P 101 ep 3-d

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P 101 ep 3-d

  1. 1. 3D-01-P101-EP
  2. 2. Where to get more information Spark Arrester qualification & testing:  USDA Forest Service Technology & Development CenterLesson East Bonita Avenue 444 Objectives San Dimas, CA 91773 Name three types of spark arresters Attn: Ralph Gonzales State the maximum size of carbon particle that can safely enter the air (909) 599-1267 x 212 Name(909) 592-2309 where spark arrester Fax: the facility programs and the Spark Arrester Guide are managed Website: http://fsweb.sdtdc.wo.fs.fed.us 3D-02-P101-EP
  3. 3. Introduction The inspection of sparkarresters is a complicated process. 3D-03-P101-EP
  4. 4. Spark Arrester Qualification Program 3D-04-P101-EP
  5. 5. Cone of Learning 10 % of what we read Reading 20 % of what we hear Hearing Words 30% of what we see Looking at Pictures Watching a Movie 50 % of what we hear and see Looking at an Exhibit Watching a Demonstration Seeing it done on Location 70% of what Participating in a we say Discussion Giving a Talk Doing a Dramatic Presentation90% of what we both say Simulating the Real Experience and do Doing the Real Thing 3D-05-P101-EP
  6. 6. How It All Began 3D-06-P101-EP
  7. 7. The Basics Wildland fuels may ignite at 400 oF to 500 oF 3D-07-P101-EP
  8. 8. The Basics Exhaust streams and surfaces reach 1000 o F during operation 3D-08-P101-EP
  9. 9. The Basics – Ways to Prevent FireStarts From Internal CombustionEngines Reduce exhaust gas temperature Reduce surface temperature or prevent from contact with fuels Limit carbon particle size to under 0.023 inches (0.058 mm) 3D-09-P101-EP
  10. 10. The BasicsCarbon particles greater than 0.023 inch in diameter have enough energy to start a fire 3D-10-P101-EP
  11. 11. Carbon Accumulation back 3D-11-P101-EP
  12. 12. The Basics 3D-12-P101-EP
  13. 13. What Is A Spark Arrester?A spark arrester is a device which pulverizes or traps exhaust particles. 3D-13-P101-EP
  14. 14. Types of Spark Arresters 3D-14-P101-EP
  15. 15. General Purpose – Trap Type trapStationary vane cleanout 3D-15-P101-EP
  16. 16. General Purpose – Trap Type 3D-16-P101-EP
  17. 17. Screen Type Spark Arrester 3D-17-P101-EP
  18. 18. Disc Type Spark Arrester 3D-18-P101-EP
  19. 19. Required Features on General Purpose Spark Arresters Markings  Manufacturer name or trademark  Spark arrester model number  “Screen type” for screen type spark arresters Cleanout device  Cleanout plug  Removable end cap  Cleanout band 3D-19-P101-EP
  20. 20. What Kinds Of EquipmentNeed A Spark Arrester? 3D-20-P101-EP
  21. 21. Federal Code for Public Lands 36 Code of Federal Regulations Section 261.52 All internal and external combustion engines operated in Federally managed lands must be equipped with a qualified spark arrester. 3D-21-P101-EP
  22. 22. External Combustion Engine 3D-22-P101-EP
  23. 23. External Combustion Engine 3D-23-P101-EP
  24. 24. Exemptions Power units equipped with a turbocharger.  100 % of exhaust gasses must pass thru the turbine wheel.  No waste gate or any other by-pass Registered vehicles o Check with Your Local agency. Generally Street legal vehicles do not require an approved spark arrester device. 3D-24P101-EP
  25. 25. What Makes A spark ArresterQualified? It Must meet one of these standards USDA 5100-1c SAE J335 SAE J350 SAE J342 (SAE= Society of American Engineers) 3D-25-P101-EP
  26. 26. How can it be determined that it meets those standards?The easiest way (the only way) is that it is listed in one of the Spark Arrester Guides 3D-26-P101-EP
  27. 27. Spark Arrester GuidesThe Spark ArresterGuide is a set ofbooks listing all sparkarresters evaluated atSDTDC that meet therequirements in FS5100-1c 3D-26-P101-EP
  28. 28. Types of Power Units(combustion engines) 3D-28-P101-EP
  29. 29. Types of Engines (Power units)General Purpose o Heavy equipment o Portable power equipment o OHV vehicles o Small enginesMulti-position Small Engines o Chainsaw o Other than Chainsaw (string trimmers, brush cutters)Locomotives o Diesel o Coal-fired, oil-fired 3D-29-P101-EP
