of the members of the community pro- vides the incentive to attain and maintain the highest possible degree of ethical conduct. The Code of Ethics of the Education Profession indicates the aspiration of all educators and provides standards by which to judge conduct. The remedies specified by the NEA and/or its affiliates for the violation of any provision of this Code shall be exclusive and no such provision shall be enforceable in any form other than one specifically designated by the NEA or its affiliates. Principle I–Commitment to the Student. The educator strives to help each student realize his or her potential as a worthy and effective member of so- ciety. The educator therefore works to stimulate the spirit of inquiry, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, and the thoughtful formula- tion of worthy goals. In fulfillment of the obligation to the student, the educator a. shall not unreasonably restrain the student from independent actions in the pursuit of learning; b. shall not unreasonably deny the student access to varying points of view; c. shall not deliberately suppress or distort subject matter relevant to the student’s progress; d. shall make reasonable effort to protect the student from conditions harmful to learning or to health and safety; e. shall not intentionally expose the student to embarrassment or dispar- agement;
  8. 8. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 39 f. shall not on the basis of race, color, creed, sex, national origin, marital status, political or religious beliefs, family, social or cultural back- ground, or sexual orientation, unfairly: 1. exclude any student from participation in any program; 2. deny benefits to any student; 3. grant any advantage to any student. g. shall not use professional relationships with students for private advan- tage; h. shall not disclose information about students obtained in the course of professional service, unless disclosure serves a compelling professional purpose or is required by law. Principle II–Commitment to the Profession. The education profession is vested by the public with a trust and responsibility requiring the highest ideals of professional service. In the belief that the quality of the services of the education profession di- rectly influences the nation and its citizens, the educator shall exert every effort to raise professional standards, to promote a climate that encourages the exercise of professional judgment, to achieve conditions that attract persons worthy of the trust to careers in education, and to assist in prevent- ing the practice of the profession by unqualified persons. In fulfillment of the obligation to the profession, the educator a. shall not in an application for a professional position deliberately make a false statement or fail to disclose a material fact related to competen- cy and qualifications; b. shall not misrepresent his/her professional qualifications; c. shall not assist entry into the profession of a person known to be unqual- ified in respect to character, education, or other relevant attribute; d. shall not knowingly make a false statement concerning the qualifica- tions of a candidate for a professional position; e. shall not assist a non-educator in the unauthorized practice of teaching; f. shall not disclose information about colleagues obtained in the course of professional service unless disclosure serves a compelling profes- sional purpose or is required by law; g. shall not knowingly make false or malicious statements about a col- league;
  9. 9. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 40 h. shall not accept any gratuity, gift, or favor that might impair or appear to influence professional decisions or actions. Source: National Education Association. (1975). Code of ethics of the educational profession. Adopted by the NEA Representative Assembly. Excerpt reprinted by permission of the As- sociation.5. What are some Contemporary Professional Terminologies? Academy - American secondary school during colonial times; stressed practical subjects. Accountability - responsibility related to quality of educational programs. Accreditation - acknowledgment by an outside group that an educational institution or program meets certain standards. Administrative Hierarchy - administrative organization of a local school district. Aesthetics - philosophy related to beauty. Alternative Certification - teacher licensure obtained through means oth- er than traditional coursework in education courses. American College Testing Program (ACT) - college entrance exam used by many universities. American Federation of Teachers (AFT) - a national teachers’ organiza- tion second only to the National Education Association in membership. Assistant Principal - administrative position in an individual school that primarily assists the principal in administrative duties. Assistant Superintendent - administrative position in a school district that primarily assists the superintendent in administrative duties. Attitude - preconceived notions or ideas that affect behavior toward cer- tain groups of people or programs. Audiovisual Kit - instructional materials, usually in the form of filmstrips, tapes, and other audiovisual items and printed information. Axiology - area of philosophy that focuses on values. Back-to-the-Basics - movement to return schools to emphasizing basic academic subjects in the curriculum. Behaviorism - educational philosophy and practice that emphasizes rein- forcing appropriate behavior or learning. Includes the concepts of stimulus and response.
