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Mapping the Scottish wildlands:
from idea to policy in the last ten years
Steve Carver
Wildland Research Institute
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Outline
• Wildland: from definitions to mapping
• Developin...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Scottish wildland
Definition… “Wild land in Scotland is rel...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Attributes Main Criteria
Perceived naturalness Functioning ...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Can we map wildness?
• Definitions and attributes
– NPPG14,...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Early inspiration
• Bob Aitken’s PhD thesis (1977) “Wildern...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Maps courtesy of Bob Aitken
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
J. Michael McCloskey and Heather Spalding, Ambio Vol. 18, N...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Australian National Wilderness
Inventory 1986-1996
Global wilderness
assessment 1998 Maps courtesy of Rob Lesslie
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Early maps
circa 1996-2000
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Theses and ideas: Policy development: Maps and documents:
1...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Mapping wildness in the national parks
• Attribute maps and...
Table 4.1 Naturalness classifications applied to land cover features
LCM class BHSUB
NClass Supplementary Data Criteria
NC...
Absence of modern human artefacts
Modelling impacts from wind energy
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Theses and ideas: Policy development: Maps and documents:
1...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Theses and ideas: Policy development: Maps and documents:
1...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
A national map
• 'Search Areas for Wild Land (2002)…
“most ...
A quick comparison
between approaches
SNH national map
EU/EEA map
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
The current state of play
• Strong support for the conserva...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Relevance to rest of the UK?
• Model to follow
– NRW and NE...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Back to the continuum…
1
3 2
?
Southerscales Nature Reserve
Higher Level Stewardship:
agri-environment subsidy payment over
10 years of the agreement
“The Trust made Southerscales stockproof and in 1987 was able
to re-introduce the traditional grazing regime”
SSSI Unit 66...
Ungrazed since 1974
An true ecological restoration!
SSSI Unit 68/69
Limestone pavements of the Yorkshire Dales
Southerscales - grazed
Scar Close – not grazed
Ecological restoration - not “re...
Angelica Elder Primrose
Ash Field scabious Raspberry
Baneberry Figwort Red currant
Bilberry Globe flower Rigid buckler fer...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
The 6 Rules of Re(al)wilding
1. Don’t confuse biodiversity ...
Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
Thank you
Questions?
Email: s.j.carver@leeds.ac.uk
URL: www...
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)
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Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)

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Presentation from "Wilder by Design" conference, Sheffield Hallam University, May 2014

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Mapping the Scottish wildlands (and thought's on rewilding)

  1. 1. Mapping the Scottish wildlands: from idea to policy in the last ten years Steve Carver Wildland Research Institute
  2. 2. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Outline • Wildland: from definitions to mapping • Developing policy in Scotland • The current state of play • Relevance to the rest of the UK • Back to the future Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
  3. 3. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Scottish wildland Definition… “Wild land in Scotland is relatively remote and inaccessible, not noticeably affected by contemporary human activity, and offers high-quality opportunities to escape from the pressures of everyday living and to find physical and spiritual refreshment.” (NTS, 2002) Policy aim… “There are parts of Scotland where the wild character of the landscape, its related recreational value and potential for nature are such that these areas should be safeguarded against inappropriate development or land-use change.” (SNH, 2002) Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
