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  1. 1. CHAPTER 10– Copyright © 2005 EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING William Kritsonis PAGE 246 All Rights Reserved / Forever This book is protected under the Copyright Act of 1976. Uncited Sources, Violators will be prosecuted. Courtesy, National FORUM Journals CHAPTER 10 EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING KEY POINTS 1. The administrative hierarchy provides a chain of command. 2. There are approximately 15,000 school districts in the United States. 3. School boards are usually elected officials that establish school policies and employ a superintendent to implement them. School boards derive their authority from, and work as agents of the state. 4. School superintendents are considered the chief executive officer (CEO) of the school district. Superintendents regulate the district’s decision-making process. Functions include obtaining and developing personnel, managing the district’s funds and facilities, maintaining good community relation- ships, and general instructional leadership. 5. Principals are responsible for all the activities in their buildings. 6. Principals have a variety of roles, foremost of which is instructional leader. 7. Principals also have to be change agents, personnel and program evalua- tors, business managers, and disciplinarians. 8. Functions of the principalship at the building level include budgeting, su- pervision of faculty and staff, instructional leadership, student personnel administration, record management, and other tasks prescribed by law and school board policy. 9. Some schools employ assistant principals who take some of the day-to-day burdens off the principals.10. School administrators receive better pay and benefits than teachers.11. Persons become school administrators through university training programs that lead to state certification.
  2. 2. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 247CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICANSCHOOLINGA. OVERVIEWThis chapter presents information about school administrators, school boards,superintendents, central administrative staff, and building-level administrators.A great deal of attention is focused on school principals since they are suchcritical members of the school team. Also discussed are the roles, responsibili-ties, and characteristics of principals. Various leadership models are presentedthat have been effective in business, industry, and schools.B. KEY TERMS–DEFINITIONSAASA - American Association of School AdministratorsADMINISTRATIVE HIERARCHY - administrative organization of a localschool district.ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL - administrative position in an individual schoolthat primarily assists the principal in administrative duties.BENEFITS - school administrators receive many benefits including: highersalaries than teachers, management responsibilities, opportunities for advance-ment in administration, and leadership opportunities.BUILDING LEVEL - administration of individual schools. Principals are thekey administrators. Many schools employ assistant principals, departmentheads, and supervisors to assist the principal in carrying out the administrativeduties at the building level.CENTRAL OFFICE - relates to the district administration level of schoolboards.CERTIFICATION - teacher licensing. Certification for specialized positionssuch as principal requires a prescribed amount of graduate level study and suc-cessful teaching experience.DISTRICT-WIDE - administrative staff that oversees all activities within thedistrict, are all housed in the central office. These include the superintendentand any assistants.INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP - leadership that informs and guidesteachers’ decisions so that practice can mesh with policy.LOCAL SCHOOL BOARD - a group of constituents at the top of the hierar-chy. They hire the school superintendent. Local School Boards derive their au-thority from, and work as agents of the state.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 248NAESP - National Association of Elementary School Principals.NASSP - National Association of Secondary School Principals.NCPEA - National Council of Professors of Educational Administration.NSBA - National School Board Association.PERSONNEL EVALUATION - evaluation of individual teachers and admin-istrators.PRINCIPALS - primarily instructional leaders.PROGRAM EVALUATION - evaluation of specific programs regarding theireffectiveness.SCHOOL POLICIES - give each school a unique personality, affect disci-plinary methods, academic expectations and requirements, dress codes, cur-riculum, and school climate. School policies are written guidelines that give di-rection to the administrator(s) and other employees responsible for carryingthem out and also establish decision-making parameters.SUPERINTENDENTS - chief school administrative officer in local schooldistricts.SUPERVISORS - administrators responsible for specific programs in publicschools, e.g.: supervisor of special education, vocational education supervisor,supervisor of elementary education, supervisors of secondary education, super-visor of buildings and grounds.UCEA - University Council of Educational Administration.C. SOME PRECEDING THOUGHTS1. What is an administrative hierarchy? This is the equivalent to a chain of command, headed by the local school board.2. How did local control of public schools evolve? Local control of education by lay persons began in the New England colonies. The Massachusetts School Ordinance of 1642 delegated the re- sponsibility for education to the “townsmen” making parents and guardians responsible for children in their care to read and understand the principles of religion and the commonwealth’s laws. This trend was rein- forced with the Massachusetts School Ordinance of 1647 and in subse- quent amendments passed in 1671 and 1683. Even stronger than the Mas- sachusetts laws were the Connecticut Laws of 1650. These laws were spe- cific in the description of duties and responsibilities of individuals selected
  4. 4. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 249 to oversee the schools. Not until 1721 in Boston, however, were individu- als responsible for overseeing the schools set apart from the local govern- mental structure of the community.3. What are the specific responsibilities of local boards of education? Local Governance Structure SCHOOL BOARD SUPERINTENDENT Business Special Personnel Curriculum and Services Services Services Instruction LOCAL SCHOOLS PRINCIPALS TEACHERS a. selecting the CEO of the school district–superintendent; b. approving budgets; c. determining school sites and attendance boundaries; d. entering into contracts; e. collective bargaining; f. establishing criteria for employing school district personnel; g. determining the curriculum; h. approving school calendar; i. adopting salary schedules for administrators, teachers, and other school employees;
  5. 5. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 250 j. acting on the superintendent’s recommendations concerning hiring and termination of employees, and engaging in contracts in behalf of the district; also k. delegate responsibility for all administrative functions, except those specifically reserved through board policy for the board chairman to the superintendent; l. support the superintendent fully in all decisions that conform to profes- sional standards and board policy; m. hold the superintendent responsible for the administration of the school through regular constructive written and oral evaluations of the super- intendent’s work; n. provide the superintendent with a comprehensive employment contract; o. give the superintendent the benefit of the board’s counsel in matters re- lated to individual board members’ expertise, familiarity with the local school system, and community interests; p. hold all board meetings with the superintendent or designee present; q. consult with the superintendent on all matters as they arise that concern the school system and on which the board may take action; r. develop a plan for board-superintendent communications; s. channel communications with school employees that require action through the superintendent and refer all applications, complaints, and other communications, oral or written, first to the superintendent in or- der to assure that the district processes such communications in an effective, coordinated fashion and is responsive to students and patrons; t. take action on matters only after hearing the recommendations of the superintendent; u. establish a policy on effective management of complaints; v. provide the superintendent with sufficient administrative help, especial- ly in the area of monitoring teaching and learning.4. What is the relationship between the superintendent and the board of education? The local school board hires the superintendent as the CEO of the adminis- trative offices.