  10. 10. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 41 Bilingual Education - educational programs aimed at providing equal op- portunities to limited-English-speaking students. Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge - bill presented by Thomas Jefferson in Virginia that would have made three years of elemen- tary education available for all children. Although defeated, this bill laid the foundation for public education. Board of Education - a group of citizens at the local and state levels, usu- ally elected but occasionally appointed, that set policies for schools. Building Level Administration - administration of individual schools (usually the principal). Burnout - the process of losing interest and motivation in teaching or oth- er fields. Cardinal Principles - seven goals for secondary education developed by the NEA in the early 20th century. Career Education - a concept that aims at preparing students for adult- hood, with emphasis on careers and vocation; can be infused into existing curricula K-12. Carnegie Report - a report issued by a task force organized by the Carnegie Foundation with suggestions for revising teacher education. Career Ladder - a system of incentives developed for teachers to improve and reward their professional skills. Categorical Aid - financial assistance provided to local schools for specif- ic programs or purposes. Censorship - the act of censoring materials such as library books and text- books. Central office - refers to the district administration level of local school districts. Certification - teacher licensure. Change Agent - a role of school administrators related to making and in- fluencing innovations in schools. Closed-Circuit Television - a form of educational technology using a tele- vision and video camera. Colonial Period - period in American education from 1607 to 1788. Committee of Fifteen - a committee appointed in 1895 by the National Education Association that reversed the findings of the Committee of Ten.
  11. 11. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 42Common School - free, publicly supported schools for all children; move-ment began in the mid 1800s.Competency - ability to perform certain skills at appropriate levels.Comprehensive High School - secondary schools that provide a variety ofcurricular options for students.Compulsory Education – legal, mandated education for all students with-in certain age groups.Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) - programmed instruction using acomputer.Computer Science - the study of computers and computer programming.Conservative Movement - movement to influence educational programsby conservative groups.Consolidation - combining smaller school districts into larger districts.Core Curriculum - required curriculum for all students.Creation-Science - the study of the development of humanity based on theBible.Cultural Pluralism - a society composed of many varied cultures forminga unified cultural group.Curriculum - all experiences provided to students in schools.Declining Enrollments - trend in schools during the past decade.Department of Education - cabinet-level office within the federal gov-ernment responsible for education.Discipline - actions in response to inappropriate behavior or actions thatprevent inappropriate behaviors.Due Process - procedural safeguards afforded students, parents, and teach-ers that protects individual rights.Educational Philosophy - application of formal philosophy to the field ofeducation.Educational Technology - technology applied to educational practices,primarily instruction.Educational Television - educational programs broadcast by either com-mercial stations or specialized educational networks that emphasize educa-tional subjects.Education Trends - forecasted patterns in education.
  12. 12. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 43 Elementary Schools - grades 1-6 or K-6. English Grammar School - model of elementary education in colonial America. Enlightenment Period - period in Europe during 18th century. Epistemology - branch of philosophy that focuses on the nature of knowl- edge. Essentialism - area of philosophy that believes a common core of knowl- edge and ideals should be the focus of the curriculum. Ethics - philosophy that studies values. Evaluation - assessing the quality and effectiveness of programs for indi- viduals and groups. Evolution - the study of the development of humanity based on scientific data that proposes human beings developed from lower life forms. Exceptional Children - students with disabilities or talents that require specialized programs. Existentialism - philosophy that emphasizes individuals and individual decision making. Federal Government – national government that is centrally located in Washington DC. Federal Role - role of the federal government in education. Formula Grants - educational funding based on the number of children eligible for various programs. Fringe Benefits - any number of benefits provided employees in addition to salary. Examples include insurance programs, retirement programs, and liability insurance. Full-Time Equivalency (FTE) - funding model used at many universities where programs are funded based on the number of full-time students en- rolled. Futurism - study of the future, including global concerns and more re- gional or local matters. General Curriculum - basic curriculum required of all students. Geopolitics - political status of all countries in the world. Gifted and Talented - a group of students whose abilities are above those of most students; these students require specialized programs.