  30. 30. General Purpose Spark Arresters Requirements Trap or pulverizing type  80 % effectiveness (90% hot test)  80 % cleanout effectiveness Screen Type  no opening greater than .023 inch diameter  effective screen open area is 200 % greater than smallest restriction on exhaust port. 3D-30-P101-EP
  31. 31. General Purpose Spark Arrester 3D-31-P101-EP
  32. 32. General Purpose Test How is it done? 3D-32-P101-EP
  33. 33. Trap / Pulverizing Type Testing • arrester is mounted in the test chamber • the blower provides air into the arrester • carbon is injected into the arrester • the carbon is collected, sieved and weighed • a minimum of ten runs is required • five test points (100 % of rated flow, 10 % rated flow, & three evenly spaced in between) • two runs per test point • 2 runs at 2 psi back pressure next 3D-33-P101-EP
  34. 34. General Purpose – MarkingRequirement Manufacturer Name or Trademark Spark Arrester Model Name or Number “Screen type” if a screen type spark arrester 3D-34-P101-EP
  35. 35. Multi-position Small Engine  Tested in accordance with:  SAE J335 Multi-position Small Engine Exhaust System Fire Ignition Suppression  Types of MSE  Chain Saw  Other than chain saws  trimmers  blowers  high pressure washers  etc... 3D-35-P101-EP
  36. 36. Multi-position Small Engine Most MSE spark arresters are screen types, chainsaws etc. 3D-36-P101-EP
  37. 37. Multi-position Small Engine (other) 3D-37-P101-EP
  38. 38. Multi-position Small Engine Exposed Surface Temperature - not to exceed 550oF • exposed surface is an surface which comes in contact with or intersects the contact plane Exhaust Gas Temperature - not to exceed 475oF • measured were exhaust gas impinges on contact plane Contact Plane • a flat plane around the exhaust system • determined by moving a test plate around the exhaust system with power head on a flat surface. 3D-38-P101-EP
  39. 39. Multi-position Small EngineChain Saw Contact Planes 3D-39-P101-EP
  40. 40. Multi-position Small Engine How is it done? 3D-40-P101-EP
  41. 41. Marking Requirements Manufacturer generated number  Does not have to be a full model number Power unit needs to be marked:  With manufacturer name or trademark  Power unit model number 3D-41-P101-EP
  42. 42. General Purpose & Multi-positionSmall Engine Spark Arresters General Purpose  Multi-position  particle size no greater Small Engine than .023 in diameter  particle size no greater  waivers are allowed than .023 in diameter  must be positively  waivers are allowed identifiable  must be positively  fixed position (45o identifiable deviation)  Multi-position  assigned a rated flow  qualified with a specific  no temperature power head requirements  surface & exhaust gas temps. 3D-42-P101-EP
  43. 43. Quiz #1GO 3D-43-P101-EP
  44. 44. Quiz #11. What is a spark arrester?2. Which pieces of equipment are required to have a spark arrester?3. What is a general purpose engine?4. What is a multi-position small engine?5. What are the three types of spark arresters?a.b.c.6. What are the marking requirements for a trap type and for a screen type? next 3D-44-P101-EP
  45. 45. Quiz #17. Name one thing that a trap type arrester must have?8. How do you know if a spark arrester is qualified?9. What is the largest screen opening that a screen type spark arrester may have? back 3D-45-P101-EP
  46. 46. Spark Arrester Identification 3D-46-P101-EP
  47. 47. Identifying Spark Arresters General Purpose Multi-position • Displays MFG Small Engine Trademark or name • It must be in the • Stamped with the Guide Model number • Displays the Model • “Screen type” number of power unit • Has Cleanout Device • Must be in the Guide 3D-47-P101-EP
  48. 48. Identifying Spark Arresters US Forest Service Approved Forestry Approved Department of Forestry ApprovedDoes not mean its qualified! 3D-48-P101-EP
  49. 49. Cleanout Devices 3D-49-P101-EP
  50. 50. Cleanout Devices 3D-50-P101-EP
  51. 51. Cleanout Devices 3D-51-P101-EP
  52. 52. Spark Arrester Maintenance 3D-52-P101-EP
  53. 53. Spark Arrester Maintenance  Spark Arrester must be properly maintained to be effective  Cleanout must be emptied periodically  Condition of the engine affects spark arrester effectiveness 3D-53-P101-EP