  6. 6. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 2515. In what roles do superintendents become involved? a. maintain relations with the board; b. educational leader; c. maintain positive relations with the community.6. What roles do assistant central office staff fill? The duties performed by central staff administrators are determined by their specific roles. For example, in a small district there may be only one assistant superintendent. This individual may be assigned the responsibili- ties for transportation, food services, and the curriculum. In large districts, these duties may be divided among several central office staff members.7. What are the primary roles of school principals? a. child advocate; b. manager; c. instructional leader; d. disciplinarian; e. human relations facilitator; f. evaluator; g. conflict manager; h. collective bargaining agent; i. adult developer; l. change agent or innovator; k. community relations liaison.8. What are the major management responsibilities of principals? Although the principal’s role as instructional leader is considered by many to be the primary role, without expertise and leadership in the noninstruc- tional activities, the school would have a difficult time functioning.9. How do principals influence the school climate? The way the principal carries out his various duties will greatly influence the school climate. See question #7 for duties.10. How does a typical principal spend a day? Typical day: 33% on paperwork, 13.5% parent conferences, 13.5% person- nel conferences, 9% discipline, 9% scheduling, 9% cafeteria duties, 2.5% instructional leadership. Principals in effective schools are likely to spend more time related to the curriculum and instruction.
  7. 7. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 25211. What expectations do various groups have for principals? Principals are expected to do many different things for many different peo- ple, such as teachers, students, central administration personnel, state de- partments of education, and the local community. Students expect a per- sonal relationship. Teachers expect support with discipline problems, pro- fessional treatment, and being able to participate in the decision-making process. Parents expect instructional leadership, collaborating with parents, and keeping the interest of students foremost. Superiors expect carrying out of school policies, maintenance of a positive relationship with the com- munity, instructional leadership, student discipline, and effective manage- ment of the school. Although principals cannot always meet the expecta- tions of everyone, they must at least determine the feasibility of meeting the expectations that impact on the school. Principals cannot be all things to all people; they must make decisions related to which expectations are in the best interests of the school.12. What are some group roles that should be supported by the school ad- ministrator? a. The Energizer: provides energy, motivation, and drive to the group; b. The Procedural Expert: understands how the organization functions and understands its rules and regulations; c. The Evaluator: is able to dispassionately view group ideas and logi- cally utilize them without negatively impacting group members; d. The Opinion Seeker: carefully seeks ideas and encourages the partici- pation of all group members; e. The Initiator: suggests new or different ideas for discussion and ap- proaches to problems; f. The Opinion Giver: states pertinent beliefs about discussion and oth- ers’ suggestions; g. The Elaborator: builds on suggestions of others; h. The Clarifier: gives relevant examples; offers rationale; probes for meaning; restates problems; i. The Tester: raises questions to “test out” whether group is ready to come to a decision; j. The Summarizer: reviewers discussion, pulls it together; k. The Tension Reliever: uses humor or calls for breaks at appropriate times to draw off negative feelings;
  8. 8. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 253 l. The Compromiser: willing to yield when necessary for progress; m. The Harmonizer: mediates differences; reconciles points of view; n. The Encourager: praises and supports others; friendly; encouraging; o. The Gate-Keeper: keeps communications open; encourages participa- tion. Source: Chance, E.W. (1992). Visionary leadership in schools: Successful strategies for developing and implementing an educational vision. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Adapted with permission.13. What are some group roles that are negative and should not be sup- ported by the school administrator? a. The Sympathizer: attempts to garner the group’s sympathy of com- plaining, confessing, or condemning certain activities of the organization; b. The Aggressor: criticizes and deflates others; disagrees with others ag- gressively; c. The Blocker: stubbornly disagrees; rejects others’ views; cites unrelat- ed personal experiences; returns to topics already resolved; d. The Withdrawer: won’t participate; converses privately; self-appoint- ed note-taker; e. The Recognition Seeker: boasts; excessive talking; conscious of his/ her status; f. The Topic Jumper: keeps changing the subject; g. The Dominator: tries to assert authority; manipulate group; h. The Special-Interest Pleader: uses group’s time to plead his/her own case; i. The Playboy/girl: wastes group’s time showing off; story teller; non- chalant; cynical; j. The Devil’s Advocate: more devil than advocate. Source: Chance, E.W. (1992). Visionary leadership in schools: Successful strategies for developing and implementing an educational vision. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Adapted with permission.
