Electricity as a Vehicle Fuel


Published on

Presented by Hal Glenn with 2G Engineering at the 10th Annual Green Vehicles Workshop on April 24, 2013.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Electricity as a Vehicle Fuel

  1. 1. Electricity as a Vehicle FuelAn overview of vehicle energy sourcesWisconsin Clean Citys10th Annual Green Vehicles WorkshopHal GlennOwner, 2G Engineering, Sun Prairie WI
  2. 2. Fuel Generation and DistributionHydrocarbon (Gas, CNG, LP, ETC) rely onexisting pipe lines and over the roaddelivery• Existing infrastructure• Nearly half of all oil used isimported• Majority of gasoline produced inthe U.S is from gulf cost region(40%)EV’s rely on existing power grid fortheir fuel• EV’s still use fuel: Electricity isnot a fuel, just a pipeline• Generation source can be“Green” or not• EV’s, the most flexible fuel carsthere are• Lowest cost per unit energy
  3. 3. Where does the Midwest get is power? Yes, your EV does runs on coal!Source: World Resource Institute
  4. 4. The path electricity takes to get to your door
  5. 5. www.eia.gov
  6. 6. The Battery• EV’s store their energy in chemical form in batteries• Battery density is not likely to change appreciably in the near future• EV’s are approximately 80% efficient in conversion of stored energy tomiles driven• Gas vehicles are approximately 25% efficient converting their energyto miles driven• Net real world energy usage, EV’s use 1/3rd the stored energy for thesame distance traveled• Neglects the efficiency of the generation source (Gas or Electricity)
  7. 7. Batteries as a ‘Fuel’ tank:Perception of Safety is Importantto Future AdoptionHigh profile battery failures such as the recent ‘Dreamliner’incident lead to public concern over the technologyPeople lose perspective on what gasoline is.• Gasoline is approximately 50 timesmore energy dense• We have a history with Gasoline• Just as batteries, when proper care isnot taken, bad things happen
  8. 8. Anatomy of a PHEV Battery PackMid-pack Service DisconnectBattery Management ModuleBattery Voltage/Temp sensorsOutput ContactorsBattery Cooling passagesEnd Run Bus BarHV Output Leads (orange)HVIL Connector InterlockChevy Volt example: 288 cells, 16kWhr; 3.3kW onboard charger3kW On-boardChargerTed Bohn, Argonne National Laboratory
  9. 9. Different Types of Electric Vehicles– Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)• Very limited electric range – small battery 5-10kWhr• Charge power 1-3 kW– Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV)• Increased electric range – medium battery10-20 kWhr• Charge power up to 6 kW– Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)• All electric range – large battery >20kWhr• Charge power > 6 kW
  10. 10. Electric Vehicle Charging• EV’s can be refueled in the home• Onboard AC charges limit rate of charge• Most PHEV’s have 3KW chargers• This is the net energy equivalent of 1 gallon of gas every3 hours• Off board DC “fast” chargers is an emerging technology• Brings back the service station model of vehicle fueling• Most BEV’s support this• > 80% of a charge achievable in less then 15 minutes• Fast chargers not practical for home installation
  11. 11. The DifferencesBetween EVCharging Levels
  12. 12. Given all this… Why use Electric Vehicles?• Energy independence• EV’s reduce our dependence on foreign energy• Reduced green house gas emissions by reduced fossil fuel consumption• Yes electric cars are green(er)• The net system efficiency of an EV is 3 times greater then an IC vehicle• When factoring in the current mix of electricity generation, the electric vehicle produces approximately½ the amount of greenhouse gases per mile• They are cheaper to operate and their cost per mile/per unit of energy is less then traditional cars• Most EV’s boast EPA ratings over 100MPGe• Less moving parts, more reliable
  13. 13. Questions?