  54. 54. Spark Arrester Maintenance 3D-54-P101-EP
  55. 55. Spark Arrester Maintenance 3D-55-P101-EP
  56. 56. Modified Spark Arresters 3D-56-P101-EP
  57. 57. Modified Spark Arresters 3D-57-P101-EP
  58. 58. Modified Spark Arresters 3D-58-P101-EP
  59. 59. Modified Spark Arresters 3D-59-P101-EP
  60. 60. Modified Spark Arresters 3D-60-P101-EP
  61. 61. Modified Spark Arresters 3D-61-P101-EP
  62. 62. Turbo vs. Superchargers Turbocharger • Exhaust is directed thru a turbine to run a compressor • 100 % of exhaust must pass thru turbine wheel • Not waste gate allowed Supercharger • Direct link to engine • Does not function as an arrester 3D-62-P101-EP
  63. 63. Turbocharged Engines 3D-63-P101-EP
  64. 64. Turbocharged Engines 3D-64-P101-EP
  65. 65. Position of Application Only applies to General Purpose  Horizontal  Vertical  Inverted  Multi-position (Screen Type) Not more than 45 degrees from the mounted position 3D-65-P101-EP
  66. 66. Mufflers Mufflers  Mandatory for street legal vehicles  Designed for sound, they do not arrest carbon particles Catalytic Converter  Also required for post 1975 gas powered vehicles  For emissions,they do not arrest sparks  Subject to high temperatures (2000 F)  Some qualified spark arresters have catalyst 3D-66-P101-EP
  67. 67. Spark Arrester GuidesSAG Volume 1 &2Online SAG 3D-67-P101-EP
  68. 68. Spark Arrester Guide Vol. 1 & 2 SAG is no longer published on paper Updates are done electronically for both MSE & GP spark arresters Updates include all qualified spark arresters since the publication of the latest SAG SDTDC is available for reference 3D-68-P101-EP
  69. 69. On-Line Spark Arrester Guide  Searchable Database  By manufacturer name  Model number  Power unit  Position  More Frequent Updates  Quarterly  Downloadable  PDF 3D-69-P101-EP
  70. 70. On-Line Spark Arrester Guide 3D-70-P101-EP
  71. 71. On-Line Spark Arrester Guide 3D-71-P101-EP
  72. 72. On-Line Spark Arrester Guide 3D-72-P101-EP
  73. 73. On-Line Spark Arrester Guide 3D-73-P101-EP
  74. 74. On-Line Spark Arrester Guide 3D-74-P101-EP
  75. 75. On-Line Spark Arrester Guide 3D-75-P101-EP
  76. 76. Fire InvestigationsWhat can San Dimas TechnologyDevelopment Center Do for You? 3D-76-P101-EP
  77. 77. Fire InvestigationThe have test records for everything tested at the facilityThey can run efficiency tests on exhaust hardware for evidentiary purposesCan provide expert testimony (If the US Forest Service is party to suit) 3D-77-P101-EP
  78. 78. Fire Investigation 3D-79-P101-EP
  79. 79. Fire Investigations 3D-80-P101-EP
  80. 80. Fire Investigations 3D-81-P101-EP
  81. 81. Fire InvestigationWhat SDTDC cannot do.  Cannot do analysis on collected debris. (They are not an approved Crime Lab for evidence processing) 3D-78-P101-EP
  82. 82. Locomotive Spark Arresters 3D-82-P101-EP
  83. 83. Locomotive Spark Arresters  Tested in accordance with:  Association of American Railroads Recommended practice  SAE Recommended Practice J342  Tested on site with a portable unit. 3D-83-P101-EP
  84. 84. Locomotive Spark ArresterSparkarresters 3D-84-P101-EP
  85. 85. Locomotive Spark Arrester 3D-85-P101-EP
  86. 86. Locomotive Spark Arrester trap 3D-86-P101-EP
  87. 87. Locomotive Spark Arrester 3D-87-P101-EP
  88. 88. Locomotive Spark Arrester 3D-88-P101-EP
  89. 89. Where to get more informationSpark Arrester qualification & testing:  USDA Forest Service Technology & Development Center 444 East Bonita Avenue San Dimas, CA 91773 Attn: Ralph Gonzales (909) 599-1267 x 212 Fax: (909) 592-2309 Website: http://fsweb.sdtdc.wo.fs.fed.us 3D-89-P101-EP
  90. 90. Where to get more information Spark Arrester qualification & testing:  USDA Forest Service Technology & Development CenterSummary & Bonita Avenue 444 East Review Lesson Objectives San Dimas, CA 91773 Name three types of spark arresters Attn: Ralph Gonzales State the maximum size of carbon particle that can safely enter the air (909) 599-1267 x 212 Name(909) 592-2309 where spark arrester Fax: the facility programs and the Spark Arrester Guide are managed Website: http://fsweb.sdtdc.wo.fs.fed.us 3D-90-P101-EP

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