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Psychology KS4

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GCSE Psychology
Unit Key content Theories Studies (named)
1. Research
methods
Paper 1: Section D
● Hypotheses (null and alternate)
● Variables (independent, dependent, extraneous)
● Sampling methods (random, opportunity, systematic, stratified) and their strengths and weaknesses
● Designing research (experimental designs – independent groups, repeated measures, matched pairs; laboratory
experiments; field and natural experiments; interviews; questionnaires; case studies; observation studies including categories
and interobserver reliability) including strengths and weaknesses of all of the above
● Correlation (associations between variables, scattergraphs to show relationships) including strengths and weaknesses
● Research procedures (standardised procedures, randomisation, allocation to conditions, counterbalancing and extraneous
variables)
● Planning and conducting research (taking into account reliability and validity of sampling methods, experimental designs
and quantitative and qualitative methods)
● Ethical considerations (as per BPS guidelines and how to deal with these issues)
● Data handling
o quantitative and qualitative data
o primary and secondary data
o computation (in decimal and standard form: rations, fractions, percentages; estimating results; means; significant
figures)
o Descriptive statistics (understand and calculate mean, mode, median and range)
o Interpretation and display of data (frequency tables, bar charts, histograms, scatter diagrams)
o Normal distributions
2. Memory
Paper 1: Section A
● Processes of memory
● Types of memory: episodic, semantic, procedural
● Multi-store model (coding,
capacity, duration, primacy
effect, recency effect)
● Reconstructive memory
(interference, context, false
memories)
● Murdock (serial
position curve)
● Bartlett (War of the
Ghosts)
GCSE Psychology
Unit Key content Theories Studies (named)
3.
Perception
Paper 1: Section B
● Sensation and perception
● Visual cues and constancies
● Monocular and binocular depth cues
● Visual illusions
● Factors affecting perception (culture, motivation,
expectation, emotion)
● Gibson’s Direct Theory (motion
parallax)
● Gregory’s Constructivist Theory
(past experience)
● Gilchrist and Nesburg
(motivation)
● Bruner and Minturn
(perceptual set)
4. Development
Paper 1: Section C
● Early brain development (neural structures in
womb, brain stem, thalamus, cerebellum and
cortex etc.)
● Effects of learning on development (verbalisers
and visualisers)
● Piaget’s stage theory (assimilation
and accommodation, four
stages, application to education)
● Dweck’s mindset theory (fixed
and growth mindset, praise and
self-efficacy
● Willingham’s learning theory
(criticism of learning styles)
● McGarrigle and
Donaldson
(“naughty teddy”
study)
● Hughes (policeman
doll study)
5. Language,
thought and
communicati
on
Paper 2: Section B
● Relationship between language and thought
(how this affects our view of the world)
● Differences between human and animal
communication (animals – limited to survival,
reproduction, territory, food; humans – planning
ahead, discussing future events)
● Non-verbal communication (definitions of NVC
and VC, functions of eye contact – regulating
flow of conversation, signalling attraction,
expressing emotion; body language – open and
closed posture, postural echo, touch; personal
space – cultural, status and gender differences)
● Explanations of NVC – evidence of NVC being
innate and learned)
● Piaget’s theory (language
depends on thought)
● Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (thinking
depends on language)
● Darwin’s evolutionary theory of
NVC as evolved and adaptive
● Von Frisch (bee study
animal
communication)
● Yuki et al (emoticons
study cultural
differences in
communication)
GCSE Psychology
Unit Key content Theories Studies (named)
6. Social
influence
Paper 2: Section A
● Conformity
o how social factors (group size, anonymity, task difficulty)
affect majority influence
o how dispositional factors (personality, expertise) affect
majority influence
● Obedience (social factors and dispositional factors)
● Prosocial behaviour (how social factors – presence of others and
cost of helping – and dispositional factors – similarity to victim
and expertise – affect bystander behaviour)
● Crowd and collective behaviour (how social factors – social
loafing, deindividuation and culture – and dispositional factors –
personality and morality – affect collective behaviour)
● Milgram’s Agency
Theory (agency,
authority, culture,
proximity)
● Adorno’s theory of
authoritarian
personality
● Asch (conformity
study)
● Piliavin (Bystander
behaviour subway
study)
7. Brain and
neuropsychol
ogy
Paper 2: Section C
● Structure and function of the nervous system (central and
peripheral – somatic and autonomic; basic functions of each
division)
● Neuron structure and function
o sensory, relay and motor neurons
o synaptic transmission – release and reuptake of
neurotransmitters
o Excitation and inhibition
● Structure and function of brain
o structure (and functions): frontal lobe, temporal lobe,
parietal lobe, occipital lobe, cerebellum
o localisation of function in the brain: motor,
somatosensory, visual, auditory, language
● Introduction to neuropsychology (cognitive neuroscience – how
structure and function relate to behaviour and cognition;
scanning techniques to identify brain function – CT, PET and fMRI;
how neurological damage can affect motor abilities and
behaviour e.g. stroke or injury)
● James Lange
theory of emotion
● Hebb’s theory of
learning and
neuronal growth
● Penfield (study of the
interpretive cortex)
● Tulving (‘gold’
memory study)
GCSE Psychology
Unit Key content Theories Studies (named)
8.