  9. 9. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 25414. What are some effective traits and skills of the effective school admin- istrator? Traits Skills Adaptable to situation Clever Alert to social environment Intelligent Ambitious and Conceptually skilled achievement-oriented Assertive Creative Cooperative Diplomatic and tactful Decisive Fluent in speaking Dependable Knowledgeable about group tasks Dominant (desire to Organized (administrative ability) influence others) Energetic (high activity level) Persuasive Persistent Socially skilled Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility Source: Yukl, G.A. (1989). Leadership in organizations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Adapted with permission.15. What do superior school administrators have in common? a. trust and have confidence in both the capabilities and the motivation of subordinates and believe that they want to accept responsibility and work hard; b. believe that shared authority and participation is both desirable and useful; c. seek achievement and legitimate power; d. are reasonably self-confident, assured, optimistic, sensitive, and alert. Source: Sayles, L.R. (1979). LEADERSHIP - What effective managers really do . . . and how they do it. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Adapted with permission.
  10. 10. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 25516. According to the literature, what are some characteristics for school leadership? Characteristics Reference A vital and clear vision Bogue 1985; Covey 1989; Duke 1987; Gardner 1987, 1988; Levine 1987; Manasse 1986 A strong and positive self-concept Bogue 1985; Covey 1989 Decision making and judgment in Bogue 1985; Gardner 1988; Man- action asse 1986 Honesty, integrity, and strong Covey 1989; Daugherty 1987; moral components Larkin 1986; Manasse 1986; Communication skills Bingham 1986; Clark & Teddlie 1987; Daugherty 1987; Papalewis & Brown 1989; Quate 198617. According to the literature, what are some leadership characteristics specific to women? Leadership Characteristics Found in the Literature Value system that stresses caring, Shakeshaft 1986, 1987b; Helgesen service, and relationships 1990, 1995; Dorn, O’Rourke, & Pa- palewis 1997 Focus on instruction and Shakeshaft 1986, 1987b, 1989b, instructional issues 1995; Smith 1994; Eakle 1995; Mims 1992 Focus on supporting, on sense of Shakeshaft 1986, 1987b, 1989b, community, consensus build- 1995; Schaef 1985; Helgesen 1990, ing, cooperation 1995; Dorn, O’Rourke, & Papalewis 1997 Orderly, organized Shakeshaft 1989b, 1995; McGrath 1992; Eakle 1995; Woo 1985 Openness; depth of feeling Loden 1985; Helgesen 1990, 1995; Schaef 1985 Listening skills, clarity, communi- Dorn, O’Rourke, & Papalewis 1997; cation skills Papalewis & Brown 1988; Hanson 1991; Papalewis 1995 Table continues
  11. 11. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 256 Table continued Leadership Characteristics Found in the Literature Interpersonal skills Helgesen 1990, 1995; Loden 1985; Cooper 1992; Hanson 1991; Cartwright 1994 Vision; Global; Big Picture Helgesen 1990, 1995; Loden 1985; Schaef 1985 Persistency; Determination Marshall 1986; Mims 1992; Hill & Ragland 1995 Inner strength Schaef 1985; Smith 1994; Helgesen 1995; Marshall 1986 Relationships are central Schaef 1981, 1985; Loden 1985; Helgesen 1990, 1995; Shakeshaft 1986, 1987, 1989b, 1995; Hill & Ragland 1995 Source: O’Rourke, C. (1998). Women’s leadership skills, attitudes, and experiences: A descriptive ethnographic multiple case study of women in the superintendency in the public schools in the state of California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of La Verne, La Verne, CA. Adapted with permission.18. According to experts, what leadership characteristics, skills, attitudes, behaviors, and experiences are published in the literature? Leadership Characteristics Authors in the Literature Physical energy, stamina, person- Covey 1989; Gardner 1988 al mastery Decision-making and problem- Gardner 1988; Tosi, Rizzo, & Car- solving skills roll 1994 Personal values, and personal and Covey 1989; Kouzes & Posner shared vision 1987; Manasse 1986; Senge 1990; Senge et al. 1994 Enthusiasm for life and for the job Cangemi 1986; Covey 1989; Kouzes as reflected in positive attitudes & Posner 1987; Jones & Bearley and actions, intuition and per- 1996; Hall, 1996; Helgesen 1990, ception of mistakes as ways to 1995; Senge 1990; Senge et al. 1994 learn Possession of listening skills, peo- Jones & Bearley 1996; Hanson ple skills, managerial skills, 1991; Lutz 1986; Obermeyer 1996 technical skills Table continues
  12. 12. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 257 Table continued Leadership Characteristics Authors in the Literature Ability to evaluate people and Lutz 1986; Tosi, Rizzo, & Carroll programs, strong morals, and 1994; Covey 1989; Kouzes & Pos- ethical principles which are ad- ner 1987; Larkin 1986; Peck 1992 hered to in actions and attitudes Caring about and belief in people, Cangemi 1986; Harvey & Drolet as shown through empathetic, 1994; Helgesen 1995; Kouzes & helpful and nonconflictive ac- Posner 1987; Peck 1992; Yukl 1994 tions Ability to integrate and to be help- Cangemi 1986; Peck 1992; Yukl ful 1994 Ability to learn and to grow from Jones & Bearley 1996; Covey 1989; experience and problems Katzenbach & Smith 1993; Kouzes & Posner 1987; Harvey & Drolet 1994; Helgesen 1995; Manasse 1986; Peck 1992; Senge 1990; Sen- ge et al. 1994 Vital and clear vision Bogue 1985; Duke 1987; Endeman 1990; Gardner 1987, 1988; Levine 1987; Manasse 1986; Senge 1990; Senge et al. 1994 Decision making and judgment in Bogue 1985; Gardner 1988; Konnert action & Augenstein 1990; Konnert 1995; Manasse 1986 Honesty, integrity, and strong Covey 1989; Daugherty 1987; Kon- moral components nert & Augenstein 1990; Konnert 1995; Larkin 1986; Manasse 1986; Peck 1992 Communication skills Bingham 1986; Clark & Teddlie 1987; Papalewis & Brown 1989; Pa- palewis 1995; Quate 1986; Shake- shaft 1995
