City of MilwaukeeDepartment of Public WorksOperations Division, Fleet Services Section Tom Barrett, Mayor Ghassan Korban, Commissioner of Public Works Preston D. Cole, Director of Operations Jeffrey A. Tews, CPFP Fleet Operations Manager
Diverse Fleet 123 different types of equipment, from aerial lifts to welders City of Milwaukee Fleet: – Diesel Units 929 pieces – Gasoline Units 1,670 pieces – Propane Units 138 pieces – Non-Fuel Units 995 pieces Annual Fuel Use: – Diesel Fuel 1,000,000 gallons/year – Gasoline 1,200,000 gallons/year – Propane 17,000 gallons/year
Biodiesel Use, 2006 - Present Over 650,000 gallons used 102,750 gallons in 2012 Various blends used; B2-B20 Supplement ULSD fuel Partially subsidized
Biodiesel Sources Typical Sources Gel PointInexpensive Palm Kernel Oil 50° F Animal Fats 45° F Corn Oil 40° F Soybean Oil 32° F Expensive Canola Oil 28° F Other Sources Rapeseed oil Used cooking oil Cottonseed oil Sunflower oil Algae (April 2008)
Biodiesel Quality City of Milwaukee uses B100 that meets ASTM Specification D6751, manufactured by a BQ-9000 Accredited Producer, and purchased from a Certified Marketer. B20 blends comply with the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) test specification for B20.
Biodiesel Pros Virtually no conversion costs. Can be used in existing diesel equipment, with no infrastructure changes. Directly displaces petroleum diesel fuel. Renewable, made from several sources. Reduces emissions. When used in B20 blend, biodiesel use: Decreases HC emissions by over 10-20% Decreases CO emissions by about 10-20% Decreases PM emissions by about 10-25%
Biodiesel Cons Increase in cost versus petroleum diesel. Not suitable for long-term storage. Increased storage tank maintenance required. Can clog fuel filters quickly upon introduction.Fuel filters changed in addition to normal Preventive Maintenance filter changes Time Frame Filters Used Comments January-December 2005 107 Before Biodiesel January-December 2006 227 Using Biodiesel January-December 2007 317 72% increase January-December 2008 136 43% decrease
Biodiesel Cons Attracts water Increased need to monitor underground fuel supplies for water and bacteria Start treating fuel in August
Increased Tank Maintenance Free water in the fuel storage tank accelerates corrosion and fuel degradation, and can also promote the growth of bacteria. Tank designs have made complete removal of water almost impossible. Moisture enters mostly as condensation from air. Vents and seals that are poorly constructed or maintained can allow water to infiltrate the storage tank.
Biodiesel Concerns Uptick in corrosion in fuel storage tanks (Government Fleet Magazine). Lubricity additive added to petroleum diesel to compensate for loss of lubricity of ULSD. Additive used to reduce static electricity discovered onboard transport trucks, from hauling different types of fuels. In ground storage tanks need to be properly grounded (cathodic protection). “That %#@* biodiesel is responsible for my equipment running like *%&#!” Crabapple fruit, pulled from the fuel filter inlet on a City vehicle
Cold Weather Specifications Work with your fuel vendor to maintain fuel consistency in cold weather situations.OPTIONAL COLD WEATHER ADDITIVE PACKAGE: Bidders shall indicate thecost to furnish and install a non-alcohol based cold weather anti-gelling, deicingadditive to the delivered fuel, capable of maintaining a cold filter plug point(CFPP) of -30 F, +/- 4 F, based on the cold weather blend of #2 ULSD at 70%, #1ULSD at 20%, and B100 at 10%. An acceptable additive is ValvTect HighPerformance Biodiesel Anti-Gel/Deicer Additive, or City approved equal. Proposed additive package brand/part #______________________ Cost to treat one gallon of delivered fuel $______________
Cost Increases, Credits Typical B100 cost per gallon: $4.42 (B100)Includes offset by Federal Blending Tax Credit, $1.00/gallon Gone as of January 1, 2010 Returned in 2013, retroactive to January 1, 2012 Renewable Fuel Identification Numbers (RINS) Credits that can be bought and sold One gallon of biodiesel blended earns 1.5 RINS At a recent value of $.64/RIN, vendor offset the cost of biodiesel by $.96 per gallon through end of year 2013.
In Closing Biodiesel is one of many viable alternative fuel choices, at a time when several such alternative fuel choices available. New developments announced continuously. Fleet managers must stay abreast of recent developments and potential costs to find the “sweet spot” between the three main factors: Range, Payload, and Cost of Infrastructure. Countless resources are available. For every reported problem, there may be a solution.