  13. 13. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 44Global Trends - forecasted developments that have an impact on the en-tire world, such as geopolitics, hunger, population.Graded Schools - schools organized using a step system whereby studentsare usually grouped related to chronological age rather than abilities.Graduation Requirements - courses and competencies required of allstudents for graduation.Handicapped Children - students who deviate from the norm due tophysical, emotional, or mental disabilities.History of Education - historical study of education.Holmes Group - a group of about 100 research universities that issued areport calling for major reforms in teacher education.Hornbook - a single page, usually attached to a wooden paddle, contain-ing the alphabet, syllables, a prayer, and other simple words; this “book”was used extensively in colonial schools.Idealism - a philosophy that emphasizes global ideas related to moralteachings.Individualized Educational Program (IEP) - individual program ofstudy mandated by federal and state laws for all handicapped students inspecial education programs.Individualized Instruction - instruction designed to meet the needs of anindividual student. Every student’s individualized program is different.Instructional Television - televised lessons broadcast for schools usuallyon educational television.Intermediate Unit - a level of educational organization between localschool districts and the state department of education.Kindergarten - school programs for pre-school age children; term coinedby Froebel.Latin Grammar School - secondary school whose curriculum empha-sized Latin and Greek and focused on preparing students for college.Learning Disability - a handicapping condition where students of averageor above-average intelligence have difficulty with academic subjects.Least-Restrictive Environment - educational setting that is closest to anormal classroom for handicapped learners.Legislation - acts passed by state legislatures and Congress that becomelaws.
  14. 14. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 45 Litigation - court actions, suits. Local Education Agency (LEA) - local school districts. This is the basic educational unit in all states. Mainstreaming - the practice of integrating handicapped students into regular classrooms and programs as much as possible; implementation of the least-restrictive environment. Measurement - another term used interchangeably with evaluation. Medieval Period - period in Europe from 476 to 1300. Melting Pot Theory - theory that people from all cultures form a common culture. Mental Retardation - handicapping condition related to intellectual deficits; usually defined in terms of limited IQ scores and adaptive behav- ior. Merit Pay - salary paid to an employee based on the employee’s abilities or competencies, regardless of number of years of services. Metaphysics - philosophy that studies the nature of reality. Microcomputer - personalized computer the approximate size of a televi- sion set or smaller. Middle School - an organized educational unit between elementary school and high school; usually includes grades 5-8. Mill - a tenth of a cent or a thousandth of a dollar. Used to assess the rate of property taxes. Minimum Competency Testing - evaluations to determine if students have minimum skills necessary for progressing to the next grade or gradu- ation. Minimum Foundation Program - funding model found in most states that attempts to guarantee a basic educational program for children funded at an average minimal level. Monitorial Schools - school model where brightest students were instruct- ed and in turn they taught other students. Motivation - willingness or drive to accomplish something. Nation at Risk Report (1983) - national report developed by the National Commission that indicated public education in the United States has seri- ous problems.
  15. 15. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 46National Commission on Education - a study group formed in the early1980s to investigate the status of public education in the United States.National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education(NCATE) - accreditation agency that certifies the quality of teacher educa-tion programs nationwide.National Education Association (NEA) - largest teachers’ organization inthe United States.National Period - period in American education from 1788 to the present.Negative Reinforcement - removal of an aversive stimulus when appro-priate behavior is exhibited.New England Primer - early textbook used in colonial schools.New Right - term used to refer to extremely conservative groups that at-tempt to influence educational programs.Nongraded School - an organizational pattern for schools that use stu-dents’ abilities for grouping rather than assigning students to certain gradesbased on chronological age.Normal School - first college training programs that prepared teachers.Northwest Ordinance - early legislation passed by the national govern-ment prior to the ratification of the United States Constitution.Open Classroom - physical organization of schools where room dividersare deleted; students are educated in groups in large, open areas.Overpopulation - a condition when there are more people than a particu-lar land mass can accommodate.Paraprofessional - teachers’ aides and others who assist teachers in edu-cational programs.Parent Teachers Association (PTA) - national organization composed ofparents and teachers that advocates for public education.Pedagogy - science and art of teaching.Perennialism - educational philosophy that believes in the existence ofunchanging universal truths.Personnel Evaluation - evaluation of individual teachers and administra-tors.Philosophy of Education - application of philosophy to educational pro-grams and practices.
