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2012 COSIM Conference    Big Shame or Big Honor?Exploring the Dynamics of Honor andShame in Cross-Cultural PartnershipWern...
Honor & Shamein Cross-Cultural Relationships            Free 30-page article combines            • honor + shame lens     ...
2009LEBANONExploringhonor andshame inPhilippians
Baalbeck:a top touristattraction inLebanon
Templeof Jupiter
FORTHEGLORYOFROME!
Every culture has these features    in varying proportions
Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Dir...
Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Dir...
Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Dir...
Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Dir...
Westerners usually readGod’s Word through thecultural lens of guilt/innocence. But…
Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …                                         … helps Ch...
Examine key dynamics of                                1honor and shame from asocial-science perspective—with examples fro...
Explore honor and shame                                2as the pivotal cultural value• of the Bible … and• of most of the ...
Examine applications                                3to cross-cultural ministriesand partnerships throughunderstanding the...
1
Examine key dynamics of                                1honor and shame from asocial-science perspective—with examples fro...
1. Key dynamics of honor and shame   from a social science perspective.                                                   ...
Definition of honorHonor: “the worth or value of personsboth in their eyes and in the eyes oftheir village, neighborhood, o...
Love of honor“Athenians excel all others not so much in singingor in stature or in strength, as in love of honour”–Xenopho...
“Now the greatest external good we should assume            to be the thing which we offer as a tribute to the            ...
Love of honor                                 EXAMP                                              LEThen the mother of the ...
Two sources of honor 1. Ascribed 2. Achieved
Two sources of honor   EXAMPLEAscribed
Two sources of honor   EXAMPLE           The book of theAscribed           genealogy of Jesus           Christ, the son of...
Two sources of honor               EXAMPLE           The book of the      and behold, a voiceAscribed           genealogy ...
Two sources of honor               EXAMPLE           The book of the      and behold, a voiceAscribed           genealogy ...
Two sources of honor   EXAMPLEAchieved
Two sources of honor                    EXAMPLEAchieved           Therefore God has highly exalted him and           besto...
Image of limited goodThe belief that everything in social, economic, natural universe… everything desired in life: land, w...
Image of limited good     win-loseThe belief that everything in social, economic, natural universe…       vs. everything d...
Image of limited good              EXAMPLE     This was why the Jews were seeking           all the more to kill him,becau...
Image of limited good                  EXAMPLE“as it is my eager expectation and hope that I will not be at all ashamed, b...
Challenge and riposteFour steps to this social code of “push and shove”(Neyrey, p20)  1. claim of worth or value  2. chall...
EXAMPLE             Jesus heals the             man with the Note the    withered hand   public   nature    –Matt. 12:8–16...
8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.9 He went on from there and entered their synagogue.10 And a man was there wit...
8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.                                   1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from...
8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.                                   1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from...
8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.                                   1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from...
8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.                                   1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from...
PatronageNorth American view of patronage is negative:• “It’s not what you know it’s who you know”• “We sense someone has ...
Patronage“The world … of the New Testament, however, was one in whichpersonal patronage was an essential means of acquirin...
Patronage   “Jesus and his first disciples moved among   and within patronage and friendship   networks, for patronage was...
Patronage                             EXAMPLE       And he said to them,“The kings of the Gentiles exercise       lordship...
Patronage                                     EXAMPLE“Now a centurion had a servant who was sick and at the pointof death ...
Patronage                     EXAMPLE     For God so loved the world,      that he gave his only Son,    that whoever beli...
Patronage“God’s grace (charis) would not have beenof a different kind than the grace with whichthey were already familiar;...
PatronageDistinct, specific honor code abouthow to give and receive.• Benefactor: wise, not self-serving, that  their gifts...
PatronageDistinct,specific             GRACEhonor code             •   Benefactors gave out of grace  Benefactor •   The gi...
PatronageDistinct,specific                           GRACEhonor code                “This single word  Benefactor encapsula...
PatronageDistinct, specific honor code“The patron or giver never gives with an eye to whatcan be gained from the gift. The ...
Kinship
Kinship“In the ancient world, people are not just taken ontheir ‘merits.’ Instead, their merits begin with themerits (or d...