  13. 13. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 25819. What are some female and male patterns of leadership? Females Males Gender as a Variable in Team Building Competence valued before trust in Trust valued before competence in team membership (Shakeshaft team membership (Shakeshaft 1995) 1995) Trust for women: “an expectancy Trust for men: “ability and comfort that the word, promise, or writ- to say what they wished to say – ten statement of another indi- confident that others would not vidual or group could be relied repeat.” (Garfinkel 1988; Schaef on” (Garfinkel 1988; Schaef 1985; Shakeshaft 1995) 1985) Men do not see untrustworthiness if not delivered on time (Shakeshaft 1995) Expect and value discussion of is- Expect that conversation/informa- sues related to work. Expect tion not be divulged unless so subordinate to talk about issues instructed (Schaef, 1985; Shake- discussed (Schaef 1985; Shake- shaft 1995) shaft 1995) Loyal and ethical behavior con- Loyalty shown by not disagreeing ceptualized as loyal team mem- with the boss, except privately ber speaking up when there was (Helgesen 1995; Schaef 1985; disagreement with course of ac- Shakeshaft 1995) tion taken by boss Gender as a Variable in Evaluation/Feedback Women have to work harder to Men receive more feedback and get men to “hear” them (Shake- more types of feedback in conver- shaft 1995) sations, than women (Shakeshaft 1995) Women listen for feeling (Gilli- Men listen for facts (Gilligan 1982; gan 1982; Shakeshaft 1987b, Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995) 1995) Table continues
  14. 14. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 259 Table continued Females Males Gender as a Variable in Evaluation/Feedback (Con’t) Women focus on instruction (Hall 1996; Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995) Collaborative, consulting (Hall Male administrators are less likely 1996; Helgesen 1995; Shake- to give direct feedback to females shaft 1995) but more likely to give it to males; if a female errors males not likely to give feedback to fe- male but to correct mistake with- out her knowledge (Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995) Women are evaluated less favor- Males evaluate females more harsh- ably than equally competent ly than females evaluate females men (Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995) (Hall 1996; Shakeshaft 1987b, 1995) Women more likely to get Men receive both more positive and nonevaluative feedback or neu- more negative responses (Shake- tral responses (Shakeshaft shaft 1995) 1995) Women take criticism hard. Men fail to give women important “They tended to think it was an corrective feedback that would assessment of their very have allowed women to improve essence” (Shakeshaft 1995) performance (Shakeshaft 1995) Source: O’Rourke, C. (1998). Women’s leadership skills, attitudes, and experiences: A descriptive ethnographic multiple case study of women in the superintendency in the public schools in the state of California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of La Verne, La Verne, CA. Adapted with permission.20. What are some questions that need to be answered in developing a personal vision as a school administrator? a. What are my five greatest strengths? b. What are my five greatest weaknesses? c. What are three things I most value in my professional life? d. With what style of leadership am I most comfortable?
  15. 15. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 260 e. What are the most important things I want to accomplish in this school district? f. What do I want to prove as an administrator? g. How would I like to be remembered as an administrator?21. What are the classical notions of Frederick Taylor’s organizational theory? a. Be a hierarchical chain of command. b. Be various levels of authority. c. Be established divisions of labor. d. Be clearly defined tasks. e. Be established rules of behavior. f. Be a system of punishments that are personally costly if one violates the rules or fails to complete the assigned task. g. Employees must be recruited on the basis of their ability and technical knowledge. h. Employees must be expected to perform the tasks in the same manner since all tasks have been standardized. Taylor strongly believed his theory would result in every job being per- formed efficiently, productively, and with the least effort.22. What are some general characteristics of social systems? Social systems have boundaries, a purpose for survival, and interact within their environment. Social systems have both bureaucratic and organiza- tional expectations, informal norms, and are comprised of individuals hav- ing needs, wants, desires, and aspirations. Internal and external forces, de- mands, and expectations reinforce appropriate responses.23. What career opportunities are there for school administrators? Most administrators start out as classroom teachers. This seems to be the best way to become a school administrator. Most states have specific certi- fication requirements for administrators that go beyond the requirements for a teaching certificate, supervisor certificate, and superintendent certifi- cate. The requirements for these certificates vary from state to state, but usually include college coursework at the graduate level and experience as a teacher. Some states do not require a specific license for administrators.