  16. 16. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 47 Piagetian Theory - theory of child development based on the writing of Jean Piaget. Population Trends - forecasted patterns of population growth and decline. Pragmatism - philosophy that focuses on practical application of knowl- edge; John Dewey was a leading proponent. Principal - administrator in charge of individual schools. Program Evaluation - evaluation of specific programs regarding their ef- fectiveness. Progressive Tax - a tax where individuals with higher incomes pay more taxes than individuals with lower incomes. Progressivism - educational philosophy emphasizing experiences. Property Assessment - determination of property values to assign taxes to individuals. Property Tax - taxes assessed on local properties used to finance public education. Proportional Tax - taxes that require individuals to pay the same percent- age of their incomes regardless of income level. Public law 94-142 - Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Passed in 1975, this act mandates a free, appropriate public education for all hand- icapped children. Public Law 99-457 - a federal law passed in 1986 that mandates schools to serve children with disabilities, ages 3-5, by 1990-1991. Punishment - application of something unpleasant to a child following in- appropriate behavior. Puritan Influence - influence over education by Puritans in the New Eng- land colonies during colonial America. Realism - philosophy that emphasizes natural sciences and gaining knowl- edge through experiences. Reform Movements of the 1980s - educational reforms initiated in the early 1980s in response to several national reports concerning the quality of public education. Reinforcement - stimulus provided following a behavior; may be positive or negative. Reinforcement Schedule - schedule used to determine when reinforcers are given to a person.
  17. 17. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 48Regressive Tax - taxes where persons with lower incomes pay proportion-ally more taxes than individuals with higher incomes.Reliability - the technical aspect of a test that indicates that students’scores will be stable over time.Renaissance and Reformation - period in Europe between 1300 and1700.School Counselor - professionals in schools who provide counseling forstudents who need affective intervention.School Social Worker - social worker who works in schools to providesocial work services to students and their families.School Superintendent - chief school administrator at the local districtlevel; usually appointed by the local board of education.Secondary Reinforcer - a reinforcer paired with a primary reinforcer de-signed to influence behavior after the primary reinforcer is no longer pro-vided.Secondary Schools - schools that provide educational programs for olderstudents; usually includes grades 9-12 or 10-12.Secretary of Education - cabinet-level official in charge of the UnitedStates Department of Education.Self-Contained Classroom - classroom organization where students re-main in the same room with the same teacher all day.Sexism - practice of discrimination based on gender.Shaping - the process of providing reinforcers to alter a child’s behaviorinto appropriate forms.Software - computer programs.Special Education - specialized programs developed for the education ofchildren with disabilities.Standardized Test - a test that is norm-referenced and has specific admin-istration standards so scores can be compared.State Department of Education - state unit responsible for public andprivate educational programs in states.Symbolic Representation - most abstract of representation commonly re-ferred to as verbal learning or problem solving.Superintendent - chief school administrative officer in local school dis-tricts.
  18. 18. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 49 Supervisor - administrator responsible for specific programs in public schools, e.g., supervisor of special education, vocational education super- visor, supervisor of elementary education. Supply and Demand - comparison between the number of teachers trained and the number needed for open positions. Taxes - payments to a government to pay for various services. Tax Revolt - movement to decrease taxes during the 1970s. Tax Sources - sources of tax revenue. Teacher Education - programs designed to train prospective teachers in pedagogy. Teacher Testing - a movement begun in Arkansas in the early 1980s to test teachers in basic skills. Teacher Unions - teachers’ organizations that lobby for educational pro- grams and teachers’ rights and benefits. The NEA and AFT are the two largest national teacher unions in the United States. Teacher Unit - a method of funding public education programs based on the number of teachers needed for a particular district or program. Technology - use of technical materials and equipment in schools. Tenth Amendment United States Constitution - amendment that re- serves to states areas not specifically mentioned in the Constitution. Tenure - an employee benefit that makes it difficult to terminate someone; usually provided to teachers after several years of successful teaching ex- perience. Textbook Censorship - the process of groups determining which text- books meet their standards. Tracking - practice of channeling students into certain courses based on ability levels. Ungraded Schools - school organization where students progress based on their ability level rather than chronological age. Validity - technical aspect of tests indicating that they measure what they purport to measure. Values Clarification - a teaching program that focuses on students under- standing and expressing their own values. Videocassette Technology - equipment consisting of a television and videocassette camera for use in educational settings.