Kinship      Everyone’s personal honor      begins with their      kinship.(Ascribed honor)
Kinship“The believers, as children of God, become whatsociologists call a fictive kinship group,” that isa collection of pe...
Kinship                       EXAMPLE     Now the LORD said to Abram,“Go from your country and your kindred         and yo...
Kinship                          EXAMPLE  And everyone who has left houses orbrothers or sisters or father or mother or ch...
Kinship                        EXAMPLESo then, as we have opportunity,  let us do good to everyone,and especially to those...
Kinship                         EXAMPLEBut if anyone has the world’s goods  and sees his brother in need, yet closes his h...
Summary“It would not be an understatement to saythat ‘honor’ as reputation and ‘good name’was endemic to the ancient world...
Small group reflection1. Key dynamics of honor and shame   from a social science perspective.  •   Love of honor           ...
2Honor and shame is thepivotal cultural valueof the Bible
“Whether we turn to Paul’s letters and examine hisself-presentation, his conflict with rival teachersand preachers, his pr...
ExamplesAnd the man and his wife were both naked         and were not ashamed.           (Genesis 2:25 ESV)
Examples    I will bless those who bless you,and him who dishonors you I will curse, and in you all the families of the ea...
Examples    Awake, my glory!Awake, O harp and lyre! I will awake the dawn!    (Psalm 57:8 ESV)
Examples         How can you believe,when you receive glory from one another       and do not seek the glory    that comes...
Examples    The glory that you have given me          I have given to them,that they may be one even as we are one,       ...
Examples  For I am not ashamed of the gospel,        for it is the power of Godfor salvation to everyone who believes…    ...
ExamplesFor all have sinned and fall short        of the glory of God.       (Romans 3:23 ESV)
ExamplesBut we impart a secret and hidden wisdomof God, which God decreed before the agesfor our glory. None of the rulers...
Examples    For even if I boast a little too much of our authority, which the Lord gave forbuilding you up and not for des...
ExamplesFor by grace you have been saved through   faith. And this is not your own doing;it is the gift of God, not a resu...
Examplesas it is my eager expectation and hope that I willnot be at all ashamed, but that with full courage       now as a...
Exampleswe exhorted each one of you and encouraged you and charged you to walk in a manner    worthy of God, who calls you...
ExamplesSo the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe,“The stone that the builders rejected   has ...
Examples           saying with a loud voice,     “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain,  to receive power and wealth and wisdo...
“In fact, a survey of all of the leading textbooks used inteaching systematic theology across the major theologicaltraditi...
References to Guilt vs. Shame in the Bible                Old Testament   New Testament400300200                          ...
In Scripture—consider the    use of the words…GLORY, GLORIFY,  GLORIFIED
Frequency and use in Scripture of the words, glory, glorify, glorified, glorious                                           ...
Could it be,we have a blind spot?
Could it be?We in the West have a blind spot that keeps us fromseeing the pivotal cultural value of honor andshame in the ...
2.b.
2.b.Honor and shame is the pivotalcultural value of most of theMajority World /unreached peoples.
Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location          —a broad generalization                             Chart used by...
Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location          —a broad generalization                                  West or ...
Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location          —a broad generalization                                  West or ...
Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location          —a broad generalization                                  West or ...
Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location          —a broad generalization                                  West or ...
West or North         South (Sub-Sahara Africa,            East (Asia, Middle East,                  Geographical Location...
Map from floatingsheep.org:               User-Created Geographies of               Religion: Allah, Buddha, Hindu,       ...
Map from floatingsheep.org:               User-Created Geographies of               Religion: Allah, Buddha, Hindu,       ...
The worldof BUDDHISM isan honor/shameculture
The worldof BUDDHISM isan honor/shameculture
The world ofHINDUISMis an honor/shame culture
The world ofHINDUISMis an honor/shame culture
The world of     the BIBLE  is an honor/shame culture
The world of     the BIBLE  is an honor/shame culture
Examine applications                                3to cross-cultural ministriesand partnerships throughunderstanding the...
Application: RELATIONSHIPBy understanding New Testament culturebetter—namely the pivotal cultural value ofhonor and shame…...
Application: RELATIONSHIPBy understanding New Testament culturebetter—namely the pivotal cultural value ofhonor and shame…...
