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Running head: THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 1
The Growing Issue of Cybercrime in a Predominately Technological Age
Whitn...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 2
Abstract
The world today relies heavily on the use of electricity and numerous electroni...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 3
The Growing Issue of Cybercrime in a Predominately Technological Age
Introduction
Today’...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 4
evolves cybercrime will continue to grow and incorporate more avenues of crime that will...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 5
Wire fraud is “a fraudulent scheme that uses interstate or international wire or other
e...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 6
dollars in loss every year, and is considered a criminal offence even punishable by deat...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 7
made especially difficult simply because it can be near impossible to trace many of the ...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 8
technology if there is to be any chance of combatting cybercrime before it can get any m...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 9
References
Agustina, J. R., & Insa, F. (2011). Challenges before crime in a digital era:...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 10
Jaishankar, K. (Ed.). (2011). Cyber criminology: exploring internet crimes and criminal...
THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 11
stalk. 2015. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved September 14, 2015, from http://www.merr...
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Cybercrime Research Paper

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Cybercrime Research Paper

  1. 1. Running head: THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 1 The Growing Issue of Cybercrime in a Predominately Technological Age Whitney Bolton CJUS 400-B01 16 October 2015 Liberty University
  2. 2. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 2 Abstract The world today relies heavily on the use of electricity and numerous electronics to keep everything running smoothly. No matter where one goes, there is some sort of technology that has a drastic impact on life. Whether it be to the grocery store, the movie theatre, or the gas station most of these places would cease to be able to operate if there were no more access to the technology they have become dependent. At the same time that the world has become overly dependent on technology criminals have taken advantage of this situation to use it for their benefit and to make committing crimes easier for them and in many cases the very people who are victims can unknowingly make themselves targets simply by not protecting their presence in this technology based world. As technology evolves and people undoubtedly become increasingly more, dependent on this technology they will get more and more careless with the important information. As technology grows and cybercrime because more prevalent then so do the steps and precautions taken to prevent it.
  3. 3. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 3 The Growing Issue of Cybercrime in a Predominately Technological Age Introduction Today’s society is all about fast pace and advancement. Part of this advancement mentality includes the constant improvement of technology. Many people’s entire lives revolve around technology and many times, they do not even realize it. Computer systems practically run much of the world today from security systems to the computer systems that run most businesses technology is taking control of the world. In this age of technology cybercrime becomes an increasingly more concerning issue. The world’s growing dependency on technology also leads to the world’s vulnerability. Steps are in place to protect against and prevent cybercrime, but with technology constantly, evolving there is a need for the precautions in place to evolve as well. Cybercrime includes a wide spectrum of crimes and many times make crimes that have existed even easier to commit than they ever were before. Cybercrime prevention is important because in many cases nothing is attempted to stop it until the damage has already been done. Body Cybercrime Defined By definition, cybercrimes are “criminal acts implemented through use of a computer or other form of electronic communications” (Anderson & Gardner, 2015, pg. 433). Cybercrime incorporates so many various types of crime. Some are crimes only possible because of the access of a computer and others were crimes long before computers appeared and technology simply was another tool to utilize. Crimes like the various forms of fraud and pornography existed before the technology boom, but with computers and other pieces of technology, these crimes became easier to commit and many times get away with. As times change and technology
  4. 4. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 4 evolves cybercrime will continue to grow and incorporate more avenues of crime that will require the creation of new policies in cybercrime prevention. Computer Trespass One of the more popular cybercrimes is the “unlawful access to a computer or computer system with intent to commit a crime, or unlawful access to a computer or computer system maintained by a government unit” (Anderson & Gardner, 2015, pg. 433). Computer trespass is often referred to hacking is something that is often viewed as more of a hobby to those who do it than a crime. While they may be aware that what they are doing is illegal, they simply enjoy the challenge of it. In this technology driven world, so many people learn from watching various television shows. One example as seen on TV is in the episode entitled “Sacrifices” from the first season of the television show “Arrow” (2013) there is a scene between a character who will become a main character of the show and a police officer about the criminality of computer hacking. In this particular scene when asked about alleged hacking abilities the character described them as a hobby, much as many today view it. The character does not view herself as a criminal and she definitely does not appear to be criminal, but that does not change the fact that her actions were illegal. Fraud Fraud is the “deceitful means or acts used to cheat a person, corporation, or government agency” (Anderson & Gardner, 2015, pg. 416). Fraud is one of those crimes that encompasses many variations and has been around since long before technology. Fraud is one of the many crimes that technology simply made that much easier to commit. A prime example comes from the concept of internet banking and just how easy it is now for someone to gain access to someone else’s information to take what he or she wants from them.