  19. 19. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 50 Vocational Education - programs that emphasize career preparation. Training of students for particular jobs or skills. Weighted Pupil Method – a method of state funding for public education based on the needs of types of students.6. What are some specific guidelines for conducting educational research relative to field studies and/or projects? a. Parts of a Proposal 1. Title 2. Introduction to the Study 3. Review of the Literature 4. Statement of the Problem 5. Purpose of the Study 6. Research Questions and/or Hypotheses 7. Definitions 8. Assumptions 9. Limitations 10. Methodology 11. Significance of the Study 12. References b. Parts of a Field Study, Thesis, or Dissertation 1. Title Page 2. Abstract 3. Table of Contents 4. Chapter 1 Introduction to the Study Statement of the Problem, Purpose of the Study, Research Ques- tions and/or Hypotheses, Definitions, Assumptions, Limitations, Significance of the Study. Note: This is basically the proposal mi- nus the review of the literature and minus the methodology. 5. Chapter 2 Review of the Literature 6. Chapter 3 Methods and Procedures Expanded and detailed (Subjects, Instrument, Procedures, Tabula- tion of Data, Treatment of Data).
  20. 20. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 51 7. Chapter 4 Analysis of Data or Results of Study Demographic information of sample or population results-raw data in prose and graph or chart form summary of results. 8. Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations Summarize results, make conclusions, make recommendations based on findings, and recommend further study on topic or similar topic. 9. References 10. Appendix Possibly make a list of where specific tables, charts or graphs are located. c. A Research Proposal: The Framework for a Study 1. Title a. Uses enough descriptive words to catalog it by ERIC and Re- sources in education. b. Example: The effects of collective negotiations on teacher job satisfaction in the Vermilion Parish School District 2. Introduction to the Study Short attention getting. Describes what the proposal will cover and makes the reader interested in the topic of interest. A brief back- ground of where the study will be conducted could add to the intro- duction. Briefly set the stage for the study. Keep it brief; remember this is a proposal not the completed study; one to two pages. 3. Review of the Literature This part of the proposal reviews relevant info and relevant litera- ture pertaining to your topic. Previous research and previous litera- ture should be included. Five to 15 citations are normally enough for a proposal. Try to keep citations RELEVANT AND RECENT; two to six pages. 4. Statement of the Problem a. This part of the proposal logically sets up the underlying intel- lectual motives for you doing the research on this specific topic and this specific problem b. Example: There appears to be opposing conclusions in the re- search concerning collective bargaining and its effect upon the
  21. 21. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 52 plight of the teacher. Smith (1992) found that bargaining had not benefited teachers. Jones (1994) noted that bargaining had greatly enhanced teacher morale. (Opposing conclusions are a good way to set up the statement of the problem.)5. Purpose of the Study a. Succinctly describe what the research intends to find. b. Example: The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the collective bargaining process has influenced teach- er job satisfaction levels; one paragraph.6. Research Questions a. State the specific questions that the study will attempt to an- swer. Here you are breaking down the PURPOSE OF THE STUDY into several relevant research questions. Keep in mind that the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, and re- search questions must all fall logically in line. b. Examples: 1. What was the level of teacher job satisfaction before bar- gaining rights. 