Application: RELATIONSHIPTo those of us who support indigenous ministries…Do our ministry partners view us as:   • investo...
Application: TRAININGCan we develop skills in using the biblicallanguage of honor and shame? …• to present the glorious go...
Application: SPIRITUAL FORMATIONTo what degree do we recognize          But we impart athis profound honor, this great    ...
Application: EVALUATIONCan we evaluate our partnerships using          And we all, withthe “language of honor and shame”— ...
Application: PERSECUTED CHURCHHow can we show honor to our                Then they left the                              ...
Application: APOSTOLIC VISIONBy ignoring the biblical language of    To those outside thehonor and shame in building      ...
Application: APOSTOLIC VISION But we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God, which God decreed before the ages for our g...
Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …                                         … helps Ch...
For from him and through him and to him              are all things.      To him be glory forever. Amen           (Romans ...
Training servicesWERNER MISCHKE offers training services concerning honor and shame—to churches, mission agencies and mini...
Big Shame or Big Honor? Exploring the Dynamics of Honor and Shame in Cross-Cultural Partnership (Mac OS Keynote)
Big Shame or Big Honor? Exploring the Dynamics of Honor and Shame in Cross-Cultural Partnership (Mac OS Keynote)
Big Shame or Big Honor? Exploring the Dynamics of Honor and Shame in Cross-Cultural Partnership (Mac OS Keynote)
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Big Shame or Big Honor? Exploring the Dynamics of Honor and Shame in Cross-Cultural Partnership (Mac OS Keynote)

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Presented at the 2012 COSIM conference, this teaching: 1) examines the key dynamics of 
honor and shame from a 
social-science perspective—
with examples from Scripture, 2) explores honor and shame 
as the pivotal cultural value of the Bible, and of most of the Majority World / 
unreached peoples, and 3) examines applications 
to cross-cultural ministries 
and partnerships through understanding the dynamics of honor and shame. The corresponding video of Werner Mischke making the presentation is here: https://vimeo.com/43444852 For a free 30-page article by Werner Mischke, “Honor & Shame and Cross-Cultural Relationships”, visit: beautyofpartnership.org/about/free. To contact Werner Mischke about Bible-based training in honor and shame dynamics, write to werner@mission1.org.

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Big Shame or Big Honor? Exploring the Dynamics of Honor and Shame in Cross-Cultural Partnership (Mac OS Keynote)

  1. 1. 2012 COSIM Conference Big Shame or Big Honor?Exploring the Dynamics of Honor andShame in Cross-Cultural PartnershipWerner Mischke©Copyright 2012 Mission ONE. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Honor & Shamein Cross-Cultural Relationships Free 30-page article combines • honor + shame lens • five basic culture scales • explained through examples from Scripture • practical suggestions for cross- cultural partnerships beautyofpartnership.org/about/free
  3. 3. 2009LEBANONExploringhonor andshame inPhilippians
  4. 4. Baalbeck:a top touristattraction inLebanon
  5. 5. Templeof Jupiter
  6. 6. FORTHEGLORYOFROME!
  7. 7. Every culture has these features in varying proportions
  8. 8. Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Direct/Indirect, 3) Individual/Group, 4) Task/Relationship, and 5) Risk/Caution. These may bediagrammed as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Equality Hierarchy Direct Indirect Individual Group Task Relationship Risk CautionWhat I intend to do in this article is to outline these five culture scales one at a time, and further, Knowing about honor and shame helps youto enhance our understanding of each of them by viewing them through the lens of honor andshame—using primarily biblical illustrations. understand the five basic culture scales
  9. 9. Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Direct/Indirect, 3) Individual/Group, 4) Task/Relationship, and 5) Risk/Caution. These may bediagrammed as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Equality Hierarchy Direct Indirect Individual Group Task Relationship Risk CautionWhat I intend to do in this article is to outline these five culture scales one at a time, and further, Knowing about honor and shame helps youto enhance our understanding of each of them by viewing them through the lens of honor andshame—using primarily biblical illustrations. understand the five basic culture scales
  10. 10. Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Direct/Indirect, 3) Individual/Group, 4) Task/Relationship, and 5) Risk/Caution. These may bediagrammed as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Equality Hierarchy Direct Indirect Individual Group Task Relationship Risk CautionWhat I intend to do in this article is to outline these five culture scales one at a time, and further, Knowing about honor and shame helps youto enhance our understanding of each of them by viewing them through the lens of honor andshame—using primarily biblical illustrations. understand the five basic culture scales
  11. 11. Five basic culture scalesAccording to Brooks Peterson,3 there are five basic culture scales: 1) Equality/Hierarchy, 2) Direct/Indirect, 3) Individual/Group, 4) Task/Relationship, and 5) Risk/Caution. These may bediagrammed as follows: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Equality Hierarchy Direct Indirect Individual Group Task Relationship Risk CautionWhat I intend to do in this article is to outline these five culture scales one at a time, and further, Knowing about honor and shame helps youto enhance our understanding of each of them by viewing them through the lens of honor andshame—using primarily biblical illustrations. understand the five basic culture scales
  12. 12. Westerners usually readGod’s Word through thecultural lens of guilt/innocence. But…
  13. 13. Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
  14. 14. Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
  15. 15. Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame … … helps Christian leaders from the West and Majority World understand each other better—to build more fruitful cross-cultural partnerships.