  4. 4. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Attributes Main Criteria Perceived naturalness Functioning natural habitats Unmodified catchment systems Lack of constructions or other artefacts No recent buildings/works Little impact from large structures outside area Little evidence of contemporary land uses Little effects from older remains Only extensive grazing and field sports Rugged or otherwise challenging terrain Striking topographic features and difficult terrain Natural settings for recreation providing hard physical exercise and challenge Remoteness and inaccessibility Distance from settlement and communications Limited access either by scale of area and/or lack of easy access Extent of area Area sufficient to engender feeling of remoteness and solitude (After SNH, July 2002) http://www.snh.org.uk/pdfs/polstat/pd-wsc.pdf Attributes of wild land
  5. 5. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Can we map wildness? • Definitions and attributes – NPPG14, SNH and NTS Policy Statements • Technology – GIS and available digital map database • Methodological considerations – Perception vs ecology? – Discrete mapping vs continuum concept… “from the paved to the primeval” (Nash, 1983) – Scaling and repeatability
  6. 6. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Early inspiration • Bob Aitken’s PhD thesis (1977) “Wilderness Areas in Scotland” • Mike McCloskey and Heather Spalding’s reconnaissance level inventory of global wilderness (1989) • Rob Lesslie’s work developing Australian National Wilderness Inventory (1985) Aitken, Robert (1977). Wilderness Areas in Scotland, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. University of Aberdeen. Aberdeen. J. Michael McCloskey and Heather Spalding (1989) A Reconnaissance-Level Inventory of the Amount of Wilderness Remaining in the World. Ambio Vol. 18, No. 4 pp. 221-227. Lesslie, R. G. and Taylor, S. G. (1985) The Wilderness Continuum Concept and its Implication for Australian Wilderness Preservation Policy, Biological Conservation, 32, 309 – 333. “Emptied, not empty”
  7. 7. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Maps courtesy of Bob Aitken
  8. 8. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds J. Michael McCloskey and Heather Spalding, Ambio Vol. 18, No. 4 (1989), pp. 221-227 A Reconnaissance-Level Inventory of the Amount of Wilderness Remaining in the World
  9. 9. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds
  10. 10. Australian National Wilderness Inventory 1986-1996 Global wilderness assessment 1998 Maps courtesy of Rob Lesslie
  11. 11. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Early maps circa 1996-2000
  12. 12. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Theses and ideas: Policy development: Maps and documents: 1977: Bob Aitken’s PhD thesis 1980’s: 1998: Dominic Habron’s PhD thesis 1999: NPPG14 1996: Carver draws a map 2000: Steffen Fritz’s PhD thesis 2002: SNH and NTS policy statements 2004: SNH report on historic trends in wild land 2008: Real-time viewshed tool 2007: SNH Wild land perception study 2009: European Parliament Resolution on Wilderness 2008: CNP wildness study 2011: Follow up SNH perception study 2009: JMT maps and vision 2010: LLTNP wildness study and ScotGov report on wild land in Europe 2011: Draft European wilderness map 2012: SNH Phase 1 map and EU/Natura 2000 guidelines in wilderness 2013: SNH Phase 2/3 maps, ScotGov NPF3 on wild land, draft EU/EEA wilderness register and Final European wilderness map A wildland timeline
  13. 13. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Mapping wildness in the national parks • Attribute maps and their variants – Perceived naturalness – Absence of modern human artefacts – Rugged and challenging nature of terrain – Remoteness from mechanised access • Wildness maps and their variants – Equal weighting – Scottish / national park residents’ weights – Fuzzy modelling
  14. 14. Table 4.1 Naturalness classifications applied to land cover features LCM class BHSUB NClass Supplementary Data Criteria NClass Broad-leaved woodland 1.1 5 Highlands Birchwood’s Semi-natural 5 Mixed 4 Planted 3 Coniferous woodland 2.1 3 Highlands Birchwood’s Semi-natural 5 Mixed 4 Planted 3 Arable & horticultural 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 2 Improved grass 5.1, 5.2 2 Neutral grass 6.1 3 Calcareous grass 7.1 3 Acid grass 8.1 4 Bracken 9.1 4 Dwarf shrub heath 10.1, 10.2 4 LCS 88 4 Bog 12.1 5 Inland Water 13.1 0 OS MasterMap, OS 1:25,000 Natural 5 Loch Katrine 4 Impounded 3 Montane habitats 15.1 5 Inland rock 16.1 5 Built up areas 17.1, 17.2 0 Edited LCM built up areas, OS Meridian, OS MasterMap 1 Supra littoral rock 18.1 5 Supra littoral sediment 19.1 5 Littoral rock 20.1 5 Littoral sediment 21.1 5 Saltmarsh 21.2 4 Sea / Estuary 22.1 5 NextMap DTM 5 Perceived naturalness of land cover
