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Philosophies of EducationPhilosophy Metaphysics Epistemology AxiologyEducationalImplications ProponentsIdealism Reality is...
Theories of EducationTheory Aim CurriculumEducationalImplication ProponentsProgressivism (rooted inpragmatism)To educate t...
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Dr. W.A. Kritsonis - Philosophies of Schooling


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Dr. W.A. Kritsonis - Philosophies of Schooling

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis is Founder (1982) and Editor-in-Chief of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. These national refereed journals represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals (See:
Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. Some of his most popular books include: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival, Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics, Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning, and Philosophies of Education.
In 2012, Dr. Kritsonis was honored by the Texas National Association for Multicultural Education at Texas A&M University, College Station. In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was invited to lecture at the Oxford Round Table in the University of Oxford. In 2004, Dr. Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus in the College of Education and Professional Studies. He has served education as a teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, and college professor. Dr. Kritsonis has 43 years of service in the field of education.
Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership and the Master’s Program in Administration with emphasis in Principal certification. He is also a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).

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Dr. W.A. Kritsonis - Philosophies of Schooling

  1. 1. Philosophies of EducationPhilosophy Metaphysics Epistemology AxiologyEducationalImplications ProponentsIdealism Reality is spiritualor mental andunchangingKnowing is therethinking oflatent ideasValues areabsolute andeternalA subject-mattercurriculumemphasizing thegreat and enduringideas of thecultureButlerEmersonFroebelHegelPlatoRealism Reality isobjective and iscomposed ofmatter and form;it is fixed, basedon natural lawKnowing consistsof sensation andabstractionValues areabsolute andeternal, based onnature’s lawsA subject-mattercurriculumstressinghumanistic andscientificdisciplinesAquinasAristotleBroudyMarinPestalozziPragmatism(experimentalism)Reality is theinteraction of anindividual withenvironment orexperience; it isalways changingKnowing resultsfromexperiencing; useof scientificmethodValues aresituational orrelativeInstructionorganized aroundproblem solvingaccording to thescientific methodChildsDeweyJamesPeirceExistentialism Reality issubjective, withexistencepreceding essenceKnowing is tomake personalchoicesValues shouldbe freely chosenClassroomdialoguesstimulateawareness thateach personcreates a self-concept throughsignificant choicesSartreMarcelMorrisSoderquist
  2. 2. Theories of EducationTheory Aim CurriculumEducationalImplication ProponentsProgressivism (rooted inpragmatism)To educate theindividual according tohis or her interest andneedsActivities andprojectsInstruction that featuresproblem solving andgroup activities; teacheracts as a facilitatorDeweyKilpatrickParkerWashburneSocial reconstructionism(rooted in pragmatism)To reconstruct society Social sciences usedas reconstructivetoolsInstruction that focuseson significantsocioeconomic problemsBrameldCountsStanleyPerennialism (rooted inrealism)To educate the rationalpersonSubject matter thatis hierarchicallyarranged tocultivate theintellect (greatbooks, etc.)Focus on enduringhuman concerns asrevealed in great worksof the Western culturalheritageAdlerBloomHutchinsMaritainEssentialism (rooted inidealism and realism)To educate the usefuland competent personBasic education:reading, writing,arithmetic, history,English, science,foreign languagesEmphasis on skills andsubjects that transmit thecultural heritage andcontribute tosocioeconomicefficiencyBagleyBestorConantMorrisonCritical Theory (rootedin neo-Marxism andpostmodernism)To raise consciousnessabout critical issuesAutobiographiesabout oppressedpeoplesFocus on social conflicts McLarenGirouxSource: Gutek, G.L. (1997). Philosophical and ideological perspectives on education (2nded). Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997. Reprinted with permission.