  16. 16. Examine key dynamics of 1honor and shame from asocial-science perspective—with examples from Scripture.
  17. 17. Explore honor and shame 2as the pivotal cultural value• of the Bible … and• of most of the Majority World / unreached peoples.
  18. 18. Examine applications 3to cross-cultural ministriesand partnerships throughunderstanding the dynamics ofhonor and shame.
  19. 19. 1
  20. 20. Examine key dynamics of 1honor and shame from asocial-science perspective—with examples from Scripture.
  21. 21. 1. Key dynamics of honor and shame from a social science perspective. 1 • Love of honor • Challenge and riposte • Two sources of honor: • Patronage ascribed and achieved • Kinship • Image of limited good (win-lose)
  22. 22. Definition of honorHonor: “the worth or value of personsboth in their eyes and in the eyes oftheir village, neighborhood, or society.”“The critical item is the public natureof respect and reputation.”(Neyrey, p15)
  23. 23. Love of honor“Athenians excel all others not so much in singingor in stature or in strength, as in love of honour”–Xenophon “For the glory that the Romans burned to possess, be it known, is the favourable judgment of men who think well of other men.” –Augustine “The ancients name love of honor and praise as their premier value.” –Neyrey, p.17
  24. 24. “Now the greatest external good we should assume to be the thing which we offer as a tribute to the gods and which is most coveted by men of high station, and is the prize awarded for the noblestAristotle deeds; and such a thing is honour, for honour is clearly the greatest of external goods … it is honour above all else that great men claim and deserve.” –Aristotle (Neyrey, p5)
  25. 25. Love of honor EXAMP LEThen the mother of the sons of Zebedee came up tohim with her sons, and kneeling before him she askedhim for something.And he said to her, “What do you want?” She said tohim, “Say that these two sons of mine are to sit, one atyour right hand and one at your left, in your kingdom.” (Matthew 20:20–21 ESV)
  26. 26. Two sources of honor 1. Ascribed 2. Achieved
  27. 27. Two sources of honor EXAMPLEAscribed
  28. 28. Two sources of honor EXAMPLE The book of theAscribed genealogy of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. (Matthew 1:1 ESV)
  29. 29. Two sources of honor EXAMPLE The book of the and behold, a voiceAscribed genealogy of Jesus from heaven said, Christ, the son of “This is my beloved David, the son of Son, with whom I am Abraham. well pleased.” (Matthew 1:1 ESV) (Matthew 3:17 ESV)
  30. 30. Two sources of honor EXAMPLE The book of the and behold, a voiceAscribed genealogy of Jesus from heaven said, Christ, the son of “This is my beloved David, the son of Son, with whom I am Abraham. well pleased.” (Matthew 1:1 ESV) (Matthew 3:17 ESV) “encomium”— or eulogy
  31. 31. Two sources of honor EXAMPLEAchieved
  32. 32. Two sources of honor EXAMPLEAchieved Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (Philippians 2:9-12 ESV)
  33. 33. Image of limited goodThe belief that everything in social, economic, natural universe… everything desired in life: land, wealth, respect and status, power and influence… exists in finite quantity and is in short supply If you gain, I lose: “zero-sum game” –Neyrey, p18
  34. 34. Image of limited good win-loseThe belief that everything in social, economic, natural universe… vs. everything desired in life: land, wealth, respect and status, power and influence… win-win exists in finite quantity and is in short supply If you gain, I lose: “zero-sum game” –Neyrey, p18
  35. 35. Image of limited good EXAMPLE This was why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him,because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God. (John 5:18 ESV)
  36. 36. Image of limited good EXAMPLE“as it is my eager expectation and hope that I will not be at all ashamed, but that with full couragenow as always Christ will be honored in my body, whether by life or by death. For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.” –Philippians 1:20-21 ESV