  16. 16. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 26124. What are the rules for supervisory conferences with teachers? “The Worst Things To Do” a. Always hold conferences at the end of a hard day. Friday afternoon is hard to beat. b. Make administrators look pretty inadequate. But be subtle. c. When talking to a teacher, blame other teachers. When talking to more than one teacher, blame counselors or psychologists. Never be afraid to take sides in an argument among teachers. It brings them closer togeth- er. d. If a teacher begins to understand you, try using more pedagogics. If the teacher himself has held a position similar to yours, you are in trouble. e. Try to do most of the talking. It may be hard to stop a teacher once he gets started. If necessary, interrupt him “Just a minute, I disagree.” f. Explain your superior experience in teaching–especially if the teacher has transferred from another school or is new. g. Always stress existing departmental or grade level organization prob- lems. It will help the teachers see what you are up against. h. Let other teachers or secretaries overhear the conversation. Maybe they will try to make something of themselves. i. If the teacher is tired, conduct the interview standing up. It may shorten the whole thing, and the teacher probably wants to get home anyway. j. Ask if there has been any insanity in the family. This will get a chuckle when the going gets rough. k. Tell teachers about other difficult cases that are even worse than theirs. Supply names, where needed, but indicate that “I don’t want to be un- professional.” l. Try staring out the window.25. What are eight irritating habits of supervisors? a. Supervisor says something and then denies it at the next meeting. b. Passes the buck on problems. c. Says, “We’ll have to think about it.” d. Doesn’t give me a chance to talk. e. Belittles my suggestions. f. Interrupts me when I talk.
  17. 17. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 262 g. Argues with everything I say. h. Rephrases and puts words in my mouth. Source: Walker, J.J. (January 1976). Georgia teachers list of irritating supervisory habits. Phi Delta Kappan, 57, 350. Adapted with permission.26. What are the elements of having a good committee? a. Facts About Delegation 1. delegate authority–to horde it is to lose it; 2. delegate authority with responsibility; 3. work through channels; don’t destroy the right to hold him or her accountable by unnecessarily interfering with work; 4. delegate only if you have confidence; 5. assigning responsibility does not lessen your responsibility; 6. clearly define the responsibility to each subordinate; 7. follow-up delegation; don’t over supervise; 8. delegate so employee is supervised by one person; 9. never assign distasteful duties because they are unpleasant, cor- recting, discharging, or disciplining; 10. when you delegate authority over others, back him or her up when authority is challenged; 11. be sure to straighten out any complaints about an employee over- stepping his or her authority; 12. let every subordinate know just what decisions he or she has au- thority to make. b. Why Committees Fail 1. committee has no clear-cut assignment, no reason to exist; 2. chairperson is not qualified by experience, desire, or ability; 3. members get appointed who are neither interested nor experi- enced; 4. group has no orderly plan, no time schedule; 5. members talk, talk, talk, talk, without decisions; 6. work of the committee is not publicly recognized by the organiza- tion; 7. committee’s recommendations are not acted on;
  18. 18. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 263 8. members do not show up for meetings; 9. staff sends agenda out late or distributes it at the meeting; 10. staff does not provide needed documentation; 11. minutes are sent out late or not at all; 12. five to fifteen members is a reasonable number for a committee. c. On Being A Good Committee Member 1. is receptive and open to ideas; 2. has perspective on subject of concern to the committee; 3. is familiar with the aims of the organization and agrees with them; 4. enjoys the give and take of committee discussion; 5. is able to express ideas clearly; 6. is willing to give the needed time for meeting attendance; 7. has good judgment, is not narrow and arrogant; 8. can think in terms of the welfare of the group rather than own in- terests. d. What Makes A Good Chairperson 1. starts and ends the meeting on time; 2. allows the group to get well acquainted; 3. sees to it that as many as possible participate in discussion; 4. keeps the discussion directed to the topic and toward the objec- tive; 5. acts as a guide and leader; 6. summarizes the decisions from time to time; 7. does not talk about an individual on the committee; 8. is seen as sincere and thoughtful by the committee; 9. summarizes the meeting and the actions to be taken by the mem- bers; 10. works with members between meetings. e. Logistics of the Meeting 1. agenda is sent out in advance of meeting; 2. documentation for the agenda is also provided in advance;
  19. 19. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 264 3. meeting place should be carefully selected; 4. meeting room is comfortable; 5. meeting room should be set up in round or oval arrangement; 6. paper, pencils, glasses and water pitchers, etc., provided if neces- sary; 7. food or dinner–if served–should be light; 8. whenever possible, the group should act by consensus; 9. people somewhat unfriendly to each other should not be seated op- posite each other. Members who are very friendly to each other should not be seated side by side.D. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES1. What is leadership? In general, leadership is helping others toward common goals or purposes.2. Why do we have school administrators? Schools are complex organizations that must have leaders. In schools, leaders are called administrators. Without administrators, schools would have no direction. They would be institutions without leadership function- ing in a haphazard fashion.3. Describe the administrative hierarchy in a middle-sized school district. At the top of the hierarchy is the local school board, a group of con- stituents. The local board hires the school superintendent, who is the chief local school officer. The superintendent, in turn, employs other central of- fice administrative staff, as well as building principals. Each level of the hierarchy serves a specific purpose involving the administration of the public schools.4. What are the major roles of principals? Do they differ at the elemen- tary and secondary levels? If so, how? Principals are expected to perform many varied roles in today’s schools, including manager, instructional leader, child advocate, disciplinarian, hu- man relations, facilitator, evaluator, conflict manager, change agent or inno- vator, community relations, and adult developer. The major role of school principals remains the same, regardless of the age level of the students.5. What are the essential 10 attributes for success as a school administra- tor?