2. What was the level of teacher job satisfaction after bargain- ing rights. 3. Was there a significant mean change in teacher job satisfac- tion following the acquisition of collective bargaining rights.7. Hypotheses a. Puts the research questions in statistical terms. b. Example: There is no significant difference in teacher job satisfaction following the acquisition of bargaining rights.8. Definitions a. Here you will define terms specific to your study that the out- side reader would not be familiar with. Also specifically opera- tionally define general terms that you assume all would know but might be different in different school districts in the region, state, or nation. b. Examples:
  22. 22. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 53 1. Vermilion Parish School District - This is a mostly rural school district in southwestern Louisiana comprised of 1300 sq. miles. The district serves 10,000 students and em- ploys 500 teachers. 2. VAE - The school district affiliate of the National Educa- tional Association. Sixty-nine percent of all Vermilion teachers belong to this organization. 3. Teacher(s) - Those persons employed in the school district with the primary objective being the academic instruction of students. This does not include librarians and counselors in this specific study. 9. Assumptions a. Any assumed aspect that you the researcher may make should be noted and stated. b. Examples: 1. The instrument used in this study will accurately measure the job satisfaction levels of teachers. 2. Teachers will objectively answer the questions posed to them in the study. 10. Limitations a. Any boundary or limitation of the study should be stated. b. Examples: 1. The study will measure levels of teacher job satisfaction in only one school district. 2. The findings of this study may not be generalized to other settings due to unique characteristics of the school district. 3. Teachers surveyed may vary in years of experience. 11. Methodology Four parts to methodology section of proposal. a. Subjects - Describe subjects or sample (who and where). You may describe population within this part; two to three para- graphs. b. Instrument - Describe instrument or test and specific materials. Validity and reliability may be discussed; two to three para- graphs.
  23. 23. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 54 c. Procedures - Describe a step-by-step process of what you plan to do. Timeline and permission to do study may be mentioned. d. Data Analysis - Describe how you will analyze the data. What type of stat test will be used, will you compare means, will you have charts or graphs; one to two paragraphs. Note: A research proposal is only the framework for your study. Be brief but concise enough to let your major ad- visor know what it is you intend to undertake. A propos- al is usually 7-12 pages in length. Quality not quantity. 12. Significance of the Study a. State why this study is important and worthy of the time and ef- fort that will go into it. Validate the reasoning behind doing a specific study of this type in this region, district, or state. b. Examples: 1. Data derived from this study will serve as a guide to school districts in similar settings that are also considering the col- lective bargaining process. 2. This study will also provide information on a topic that has largely been ignored in the research and literature. 13. References Five to 15 are usually enough for a proposal (RELEVANT, RE- CENT, APA).d. Add the following to your proposal and you will have the completed field study. 1. The Abstract A one page summary of the complete study. This becomes page 2 of the completed study. 2. Expand the Review of the Literature This will become Chapter 2 of the completed study. 3. Expand the Methodology Title it “Methods and Procedures.” Go into detail on what was done in the study. This becomes Chapter 3 of your completed study. You may have to change some things.