  37. 37. Challenge and riposteFour steps to this social code of “push and shove”(Neyrey, p20) 1. claim of worth or value 2. challenge to that claim 3. riposte or defense of the claim 4. public verdict of success awarded to either claimant or challenger
  38. 38. EXAMPLE Jesus heals the man with the Note the withered hand public nature –Matt. 12:8–16 of thisencounter
  39. 39. 8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.9 He went on from there and entered their synagogue.10 And a man was there with a withered hand. And they asked him,Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?—so that they might accuse him.11 He said to them, Which one of you who has a sheep, if it falls intoa pit on the Sabbath, will not take hold of it and lift it out?12 Of how much more value is a man than a sheep! So it islawful to do good on the Sabbath.13 Then he said to the man, Stretch out your hand. And the manstretched it out, and it was restored, healthy like the other.14 But the Pharisees went out and conspired against him, how to destroy him.15 Jesus, aware of this, withdrew from there. And many followed him, and hehealed them all 16 and ordered them not to make him known …23 And all the people were amazed, and said,Can this be the Son of David?
  40. 40. 8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from there and entered their synagogue.10 And a man was there with a withered hand. And they asked him,Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?—so that they might accuse him.11 He said to them, Which one of you who has a sheep, if it falls intoa pit on the Sabbath, will not take hold of it and lift it out?12 Of how much more value is a man than a sheep! So it islawful to do good on the Sabbath.13 Then he said to the man, Stretch out your hand. And the manstretched it out, and it was restored, healthy like the other.14 But the Pharisees went out and conspired against him, how to destroy him.15 Jesus, aware of this, withdrew from there. And many followed him, and hehealed them all 16 and ordered them not to make him known …23 And all the people were amazed, and said,Can this be the Son of David?
  41. 41. 8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from there and entered their synagogue.10 And a man was there with a withered hand. And they asked him,Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?—so that they might accuse him. 2. Challenge to that claim11 He said to them, Which one of you who has a sheep, if it falls intoa pit on the Sabbath, will not take hold of it and lift it out?12 Of how much more value is a man than a sheep! So it islawful to do good on the Sabbath.13 Then he said to the man, Stretch out your hand. And the manstretched it out, and it was restored, healthy like the other.14 But the Pharisees went out and conspired against him, how to destroy him.15 Jesus, aware of this, withdrew from there. And many followed him, and hehealed them all 16 and ordered them not to make him known …23 And all the people were amazed, and said,Can this be the Son of David?
  42. 42. 8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from there and entered their synagogue.10 And a man was there with a withered hand. And they asked him,Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?—so that they might accuse him. 2. Challenge to that claim11 He said to them, Which one of you who has a sheep, if it falls intoa pit on the Sabbath, will not take hold of it and lift it out?12 Of how much more value is a man than a sheep! So it is 3. Defense (orlawful to do good on the Sabbath. riposte) of the claim13 Then he said to the man, Stretch out your hand. And the manstretched it out, and it was restored, healthy like the other.14 But the Pharisees went out and conspired against him, how to destroy him.15 Jesus, aware of this, withdrew from there. And many followed him, and hehealed them all 16 and ordered them not to make him known …23 And all the people were amazed, and said,Can this be the Son of David?