  15. 15. Absence of modern human artefacts
  16. 16. Modelling impacts from wind energy
  17. 17. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Theses and ideas: Policy development: Maps and documents: 1977: Bob Aitken’s PhD thesis 1980’s: 1998: Dominic Habron’s PhD thesis 1999: NPPG14 1996: Carver draws a map 2000: Steffen Fritz’s PhD thesis 2002: SNH and NTS policy statements 2004: SNH report on historic trends in wild land 2008: Real-time viewshed tool 2007: SNH Wild land perception study 2009: European Parliament Resolution on Wilderness 2008: CNP wildness study 2011: Follow up SNH perception study 2009: JMT maps and vision 2010: LLTNP wildness study and ScotGov report on wild land in Europe 2011: Draft European wilderness map 2012: SNH Phase 1 map and EU/Natura 2000 guidelines in wilderness 2013: SNH Phase 2/3 maps, ScotGov NPF3 on wild land, draft EU/EEA wilderness register and Final European wilderness map A wildland timeline
  18. 18. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Theses and ideas: Policy development: Maps and documents: 1977: Bob Aitken’s PhD thesis 1980’s: 1998: Dominic Habron’s PhD thesis 1999: NPPG14 1996: Carver draws a map 2000: Steffen Fritz’s PhD thesis 2002: SNH and NTS policy statements 2004: SNH report on historic trends in wild land 2008: Real-time viewshed tool 2007: SNH Wild land perception study 2009: European Parliament Resolution on Wilderness 2008: CNP wildness study 2011: Follow up SNH perception study 2009: JMT maps and vision 2010: LLTNP wildness study and ScotGov report on wild land in Europe 2011: Draft European wilderness map 2012: SNH Phase 1 map and EU/Natura 2000 guidelines in wilderness 2013: SNH Phase 2/3 maps, ScotGov NPF3 on wild land, draft EU/EEA wilderness register and Final European wilderness map A wildland timeline
  19. 19. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds A national map • 'Search Areas for Wild Land (2002)… “most significant and valued areas of wild land would be found” • Recent work using GIS techniques in a more objective and robust approach in three phases: • Phase I: mapped the relative wildness for all of Scotland using the four physical attributes • Phase II: analysed the data to identify the largest and most wild areas (producing a long list of possible areas of wild land). • Phase III: used informed judgement to select areas of wild land character, and draw provisional boundaries. • 'Search Areas for Wild Land (2002)… “most significant and valued areas of wild land would be found” • Recent work using GIS techniques in a more objective and robust approach in three phases: • Phase I: mapped the relative wildness for all of Scotland using the four physical attributes • Phase II: analysed the data to identify the largest and most wild areas (producing a long list of possible areas of wild land). • Phase III: used informed judgement to select areas of wild land character, and draw provisional boundaries.
  20. 20. A quick comparison between approaches SNH national map EU/EEA map
  21. 21. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds The current state of play • Strong support for the conservation of wild land in Scotland – 91% of Scottish residents thought that it was important and 70% thought it very important to have wild places (SNH, 2008) – Support in Highlands and Islands for wild land designation outweighs opposition by 2 to 1 (JMT, 2014) • 2013-2014: Consultation on Phase III core areas – 73% of response in support vs 21% against – Most opposition from energy companies • March 2014: All party support in Scottish Parliament – Phase III map and support for wildland to be re- instated into NPF3 document – Deferral awaiting result of 18 September independence referendum?
  22. 22. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Relevance to rest of the UK? • Model to follow – NRW and NE develop own wildness maps? – Facilitate UK-wide comparisons – Analysis of landscape/habitat fragmentation, isolation and opportunities for improving connectivity • Targeting areas for rewilding and habitat restoration – Making REAL Space for Nature! – Justification for core areas and zonation (e.g. IUCN categories 1a/b, 2 and 3?)