  5. 5. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 5 Wire fraud is “a fraudulent scheme that uses interstate or international wire or other electronic communications” (Anderson & Gardner, 2015, pg. 550). Cybercrime is categorized into three stages that “parallel the three stages of data processing: input tampering, throughput tampering, and output tampering” (Ionescu, Mirea, & Blajan, 2011, pg.375). This simply goes to show that at any point information can be altered or intercepted there is no point that a cybercrime will not happen. Despite security messages, there is no real way to guarantee the security of any information put out on the web from anyone. Identity Theft Identity theft is the act of “stealing a real person’s identification information (true name), or theft based on creating a fictitious person’s identification (synthetic identity)” (Anderson & Gardner, 2015, pg. 229). Identity theft ties right in with fraud and is made much easier through the processes of online banking and shopping which leaves personal information vulnerable on the internet. One article addresses the “underenforcement” of cybercrime (Swire, 2009, pg. 108). With most cybercrimes, especially identity theft there is nothing that can be done normally until it is too late. There are is generally no detecting one of these crimes beforehand, cases are brought forward only after someone’s identity has already been stolen. The lack of prevention is what causes the biggest problem. White-Collar Crime White-collar crime is “a class or type of criminal conduct whose only goal is the criminal’s economic gain” (Anderson & Gardner, 2015, pg. 416). White-collar crime can tie in many times with fraud and identity theft when the criminal is trying to take from others for their own personal gain. White-collar crime spans across continents and is a problem in more than just the United States. “In China, bank fraud is a serious white collar crime that causes billions of
  6. 6. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 6 dollars in loss every year, and is considered a criminal offence even punishable by death if the case involves corruption” (Cheng & Ma, 2009, pg. 166). In America, white-collar crimes do not constitute a death penalty, but they do result in just as much loss. This like many other crimes is a big problem because many times no one even realizes what is happening until there is a large amount of money that is missing. Stalking Stalking is “to follow, watch, and bother (someone) constantly in a way that is frightening, dangerous, etc.” (“stalk,” 2015). This definition seems to go best with the traditional sense of stalking that involves physically following and harassing another person. Stalking though has evolved as well with the advancement of technology. The better definition of stalking that would best apply to the realm of cybercrime would be “to pursue obsessively and to the point of harassment” (“stalk,” 2015). Social media has made the crime of “cyber-stalking” just as, if not more, prevalent than the act of physically following someone. At the same time, social media has also made physical stalking simpler with the ability to track someone through his or her statuses. Combatting Cybercrime As pointed out by Jaishankar (2011) with the introduction of the internet and all the possibilities presented because of it many criminologists have had to rethink and redefine their views on crime (pg. xxvii). For all the precautions placed there is really very little that can be done. The biggest thing is for people in general to be smart about what they put out on the internet and what information they let get out. Cybercrime encompasses so many various forms of crime that have long existed before computer access and now these crimes require altered definitions to include the new ways these crimes can be committed. Combatting cybercrime is
  7. 7. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 7 made especially difficult simply because it can be near impossible to trace many of the crimes back to the actual offender especially with the overlap of some many crimes coming together to make another crime possible. Areas for Improvement One article points out “the legal aspects are of no use if laws are not properly implemented, one does not know what is cyber stalking and what to do, when one becomes the prey of it” (Sen, 2013, pg. 382). This concept applies to every facet of cybercrime not only cyber stalking. Many people rely so heavily on the internet and other technology in their lives and when something goes wrong, they do not always even realize that it was illegal. Until there is an understanding there can only be so much done to try to help with the issue of cybercrime. Another issue is addressed when it comes to the topic of cyber-attacks and cyberterrorism through it is difficult because “there is not a consistent international treaty in the regard yet” (Dang, 2011, pg. 1). If no one can agree on the terms of which constitute cyber-attacks then there is no hope of being able to agree to the terms to put a stop to it. Conclusion All levels of cybercrime tend to overlap. There are many of the crimes that cannot happen without the other. Almost every cybercrime is going to require some level of computer trespass and hacking at some point in the process. This is the exact reason that cybercrime is such a problem in today’s technology based society there is little understanding of what out there is actually a crime and what is not when it comes to being online. Cybercrime is going to continue to grow into a bigger and bigger problem over time and if the laws and definitions do not grow along with the technology advances then there is not going to be anything left that can be done to prevent cybercrime. Laws and those who make them must be able to evolve along with the
  8. 8. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 8 technology if there is to be any chance of combatting cybercrime before it can get any more out of control.