Psychologic
al problems
Paper 2:
Section D
● Introduction to mental health and how incidence changes over
time (positive engagement with society, effective coping with
challenges; cultural variations in beliefs about MH problems;
increased challenges of modern living; increased recognition
and lessening of social stigma)
● Effects of significant MH on individuals and society (individual
effects – damage to relationships, difficulties coping with
everyday life, negative impact on physical wellbeing; social
effects – need for more social care, increased crime rates,
implications for the economy)
● Characteristics of clinical depression (unipolar depression,
bipolar depression and sadness; use of International
Classification of Diseases for diagnosing unipolar depression)
● Interventions or therapies for depression (medications, CBT) and
how these improve mental health, reductionist and holistic
perspectives
● Characteristics of addiction (addiction/dependence, substance
misuse/abuse; use of International Classification of Diseases for
diagnosing addiction)
● Interventions or therapies for addiction (aversion therapy, self-
management programmes e.g. self-help groups, 12 step
recovery programmes) and how these improve mental health,
reductionist and holistic perspectives
● Biological
explanation of
depression -
nature(imbalance
of
neurotransmitters
e.g. serotonin in
the brain)
● Psychological
explanation of
depression –
nurture (negative
schemas,
attributions)
● Biological
explanation of
addiction -
nature(hereditary
factors/genetic
vulnerability)
● Psychological
explanation of
addiction – nurture
(peer influence)
● Wiles (study of
effectiveness of CBT)
● Kaij (twin study of
alcohol abuse)

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Psychology KS4

  • 1. GCSE Psychology Unit Key content Theories Studies (named) 1. Research methods Paper 1: Section D ● Hypotheses (null and alternate) ● Variables (independent, dependent, extraneous) ● Sampling methods (random, opportunity, systematic, stratified) and their strengths and weaknesses ● Designing research (experimental designs – independent groups, repeated measures, matched pairs; laboratory experiments; field and natural experiments; interviews; questionnaires; case studies; observation studies including categories and interobserver reliability) including strengths and weaknesses of all of the above ● Correlation (associations between variables, scattergraphs to show relationships) including strengths and weaknesses ● Research procedures (standardised procedures, randomisation, allocation to conditions, counterbalancing and extraneous variables) ● Planning and conducting research (taking into account reliability and validity of sampling methods, experimental designs and quantitative and qualitative methods) ● Ethical considerations (as per BPS guidelines and how to deal with these issues) ● Data handling o quantitative and qualitative data o primary and secondary data o computation (in decimal and standard form: rations, fractions, percentages; estimating results; means; significant figures) o Descriptive statistics (understand and calculate mean, mode, median and range) o Interpretation and display of data (frequency tables, bar charts, histograms, scatter diagrams) o Normal distributions 2. Memory Paper 1: Section A ● Processes of memory ● Types of memory: episodic, semantic, procedural ● Multi-store model (coding, capacity, duration, primacy effect, recency effect) ● Reconstructive memory (interference, context, false memories) ● Murdock (serial position curve) ● Bartlett (War of the Ghosts)
  • 2. GCSE Psychology Unit Key content Theories Studies (named) 3. Perception Paper 1: Section B ● Sensation and perception ● Visual cues and constancies ● Monocular and binocular depth cues ● Visual illusions ● Factors affecting perception (culture, motivation, expectation, emotion) ● Gibson’s Direct Theory (motion parallax) ● Gregory’s Constructivist Theory (past experience) ● Gilchrist and Nesburg (motivation) ● Bruner and Minturn (perceptual set) 4. Development Paper 1: Section C ● Early brain development (neural structures in womb, brain stem, thalamus, cerebellum and cortex etc.) ● Effects of learning on development (verbalisers and visualisers) ● Piaget’s stage theory (assimilation and accommodation, four stages, application to education) ● Dweck’s mindset theory (fixed and growth mindset, praise and self-efficacy ● Willingham’s learning theory (criticism of learning styles) ● McGarrigle and Donaldson (“naughty teddy” study) ● Hughes (policeman doll study) 5. Language, thought and