Americans with Disabilities Act in Education William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
<ul><li>Compulsory attendance laws </li></ul><ul><li>The exclusion of students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Parenta...
<ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education </li></ul><ul><li>347 U.S. 483 (1954) </li></ul><ul><li>After the decision in Brown, p...
<ul><li>“ In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the o...
<ul><li>Pennsylvania Association for Retarded children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania (343 F.Supp, 279, E.D. PA, 1972) </li></ul><...
<ul><li>The  Education of the Handicapped Act of 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 </li...
<ul><li>The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was to ensure acces...
<ul><li>Nondiscriminatory testing, evaluations, placement and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Education in least restrictive ...
<ul><li>1986 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Handicapped Children’s Protection Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Infants & Todd...
<ul><li>First special education case to go to the U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Was a “free appropriate education” ...
<ul><li>IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Attorney Fees </li></ul><ul><li>Cha...
<ul><li>The underlying theme of IDEA '97 was to improve the effectiveness of special education by requiring demonstrable i...
<ul><li>Controversial   law </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to improve performance of schools </li></ul><ul><li>Give parents more ...
<ul><li>NCLB  focuses on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the academic achievement of all public school students </li></u...
<ul><li>To increase the academic achievement of students in special education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on writing measu...
<ul><li>Conduct relevant assessments of students’ educational needs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor students’ progress using dat...
Changes in Special Education   Law   Special education went from an issue of access  to an issue of quality.   Individual ...
<ul><li>After going through the history of how special education came to what it is today, I have a new appreciation for m...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Americans With Disabilities Act In Education

2,343 views

Published on

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Public School Law, American With Disabilities Action, Due Process, Discrimination, Bill of Rights, Least Restrictive Environment

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,343
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
22
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Americans With Disabilities Act In Education

  1. 1. Americans with Disabilities Act in Education William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
  2. 2. <ul><li>Compulsory attendance laws </li></ul><ul><li>The exclusion of students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Parental advocacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council for Exceptional Children, 1922 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuyahoga Council for Retarded Children, 1933 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Association for Retarded Citizens (The ARC), 1950 </li></ul></ul>Early Development
  3. 3. <ul><li>Brown v. Board of Education </li></ul><ul><li>347 U.S. 483 (1954) </li></ul><ul><li>After the decision in Brown, parents of children with disabilities started to bring lawsuits against school districts for excluding and segregating children with disabilities. The parents argued that, by excluding these children, schools were discriminating against the children because of their disabilities. </li></ul>Case Law
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right that must be available to all on equal terms.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Chief Justice Earl Warren- </li></ul>Brown v. Board of Education
  5. 5. <ul><li>Pennsylvania Association for Retarded children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania (343 F.Supp, 279, E.D. PA, 1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. District Court found that mentally retarded persons are capable of benefiting from education. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mills v. District of Columbia Board of Education (348 F.Supp, 869, D.D.C. 1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students with disabilities must be given a public education, and that financial limits were a moot point in providing education to the students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mills_vs._Board_of_Education_of_District_of_Columbia </li></ul></ul>Landmark Cases
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Education of the Handicapped Act of 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>The Education Amendments of 1974 </li></ul>Early Federal Involvement
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was to ensure access to public education for students with disabilities </li></ul></ul></ul>Major Legislation
  8. 8. <ul><li>Nondiscriminatory testing, evaluations, placement and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Education in least restrictive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural due process </li></ul><ul><li>Free education </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate education </li></ul>EAHCA Mandates
  9. 9. <ul><li>1986 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Handicapped Children’s Protection Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Infants & Toddlers with Disabilities Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1997 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 </li></ul></ul>Reauthorizations of the EAHCA
  10. 10. <ul><li>First special education case to go to the U.S. Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Was a “free appropriate education” being given? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.listen-up.org/dnload4/rowley.pdf </li></ul></ul>Board of Education v. Rowley 458, U.S. 176 (1982)
  11. 11. <ul><li>IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Attorney Fees </li></ul><ul><li>Charter Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestation Determination </li></ul>IDEA Amendments of 1997
  12. 12. <ul><li>The underlying theme of IDEA '97 was to improve the effectiveness of special education by requiring demonstrable improvements in the educational achievement of students with disabilities </li></ul>The IDEA Acts Amendments of 1997
  13. 13. <ul><li>Controversial law </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to improve performance of schools </li></ul><ul><li>Give parents more flexibility in choosing schools </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes a focus on reading </li></ul><ul><li>Highly qualified teachers </li></ul>The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
  14. 14. <ul><li>NCLB focuses on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the academic achievement of all public school students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving the performance of low-performing schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requiring schools to adopt scientifically based instructional practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NCLB accomplishes this by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requiring states to measure the progress of students and groups of students, including students with disabilities, every year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting the results of these measures to parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requiring states to set proficiency standards that schools must attain within a set period of time </li></ul></ul>NCLB Accountability
  15. 15. <ul><li>To increase the academic achievement of students in special education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on writing measurable goals and actually measuring them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on progress monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To increase accountability for results </li></ul><ul><li>To streamline the special education process </li></ul>Focus of IDEIA 2004
  16. 16. <ul><li>Conduct relevant assessments of students’ educational needs </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor students’ progress using data- based formative evaluation systems </li></ul>Challenges to Special Education
  17. 17. Changes in Special Education Law Special education went from an issue of access to an issue of quality. Individual and Group Efforts EAHCA 1974 IDEA 1990 IDEAA 1997 IDEIA 2004
  18. 18. <ul><li>After going through the history of how special education came to what it is today, I have a new appreciation for my husband. He is “deaf” and I realize he did not receive a high quality education as it is given today. He is a good citizen and provider for his family, but he missed out on quality skills. I have encouraged him to go to school and get more education so that him may work in a place that he has passion for. He is going, but it takes a little longer and we are all ok with that. Special education has come a long way since he has been in school. </li></ul>Conclusion

×