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The Wilderness Continuum
and its practical implications
for wilderness protection
Steve Carver
Director, Wildland Research...
Outline
• Wilderness and the continuum
concept
• Approaches to mapping
• Patterns and distribution of
wilderness
– Environ...
Defining wilderness
“Wordle” based on European, US and Australian wilderness definitions
SCALE!
Challenging
Solitude
Natural processes
Flora & fauna
Remoteness
Lack of human influence
Nature and landscape
• Two views of wild(er)ness...
– Biophysical/ecological wild
– Perceived/aesthetic wild
• Influence h...
Australian National Wilderness Inventory
(after Lesslie and Maslen, 1993)
Global wilderness continuum (after Lesslie, 2000)
European wilderness indicator (after Kuiters et al, 2014)
UK wilderness continuum (after JMT, 2010)
Scotland wilderness continuum (after SNH, 2011)
Cairngorms National Park wilderness continuum
(after Carver et al, 2010)
Austrian wilderness continuum (after Plutzar, 2013)
Single vs multi-attribute models
• Single variable models:
– Roadless areas
• Multiple variable
models:
– Remoteness
(sett...
Weighting
issues?
CompositeDifferenceCore areas
• Different priorities?
• Example: Scotland
Poselství from Prague
12. Finalisation of a definition of wilderness and wild areas, taking into
account the globally agre...
Participatory exercise!
Informing decisions
• Development control
• Designation
• Identification of
boundaries
• Zonation
• Protection measures
• ...
Iceland:
Fewer protected areas
Lots of wilderness
Mostly undesignated
Much opportunity for extended designation
Northern S...
Scotland:
Many Natura 2000 areas
Some wild land
Some protected, some unprotected
Opportunity for further protection
BENELU...
Conclusions
• Use GEOGRAPHY as basis for informed
decision-making
• Ways forward for European WQI
– Identifying wilderness...
Improve
Expand
Create
Connect
Any Questions?
The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection
The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection
The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection
The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection
The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection
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The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection

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Presentation to the European Wilderness Society Europe's Wilderness Days conference, Mittersill, Austria, Oct 1-4 2014

Published in: Environment
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The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection

  1. 1. The Wilderness Continuum and its practical implications for wilderness protection Steve Carver Director, Wildland Research Institute
  2. 2. Outline • Wilderness and the continuum concept • Approaches to mapping • Patterns and distribution of wilderness – Environmental gradients – Scaling issues • Informing decisions
  3. 3. Defining wilderness “Wordle” based on European, US and Australian wilderness definitions
  4. 4. SCALE! Challenging Solitude Natural processes Flora & fauna Remoteness Lack of human influence
  5. 5. Nature and landscape • Two views of wild(er)ness... – Biophysical/ecological wild – Perceived/aesthetic wild • Influence how we map the wilderness continuum – Choice of attributes – Need for proxy variables
  6. 6. Australian National Wilderness Inventory (after Lesslie and Maslen, 1993)
  7. 7. Global wilderness continuum (after Lesslie, 2000)
  8. 8. European wilderness indicator (after Kuiters et al, 2014)
  9. 9. UK wilderness continuum (after JMT, 2010)
  10. 10. Scotland wilderness continuum (after SNH, 2011)
  11. 11. Cairngorms National Park wilderness continuum (after Carver et al, 2010)
  12. 12. Austrian wilderness continuum (after Plutzar, 2013)
  13. 13. Single vs multi-attribute models • Single variable models: – Roadless areas • Multiple variable models: – Remoteness (settlement, roads, accessibility) – Naturalness (land cover, lack of human features)
  14. 14. Weighting issues? CompositeDifferenceCore areas • Different priorities? • Example: Scotland
  15. 15. Poselství from Prague 12. Finalisation of a definition of wilderness and wild areas, taking into account the globally agreed definitions, criteria and characteristics and the continuum of natural habitats and ecological processes, the range of ecological and cultural interpretations of these terms and their application in different parts of Europe. 13. Compilation of a Register of Wilderness using existing databases, such as the EEA and WDPA, identifying in tandem with appropriate interested parties the remaining areas of wilderness and wildlands, the threats and opportunities related to these, and their economic values, with practical recommendations for action. 14. Completion of mapping wilderness and wildland areas in Europe, involving appropriate definitional and habitat criteria and level of scale to effectively support plans for protecting and monitoring such areas. 15. Identification of key opportunities for prospective restoration of wild natural habitats and processes, involving mapping, biodiversity design and benefit assessment for relevant parties including local landholders and communities.
  16. 16. Participatory exercise!
  17. 17. Informing decisions • Development control • Designation • Identification of boundaries • Zonation • Protection measures • Connectivity • Targeted rewilding
  18. 18. Iceland: Fewer protected areas Lots of wilderness Mostly undesignated Much opportunity for extended designation Northern Scandinavia: Many protected areas Lots of wilderness Some protected, some unprotected Opportunity for extended designation
  19. 19. Scotland: Many Natura 2000 areas Some wild land Some protected, some unprotected Opportunity for further protection BENELUX countries: Many protected areas No wilderness (except marine) Only marine wilderness protected Main focus on rewilding
  20. 20. Conclusions • Use GEOGRAPHY as basis for informed decision-making • Ways forward for European WQI – Identifying wilderness areas in need of protection, improvement and expansion – Use WQI as the basis for improved connectivity – Intelligent targeting of rewilding activities
  21. 21. Improve Expand Create Connect
  22. 22. Any Questions?

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