  43. 43. 8 For the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath. 1. Claim of worth or value9 He went on from there and entered their synagogue.10 And a man was there with a withered hand. And they asked him,Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?—so that they might accuse him. 2. Challenge to that claim11 He said to them, Which one of you who has a sheep, if it falls intoa pit on the Sabbath, will not take hold of it and lift it out?12 Of how much more value is a man than a sheep! So it is 3. Defense (orlawful to do good on the Sabbath. riposte) of the claim13 Then he said to the man, Stretch out your hand. And the manstretched it out, and it was restored, healthy like the other.14 But the Pharisees went out and conspired against him, how to destroy him.15 Jesus, aware of this, withdrew from there. And many followed him, and hehealed them all 16 and ordered them not to make him known …23 And all the people were amazed, and said,Can this be the Son of David? 4. Public verdict of success
  44. 44. PatronageNorth American view of patronage is negative:• “It’s not what you know it’s who you know”• “We sense someone has an unfair advantage over us”• “Violates our conviction that everyone should have equal access to employment opportunities (being evaluated on the basis of pertinent skills rather than personal connection).”• “Under the table” … nepotism … keep it quiet (it’s bad) See David deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p96
  45. 45. Patronage“The world … of the New Testament, however, was one in whichpersonal patronage was an essential means of acquiring accessto goods, protection, or opportunities for employment andadvancement. Not only was it essential—it was expectedand publicized! The giving and receiving of favors was,according to a first-century participant, the ‘practice thatconstitutes the chief bond of human society’(Seneca, Ben. 1.4.2).” deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p97
  46. 46. Patronage “Jesus and his first disciples moved among and within patronage and friendship networks, for patronage was as much at home on Palestinian soil as in Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, Africa, and Rome.”See David deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p121
  47. 47. Patronage EXAMPLE And he said to them,“The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those in authority over them are called benefactors.” (Luke 22:25–26 ESV).
  48. 48. Patronage EXAMPLE“Now a centurion had a servant who was sick and at the pointof death … When the centurion heard about Jesus, he sent to himelders of the Jews, asking him to come and heal his servant. Andwhen they came to Jesus, they pleaded with him … “He is worthyto have you do this for him, for he loves our nation, and heis the one who built us our synagogue.” (Luke 7:2-5 ESV)
  49. 49. Patronage EXAMPLE For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in himshould not perish but have eternal life. (John 3:16 ESV)
  50. 50. Patronage“God’s grace (charis) would not have beenof a different kind than the grace with whichthey were already familiar; it would havebeen understood as different only in qualityand degree.”David deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p122
  51. 51. PatronageDistinct, specific honor code abouthow to give and receive.• Benefactor: wise, not self-serving, that their gifts were given to honorable people; examples of excellent stewardship• Client: show proper gratitude and honor to the benefactor or patron.
  52. 52. PatronageDistinct,specific GRACEhonor code • Benefactors gave out of grace Benefactor • The gift itself is grace Client • Client’s response of gratitude • “Dance of reciprocity”—grace honorably given … grace as the gift … grace in gratitude and honor bestowed back to the patron.
  53. 53. PatronageDistinct,specific GRACEhonor code “This single word Benefactor encapsulated the entire Client ethos of the relationship…” David deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p105
  54. 54. PatronageDistinct, specific honor code“The patron or giver never gives with an eye to whatcan be gained from the gift. The giver does not giveto an elderly person so as to be remembered in awill, or to an elected official with a view to gettingsome leverage in politics. Such people are investors,not benefactors or friends.” David deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p107
  55. 55. Kinship
  56. 56. Kinship“In the ancient world, people are not just taken ontheir ‘merits.’ Instead, their merits begin with themerits (or debits) of their lineage, the reputation oftheir ancestral house. Greeks and Romans receive abasic identity from their larger family: for Romansthis takes the form of including the clan name in thename of each individual.” David deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p159
  57. 57. Kinship Everyone’s personal honor begins with their kinship.(Ascribed honor)
  58. 58. Kinship“The believers, as children of God, become whatsociologists call a fictive kinship group,” that isa collection of people who are not genealogicallyrelated but who nevertheless consider one anotheras family, attempting to relate at that higher levelof intimacy, belonging and mutualcommitment.” David deSilva: Honor, Patronage, Kinship, Purity: Unlocking New Testament Culture, p78
  59. 59. Kinship EXAMPLE Now the LORD said to Abram,“Go from your country and your kindred and your father’s house to the land that I will show you. (Genesis 12:1 ESV)
  60. 60. Kinship EXAMPLE And everyone who has left houses orbrothers or sisters or father or mother or children or lands, for my name’s sake, will receive a hundredfold and will inherit eternal life. (Matthew 19:29 ESV)
  61. 61. Kinship EXAMPLESo then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone,and especially to those who are of the household of faith. (Galatians 6:10 ESV)
  62. 62. Kinship EXAMPLEBut if anyone has the world’s goods and sees his brother in need, yet closes his heart against him,how does God’s love abide in him? (1 John 3:17 ESV)
  63. 63. Summary“It would not be an understatement to saythat ‘honor’ as reputation and ‘good name’was endemic to the ancient world; hence,we hear classicists and anthropologistscalling it a ‘pivotal value’ of theMediterranean world, both ancient andmodern.” (Neyrey, p5)
  64. 64. Small group reflection1. Key dynamics of honor and shame from a social science perspective. • Love of honor • Challenge and riposte • Two sources of honor: • Patronage ascribed and achieved • Kinship • Image of limited good (win-lose) Identify one of these dynamics and how it might relate to your ministry.