communicati on Paper 2: Section B ● Relationship between language and thought (how this affects our view of the world) ● Differences between human and animal communication (animals – limited to survival, reproduction, territory, food; humans – planning ahead, discussing future events) ● Non-verbal communication (definitions of NVC and VC, functions of eye contact – regulating flow of conversation, signalling attraction, expressing emotion; body language – open and closed posture, postural echo, touch; personal space – cultural, status and gender differences) ● Explanations of NVC – evidence of NVC being innate and learned) ● Piaget’s theory (language depends on thought) ● Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (thinking depends on language) ● Darwin’s evolutionary theory of NVC as evolved and adaptive ● Von Frisch (bee study animal communication) ● Yuki et al (emoticons study cultural differences in communication)
  • 3. GCSE Psychology Unit Key content Theories Studies (named) 6. Social influence Paper 2: Section A ● Conformity o how social factors (group size, anonymity, task difficulty) affect majority influence o how dispositional factors (personality, expertise) affect majority influence ● Obedience (social factors and dispositional factors) ● Prosocial behaviour (how social factors – presence of others and cost of helping – and dispositional factors – similarity to victim and expertise – affect bystander behaviour) ● Crowd and collective behaviour (how social factors – social loafing, deindividuation and culture – and dispositional factors – personality and morality – affect collective behaviour) ● Milgram’s Agency Theory (agency, authority, culture, proximity) ● Adorno’s theory of authoritarian personality ● Asch (conformity study) ● Piliavin (Bystander behaviour subway study) 7. Brain and neuropsychol ogy Paper 2: Section C ● Structure and function of the nervous system (central and peripheral – somatic and autonomic; basic functions of each division) ● Neuron structure and function o sensory, relay and motor neurons o synaptic transmission – release and reuptake of neurotransmitters o Excitation and inhibition ● Structure and function of brain o structure (and functions): frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, cerebellum o localisation of function in the brain: motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory, language ● Introduction to neuropsychology (cognitive neuroscience – how structure and function relate to behaviour and cognition; scanning techniques to identify brain function – CT, PET and fMRI; how neurological damage can affect motor abilities and behaviour e.g. stroke or injury) ● James Lange theory of emotion ● Hebb’s theory of learning and neuronal growth ● Penfield (study of the interpretive cortex) ● Tulving (‘gold’ memory study)
  • 4. GCSE Psychology Unit Key content Theories Studies (named) 8. Psychologic al problems Paper 2: Section D ● Introduction to mental health and how incidence changes over time (positive engagement with society, effective coping with challenges; cultural variations in beliefs about MH problems; increased challenges of modern living; increased recognition and lessening of social stigma) ● Effects of significant MH on individuals and society (individual effects – damage to relationships, difficulties coping with everyday life, negative impact on physical wellbeing; social effects – need for more social care, increased crime rates, implications for the economy) ● Characteristics of clinical depression (unipolar depression, bipolar depression and sadness; use of International Classification of Diseases for diagnosing unipolar depression) ● Interventions or therapies for depression (medications, CBT) and how these improve mental health, reductionist and holistic perspectives ● Characteristics of addiction (addiction/dependence, substance misuse/abuse; use of International Classification of Diseases for diagnosing addiction) ● Interventions or therapies for addiction (aversion therapy, self- management programmes e.g. self-help groups, 12 step recovery programmes) and how these improve mental health, reductionist and holistic perspectives ● Biological explanation of depression - nature(imbalance of neurotransmitters e.g. serotonin in the brain) ● Psychological explanation of depression – nurture (negative schemas, attributions) ● Biological explanation of addiction - nature(hereditary factors/genetic vulnerability) ● Psychological explanation of addiction – nurture (peer influence) ● Wiles (study of effectiveness of CBT) ● Kaij (twin study of alcohol abuse)