  9. 9. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 9 References Agustina, J. R., & Insa, F. (2011). Challenges before crime in a digital era: Outsmarting cybercrime offenders–Workshop on Cybercrime, Computer Crime Prevention and the Surveillance Society. Computer Law & Security Review,27(2), 211-212. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0267364911000318 Anderson, T. M., & Gardner, T. J. (2015). Criminal Law: Twelfth Edition. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning. Berlanti, G., Guggenheim, M., Kreisberg, A. (Writer), & Barrett, D. (Director). (2013). Sacrifice [Television series episode]. In G. Berlanti (Executive Producer), Arrow. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: The CW Television Network. Cheng, H., & Ma, L. (2009). White collar crime and the criminal justice system: Government response to bank fraud and corruption in China. Journal of Financial Crime, 16(2), 166- 179. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/13590790910951849 Dang, S. T. (2011). The Prevention of Cyberterrorism and Cyberwar. In Old Dominion University Model United Nations Conference (ODUMUNC) (pp. 1-6). Retrieved from https://www.odu.edu/content/dam/odu/offices/mun/2011/disec/issue-brief-2011-the- prevention-of-cyberterrorism-and-cyberwar.pdf Ionescu, L., Mirea, V., & Blajan, A. (2011). Fraud, Corruption and Cyber Crime in a Global Digital Network. Economics, Management and Financial Markets,6(2), 373-380. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/884339022/fulltextPDF?accountid=12085
  10. 10. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 10 Jaishankar, K. (Ed.). (2011). Cyber criminology: exploring internet crimes and criminal behavior. CRC Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cWOQWx4QPFYC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1& dq=cybercrime,+prevention&ots=EZv11MlUfK&sig=AJTgPbM0AJn3IkJHHA556tgKj Ms#v=onepage&q=cybercrime%2C%20prevention&f=false Newman, R. C. (2006, September). Cybercrime, identity theft, and fraud: practicing safe internet-network security threats and vulnerabilities. InProceedings of the 3rd annual conference on Information security curriculum development (pp. 68-78). ACM. Retrieved from http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/1240000/1231064/p68- newman.pdf?ip=208.95.49.140&id=1231064&acc=ACTIVE%20SERVICE&key=B3324 0AC40EC9E30%2E21B7FCDC37FE1F9C%2E4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E4D4702B0C3 E38B35&CFID=553588910&CFTOKEN=25049103&__acm__=1444972132_d060b564 277b9a2025b51bee2a43ee87 Sen, A. (2013). Linking Cyber Crime to the Social Media: A Case Study of Victims in Kolkata. Interpersonal Crimes: A Critical Study of Systematic Bias against Men, 378- 382. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Do1Kl2OyQdgC&oi=fnd&pg=PA378& dq=cybercrime,+stalking&ots=S1ju6fjhCg&sig=jH_jEpnIAxnd6QTl3e36keEN_yQ#v=o nepage&q&f=false Shinder, D. L., & Cross, M. (2008). Scene of the Cybercrime. Syngress. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=fJVcgl8IJs4C&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=cy bercrime,+prevention&ots=eyBxscOEf5&sig=U_-h7- dzaxrQSM8MA8ngcP9p5W8#v=onepage&q=cybercrime%2C%20prevention&f=false
  11. 11. THE GROWING ISSUE OF CYBERCRIME 11 stalk. 2015. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved September 14, 2015, from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/stalk Swire, P. (2009). No cop on the beat: Underenforcement in e-commerce and cybercrime. J. on Telecomm. & High Tech. L., 7, 107-124. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/jtelhtel7&div=8&g_sent=1&collec tion=journals

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