  20. 20. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 265 a. develop style relative to interpersonal relations; b. develop patience; c. develop a systematic approach to discipline; d. develop the ability to delegate authority and responsibility; e. develop skills to observe and evaluate teaching performance; f. develop a philosophy of education; g. develop a “style” or “approach”; h. develop a method to check the use of time; i. develop goals and develop objectives to attain them; j. develop a model for decision making.6. What are some descriptors of autocratic and democratic leadership styles? Autocratic Democratic Boss Leader Command Invitation Power Influence Pressure Stimulation Demanding cooperation Winning cooperation Imposing ideas Selling ideas Domination Guidance Criticism Encouragement Faultfinding Acknowledge achieving Punishing Helping I tell you Discussion I decide, you obey I suggest, you decide7. What are the components of Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hy- giene Theory? Herzberg’s theory has been widely accepted by administrators. Its basic postulate is that one set of rewards contributes to job satisfaction and a separate set to job dissatisfaction. The Motivation-Hygiene Theory is based on Herzberg’s findings from his study of industrial employee motivation to work. In interviews with 203 accountants and engineers, Herzberg used a critical-incidents procedure
  21. 21. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 266that essentially asked each person interviewed to describe events experi-enced at work that had resulted in either a marked improvement or a sig-nificant reduction in job satisfaction.The study found that positive events were dominated by references toachievement, recognition (verbal), the work itself (challenging), responsi-bility, and advancement (promotion). Negative events were dominated byreference to interpersonal relations with superiors and peers, technical su-pervision, company policy and administration, working conditions, andpersonal life. Representation of the Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job SatisfactionDissatisfaction (–) (+) Satisfaction MOTIVATORS OR SATISFIERS Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility AdvancementHYGIENES OR DISSATISFIERS Interpersonal relations–subordinates Interpersonal relations–peers Supervision–technical Policy and administration Working conditions Personal lifeDissatisfaction (–) (+) SatisfactionMOTIVATORS HYGIENES (NON-MOTIVATORS) 1. Achievement 6. Salary 2. Recognition 7. Possibility of growth 3. Work itself 8. Interpersonal relations–subordinates 4. Responsibility 9. Status 5. Advancement 10. Interpersonal relations–superiors 11. Interpersonal relations–peers 12. Supervision–technical 13. Company (school) policy and administration 14. Working conditions
  22. 22. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 267 15. Personal life 16. Job security8. What are the components of Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theo- ry Y? Douglas McGregor stressed the importance of understanding the relation- ship between motivation and human nature. In observing the practices of traditional managers, McGregor believed that managers usually attempt to motivate employees by one of two basic approaches. He referred to these approaches as Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the traditional view of management that suggests that managers are required to coerce, con- trol, or threaten employees in order to motivate them. In contrast, McGre- gor proposed an alternative philosophy of human nature, which he referred to as Theory Y. Theory Y is a view of management by which a manager believes people are capable of being responsible and mature. Employees do not require coercions or excessive control by the manager in order to perform effectively. McGregor’s belief was that Theory Y is a more realis- tic assessment of people. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Theory Y The average person inherently dis- The expenditure of physical and likes work and will avoid it if possi- mental effort in work is as natural ble. as play or rest. Because of the dislike of work, most People will exercise self-direction people must be coerced, controlled, and self-control in the service of directed, and threatened with punish- objectives to which they are com- ment to get them to perform effect- mitted. ively. The average person lacks ambition, Commitment to objectives is a avoids responsibility, and seeks secu- function of the rewards associated rity and economic rewards above all with achievement. else. Most people lack creative ability and The average person learns, under are resistant to change. proper conditions, not only to ac- cept but to seek responsibility. Since most people are self-centered, The capacity to exercise a relative- they are not concerned with the goals ly high degree of imagination, in- of the organization. genuity, and creativity in the solu- tion of organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed
  23. 23. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 268 in the population. Source: Based on McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill. Adapted with permission9. How can Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy be satisfied by the school system as an organization? MASLOW’S EXAMPLES OF HOW NEEDS CAN BE HIERARCHY SATISFIED BY THE ORGANIZATION Self-Actualization Needs Challenging work allowing creativity, oppor- (Realizing one’s tunities for personal growth and advancement potential growth using cre- ative talents) Esteem Needs Title and responsibility of job, praise, and (Achievement recognition for work done, promotions, recognition and status) competent management, pay as related status, prestigious facilities Social Needs Friendly associates, organized employ- (Love, belonging, ee activities such as bowling or softball affiliation, acceptance) leagues, picnics, parties, coffee Safety Needs Benefit programs such as insur- (Protection against danger, ance and retirement plans, job se- freedom from fear, security) curity, safe and healthy working conditions, competent consistent and fair leadership Physiological Needs Pay, benefits, working (Survival needs, air, water, food, conditions clothing, shelter and sex) Copyright © 1970 by Abraham H. Maslow. Reprinted by permission of Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. An individual’s needs at any level on the hierarchy emerge only when the lower-level needs are reasonably satisfied. According to Maslow’s hierar-