  24. 24. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 55 4. Add Chapter 4 Title it “Analysis of Data.” Briefly describe in prose and in chart/graph form the numerical results of the study. Do not explain or summarize or conclude in this chapter. Save your thoughts for the next chapter. Merely show and tell how the results turned out without a big brainstorm on why they turned out as they did. 5. Add Chapter 5 Title it “Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations.” Here is where you will summarize the results of the study, but then you also may put yourself into it and explain why the results turned out as they did. Here is the chance you have been waiting for to brain- storm and play the part of the expert. Here you tell why you think it turned out as it did. Try to consider all factors and all variables that could have played upon and influenced the dependent variable. You may choose to be even more scholarly and recommend further study on this topic to other aspiring researchers. Further study could probably be done on this issue at another school or in a slightly different manner. Source: This section originally conceived and developed by Dr. Neil T. Faulk. It was further re- fined by Dr. William Kritsonis and edited by Dr. Joe Savoie.7. What components of discipline are imperative for all teachers? a. background information needed for understanding discipline problems: 1. discipline problems are not new; 2. discipline problems as viewed by new teachers: a. students try out a new teacher; b. many new teachers try unrealistic approaches; c. the new teacher is unfamiliar with the local situation; d. new teachers often feel insecure; e. schools where new teachers likely to work; 3. discipline problems and the experienced teacher; 4. solutions to discipline problems are being sought; 5. knowing what the role of the teacher is. b. information a teacher should remember about the psychology of misbe- havior: 1. discipline problems arise from: a. boredom;
  25. 25. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 56 b. frustration; c. rebellion; d. insecurity; 2. teachers can help by: a. accepting the fact that performance varies; b. being a compassionate human; c. giving students a part in rule making.c. kinds of social problems that relate to sociology impact discipline: 1. urbanization; 2. family changes; 3. job situation; 4. mobility; 5. parental attitude towards school and teachers; 6. changing view toward authority.d. the principal’s role in school discipline includes: 1. helper of: a. responsibility; b. self-interest; c. position; 2. an enforcer; 3. a referrer.e. legal implications for handling discipline problems in schools are: 1. due process; 2. laws deal with several areas: a. search and seizure; b. dress code; c. corporal punishment; 3. teachers must operate within the law; 4. disciple policy; 5. minor offense regulations;
  26. 26. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 57 6. elementary school regulations; 7. other offenses; 8. suspension regulations; 9. reinstatement of student on short-term suspension; 10. long-term suspension procedure; 11. suspension hearings; 12. expulsion procedures; 13. status and rehabilitation of suspended and expelled students. f. types of behaviors in school occur from: 1. anti-social behavior (the basic problem): a. vandalism; b. fighting; c. classroom disruption; d. stealing, cheating, and others; 2. the goal is intelligent self-control: take students as they are. g. behavioral problems: some reasons why students act the way they do: 1. students feel an obligation to try out the teacher; 2. certain students are not interested in the material being studied; 3. everybody needs recognition as a person; 4. some problems have an academic base; 5. many students are born conformists; 6. many students bring resentments to school; 7. to many youngsters, rebellion is part of growth. h. teachers can avoid contributing to discipline problems in schools by: 1. being organized; 2. being definite; 3. being natural; 4. acting as an adult at all times; 5. being consistent and fair; 6. developing a thick skin;
  27. 27. CHAPTER 12–TEACHER PREPARATION IN AMERICA AND SCHOOLING PAGE 58 7. avoiding arguments; 8. avoiding temper fits; 9. developing a set of values; 10. not threatening; 11. avoiding humiliating the pupil if possible; 12. giving students responsibility if they can handle it; 13. not rushing to give absolution. i. “If you can’t control ’em, you can’t learn ’em”–things teachers can do to control discipline: 1. know the law as it applies to disciplinary matters; 2. know the local customs and conditions regarding discipline; 3. keep an eye on seating arrangements; 4. be sure that everyone has something to do; 5. vary the activities; 6. think positively; 7. be a human being; 8. avoid group indictments; 9. try to maintain good rapport with student leaders; 10. avoid using school work for punishment; 11. keep referrals to a minimum; 12. so far as possible, make corrections privately; 13. learn as much as you can about the students; 14. work with parents as appropriate; 15. don’t look for the end of the list. Source: Kritsonis, W. (2000). School discipline: The art of survival. Illustrated by Lawrence A. Rybicki. Ashland, OH: BookMasters, Inc.E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. Approximately one-third of today’s teachers possess a master’s degree.
  28. 28. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 592. Graduation requirements vary greatly from state to state.3. One reason for the decline in the number of education majors has been the lack of jobs.4. In most states today, the minimum education required to become a certi- fied teacher is the Associate of Arts degree.5. Many different groups have accused teachers of being the major cause of problems in public education.Multiple Choice1. Since 1970, enrollment in teacher education programs has _______. a. dropped slightly b. dropped sharply c. increased slightly d. increased sharply2. Teacher education programs have traditionally attracted students who _______. a. are not as academically talented as other majors b. are significantly more academically talented as other majors c. are academically indistinguishable from other majors d. none of the above3. The number of states that have requirements for recertification is _______. a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 40