  23. 23. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Back to the continuum… 1 3 2 ?
  24. 24. Southerscales Nature Reserve Higher Level Stewardship: agri-environment subsidy payment over 10 years of the agreement
  25. 25. “The Trust made Southerscales stockproof and in 1987 was able to re-introduce the traditional grazing regime” SSSI Unit 66 GRAZED
  26. 26. Ungrazed since 1974 An true ecological restoration! SSSI Unit 68/69
  27. 27. Limestone pavements of the Yorkshire Dales Southerscales - grazed Scar Close – not grazed Ecological restoration - not “rewilding” with herbivores (=farming)
  28. 28. Angelica Elder Primrose Ash Field scabious Raspberry Baneberry Figwort Red currant Bilberry Globe flower Rigid buckler fern Birch Greater burnet Rock rose Bird cherry Green spleenwort Rowan Birds eye primrose Guelder rose Solomon’s seal Birds foot trefoil Hard head St John’s wort Blackthorn Hawthorn Stone bramble Bloody cranesbill Hazel Strawberry Bluebell Heart’s tongue fern Sycamore Bracken Heather Valerian Brittle bladder fern Honeysuckle Violet Bugle Ivy Water avens Butterwort Juniper Welsh poppy Cinquefoil Lesser meadow rue Willows x 3 Cowberry Lily of the valley Wood anemone Climbing corydalis Limestone oak fern Wood cranesbill Daffodil Meadow sweet Wood sage Devil’s bit scabious Melancholy thistle Wood sorrel Dog rose Milkwort Yarrow Dog’s mercury Orpine Yew Early purple orchid Ash Baneberry Blackthorn Dog’s mercury Figwort Fragrant orchid Gooseberry Hawthorn Hazel Heart’s tongue fern Ivy Lesser meadow rue Limestone oak fern Raspberry Rigid buckler fern Rowan Sycamore Violet Welsh poppy Wood anemone Wood sage Wood sorrel Species of Scar Close and Southerscales SoutherscalesScar Close “a trajectory of restoration that was aided only by the distribution systems of wild nature, the reclaiming of species mediated through the natural force of wind, the assistance of birds and mammals, and the seeds in their droppings” Ecological restoration - reclaiming soil, humus, wildlife, natural processes
  29. 29. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds The 6 Rules of Re(al)wilding 1. Don’t confuse biodiversity and cultural landscapes with wildness or naturalness • They are not the same thing! 2. Nature can exist and thrive without our intervention • Traditional farming/forest practices only support those species that have adapted to those landscapes maintained by agriculture/forestry (i.e. not a natural or wild biodiversity) • We don’t have to continually keep wild nature in check 3. Natural succession should be the Favourable Conservation Status (FCS) for rewilding projects • Nature isn’t natural when held in stasis by continual human intervention/interference • Natural processes and trophic cascades create natural patterns and distributions of species • Allow nature to take care of itself in wider land/seascapes! 4. Work towards a continuum of approaches • From HNVF and nature gardening (traditional species/habitat conservation) through rewilding-lite (“Making Space for Nature”) to true rewilding with full range of native species (including top carnivores) where wilderness is the intended outcome 5. Work towards a continuum of landscapes • From urban (places to live and work), through intensive farming (to feed ourselves) and traditional farmed landscapes (that look pretty... England's Green and Pleasant Land) and managed nature reserves (where we can “play at nature”) • …BUT we still need core wild(er)ness where we step back entirely and let nature be natural regardless of cultural niceties and temptation to meddle 6. Think BIG, think BOLD! • Nature isn’t a “political” animal… So don’t treat it as such
  30. 30. Steve Carver, Wildland Research Institute, University of Leeds Thank you Questions? Email: s.j.carver@leeds.ac.uk URL: www.wildlandresearch.org

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