  24. 24. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 269 chy of needs theory, an individual’s needs are arranged in a hierarchy from the lower-level physiological needs to the higher-level needs for self-actual- ization. The physiological needs are the highest priority because until they are reasonably satisfied, other higher-level needs will not emerge to moti- vate behavior.10. How are Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Motivation-Hy- giene Theory related? Maslow’s Hierarchy Herzberg’s Motivators Self-Actualization Needs □ Achievement □ Work Itself (Realizing one’s □ Recognition potential growth using cre- □ Responsibility ative talents) □ Opportunity for Growth and Advancement Esteem Needs (Achievement recognition and status) Social Needs Herzberg’s Hygiene Factors (Love, belonging, □ Interpersonal Relations affiliation, acceptance) □ Company Policies and Administrative Practices Safety Needs □ Working Conditions □ Supervision □ Status (Protection against danger, □ Job Security freedom from fear, security) □ Pay □ Benefits Physiological Needs (Survival needs, air, water, food, clothing, shelter and sex)
  25. 25. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 27011. What are the components of Porter’s Hierarchy of Work Motivation? SELF-ACTUALIZATION Working at full potential Feeling successful at work Achieving goals viewed as significant AUTONOMY Control of work situation, influence in the organization, participation in important decisions, authority to utilize organizational resources SELF-ESTEEM Titles, feeling self-respect, evidence of respect by others, status symbols, recognition, promotions, awards, being part of “insiders” group AFFILIATION Belonging to formal and informal work groups, friendships, professional association and unions, acceptance by peers beyond the immediate organization SECURITY Pay, union, seniority, retirement plan, tenure, such legal concepts as “due process” and “fairness,” statutory and policy protections establishing orderly evaluation and “RIF” procedures, the negotiated contract, insurance plans
  26. 26. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 27112. What are the components of David McClelland’s Needs Theory? McClelland emphasized that there are certain needs that are learned and socially acquired as the individual interacts with the environment. McClel- land’s needs theory is concerned with how individual needs and environ- mental factors combine to form three basic human motives: the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. Need for Achievement A person with a high need for achievement tends to be characterized as an individual who • wants to take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems; • is goal oriented; • seeks a challenge–and establishes moderate, realistic, and attainable goals that involve risk but are not impossible to attain; • desires concrete feedback on performance; • has a high level of energy and is willing to work hard. For these people, the value of goal accomplishment is enhanced if the goals are at least moderately difficult to achieve and if there is a significant degree of risk involved. Individuals are better able to “manage” them- selves and satisfy the basic drive for achievement. Need for Power A high need for power means that an individual seeks to influence or con- trol others. Such an individual tends to be characterized as a person who • is concerned with acquiring, exercising, or retaining power to influence over others; • likes to compete with others in situations that allow him or her to be dominant; • enjoys confrontations with others. McClelland said that there are two basic aspects of power: positive and negative. Positive use of power is essential if a manager is to accomplish results through the effort of others. The negative face of power is when an individual seeks power for personal benefit, which may prove detrimental to the organization.
  27. 27. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 272 Need for Affiliation The need for affiliation is related to the desire for affection and establish- ing friendly relationships. A person with a high need for affiliation tends to be characterized as one who • seeks to establish and maintain friendships and close emotional relation- ships with others; • wants to be liked by others; • enjoys parties, social activities, and bull sessions; • seeks a sense of belonging by joining groups or organizations. According to this theory, the probability that an individual will perform a job effectively and efficiently depends on a combination of: • the strength of the motive or need relative to other needs; • the possibility of success in performing the task; • the strength value of the incentive or reward for performance.13. What are the components of William Ouchi’s Theory Z? Theory Z is the belief that a high degree of mutual responsibility, loyalty, and consideration between companies and their employees will result in higher productivity and improved employee welfare. Theory Z companies tend to practice a system of lifetime employment and avoid layoffs. The companies usually enjoy low employee turnover, low absenteeism, and high employee morale. The workers are more involved in their jobs with the company, a factor that leads to increased productivity and perfor- mance. Theory Z companies tend to develop their own traditions, ideals, and culture, and foster somewhat of a “family environment.” This “family” or culture within the organization tends to bond its members–employees and manager–thereby facilitating decision making and communications within the company.14. What are the components of a Job Enrichment Model? Job enrichment refers to basic changes in the content and level of re- sponsibility of a job so as to provide greater challenge to the worker. The individual is provided with an opportunity to derive a feeling of greater achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth in perform- ing the job. There are a number of principles applicable for implementa- tion: a. Increasing job demand: Changing the job in such a way as to in- crease the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job.
  28. 28. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 273 b. Increasing a worker’s accountability: Allowing more individual control and authority over the work while retaining accountability of the manager. c. Providing work scheduling freedom: Within limits, allowing individ- ual workers to schedule their own work. d. Providing feedback: Making timely periodic reports on performance to employees (directly to the worker rather than to the supervisor). e. Providing new learning experiences: Work situations should encour- age opportunities for new experiences and personal growth of the indi- vidual.15. What are the components of a Job Enlargement? Job enlargement is the changes in the scope of a job so as to provide greater variety to the worker. Job enlargement provides a horizontal ex- pansion of duties. Increased responsibility means providing the worker with increased freedom to do the job–make decisions and exercise more self-control over the work.16. What are the components of the Model of the Organization as a Social System (Getzels-Guba Model)? Institution Role ExpectationSocial ObservedSystem Behavior Individual Personality Need-DispositionSource: Adapted from Getzels, J.W., & Guba, E.G. (1957 Winter). Social behavior and the administrative pro- cess. The School Review, 65, 423-441. Reprinted with permission.
  29. 29. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 27417. What are the components of the Guba & Getzels Model? The administrator has ACTUATING FORCE (AUTHORITY) which derives from Role Dimension Person Dimension (nomothetic) (ideographic) Delegates status Achieved prestige and authority and authority which enables him to influence the BEHAVIOR OF SUBORDINATES toward GOALS OF SCHOOLSource: Getzels, J.W., & Guba, E.G. (1957 Winter). Social behavior and the administrative process. The School Review, 65, 423-441. Adapted with permission.
  30. 30. SCHOOLING (2002)PAGE 27518. What are the nine components of Kritsonisms? 1. We don’t hire good people, we make them. • We allow them feedback, direction, hire potential. • Marriage, we don’t find good partners, we make ourselves a good partner. • Diamond polishers, we develop them. Do we chip or do we polish? 2. High risk and failure is BETTER than low risk and success. • Try new things. • High effort risk. 3. Never ask for volunteers. • Ask people personally to volunteer. • Know your people. • Go ask them. Do not call them on the telephone. 4. Do tough jobs first. • Tough job first, 80% or the total work. • Toughest job. • Easy last. • Use the cheese cake theory–take a bite out of it. Do tough jobs first. 5. Sometimes we do things we are not good at. • Most people know if they are not doing a good job. 6. Good ideas must be sold as better ideas. • Sell good ideas. • A new idea isn’t a good idea until it is sold. 7. Keep it simple. • Keep ideas simple. • Don’t let it get complex. • Keep it big and keep it simple. 8. Be problem conscious. • Look down the road. • Solve problems before they get out-of-hand.
  31. 31. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 276 9. Let people see you as a person. • Open yourself up. • If more than 25% of your people are deadwood, then look at your- self.19. What are the major components of the Kritsonis Balanced Teeter Tot- ter Model? The Kritsonis Balanced Teeter-Totter Model emphasizes the utilization of more effective technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills. Krit- sonis asserts that technical, human, and conceptual skills should be devel- oped and refined through experience. The teetering component illustrates that when educators function produc- tively, the model remains balanced. The educator exhibits competency. When the teetering component is not functioning productively, it teeter- totters, swings back-and-forth causing frustration, insecurities, and multi- ple dysfunctions resulting in low-level production, and in some cases in- competency. Te c lls hni cal n Ski Ski m a lls Hu T E C H N IC A L S K IL L S H U M A N S K IL L S ills Hu ca l Sk m a n S hni k ill Tec s C O N C E P T U A L S K IL L SDr. William Kritsonis has served education in the roles of teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director ofstudent teaching and field experiences, editor, and university professor.E. REVIEW ITEMSTrue-False1. The local school board is at the top of the school system’s administrative hierarchy.2. The principal is the chief local school officer.
  32. 32. SCHOOLING (2002) PAGE 277 3. Local control of schools by lay persons began in the New England colonies. 4. Local school boards are regulated by state statutes. 5. Requirements established by local school boards may exceed state require- ments in various areas, such as graduation criteria and teacher pay. 6. The superintendent is an employee of the school board. 7. The chief executive officer of the local school district is the superinten- dent. 8. The district superintendent is a key individual in the functioning of any lo- cal school district. 9. The principal reports directly to the school board regarding the function of the school.10. Many people consider the principal’s primary role to be an instructional leader.11. Students seem to want more rather than fewer rules.12. Studies indicate that the largest part of a principal’s time is spent on disci- plinary matters.13. The career ladder to administration usually starts in the classroom.14. Most states lack specific certification requirements for administrators. Multiple Choice 1. The powers and responsibilities of local school boards are established by _______. a. local citizenry b. local school board c. state statutes d. federal law 2. The following are all duties of the school board except _______. a. enforcing state and federal laws b. designing schools c. staffing schools d. all of the above are included 3. Local school board members can be _______. a. elected b. appointed c. either a or b d. none of the above 4. The income group most heavily represented on typical school boards is _______. a. lower b. middle c. upper middle d. upper
  33. 33. CHAPTER 10–EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN AMERICAN SCHOOLING PAGE 278 5. The typical board member possesses _______ education. a. high school b. some college c. bachelors degree or higher d. masters degree or higher 6. The key administrative figure at the building level is the _______. a. school board member b. superintendent c. principal d. administrative assistant 7. The role of the principal is _______. a. disciplinarian b. instructional leader c. manager d. all of the above 8. The text cites that a feature of an effective discipline program is _______. a. a philosophy of discipline clearly stated in the student handbook b. swift and severe punishment c. more principal time on discipline d. all of the above 9. Principals can encourage an attitude favorable to change through _______. a. encouraging collaboration among staff b. taking responsibility for change efforts c. narrowing communication channels to those directly involved d. all of the above10. Students’ expect a _______ from principals. a. personal relationship b. instructional guidance c. counselor/client relationship d. none of the above11. The majority of the principal’s time is probably spent on _______. a. discipline b. paperwork c. evaluation of staff or programs d. instructional leadership12. Most school administrators _______. a. start as classroom teachers b. have masters degrees or above c. hold specific certifications in administration d. all of the above