  65. 65. 2Honor and shame is thepivotal cultural valueof the Bible
  66. 66. “Whether we turn to Paul’s letters and examine hisself-presentation, his conflict with rival teachersand preachers, his praise of certain behavior orblame of other, or his articulation of the status androle of Jesus—all of this needs to be assessedin light of the pivotal value of his world,namely, honor and shame.” (Neyrey, p34)
  67. 67. ExamplesAnd the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed. (Genesis 2:25 ESV)
  68. 68. Examples I will bless those who bless you,and him who dishonors you I will curse, and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed. (Genesis 12:3 ESV)
  69. 69. Examples Awake, my glory!Awake, O harp and lyre! I will awake the dawn! (Psalm 57:8 ESV)
  70. 70. Examples How can you believe,when you receive glory from one another and do not seek the glory that comes from the only God? (John 5:44 ESV)
  71. 71. Examples The glory that you have given me I have given to them,that they may be one even as we are one, (John 17:22 ESV)
  72. 72. Examples For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of Godfor salvation to everyone who believes… (Romans 1:16 ESV)
  73. 73. ExamplesFor all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God. (Romans 3:23 ESV)
  74. 74. ExamplesBut we impart a secret and hidden wisdomof God, which God decreed before the agesfor our glory. None of the rulers of this ageunderstood this, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. (1 Corinthians 2:7-8 ESV)
  75. 75. Examples For even if I boast a little too much of our authority, which the Lord gave forbuilding you up and not for destroying you, I will not be ashamed. (2 Corinthians 10:8 ESV)
  76. 76. ExamplesFor by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing;it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast. (Ephesians 2:8–9 ESV)
  77. 77. Examplesas it is my eager expectation and hope that I willnot be at all ashamed, but that with full courage now as always Christ will be honored in my body, whether by life or by death. For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. (Philippians 1:20-21 ESV)
  78. 78. Exampleswe exhorted each one of you and encouraged you and charged you to walk in a manner worthy of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory. (1 Thessalonians 2:12 ESV)
  79. 79. ExamplesSo the honor is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe,“The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone,” (1 Peter 2:7 ESV)
  80. 80. Examples saying with a loud voice, “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdomand might and honor and glory and blessing!” (Revelation 5:12 ESV)
  81. 81. “In fact, a survey of all of the leading textbooks used inteaching systematic theology across the major theologicaltraditions reveals that although the indexes are filled withreferences to guilt, the word “shame” appears in the indexof only one of these textbooks. This omission continues topersist despite the fact that the term guilt and its variousderivatives occur 145 times in the Old Testament and 10times in the New Testament, whereas the term shame andits derivatives occur nearly 300 times in the Old Testamentand 45 times in the New Testament.” – Timothy C. Tennent: Theology in the Context of World Christianity, p.93
  82. 82. References to Guilt vs. Shame in the Bible Old Testament New Testament400300200 Shame100 Guilt 0 Guilt-based words Shame-based words
  83. 83. In Scripture—consider the use of the words…GLORY, GLORIFY, GLORIFIED
  84. 84. Frequency and use in Scripture of the words, glory, glorify, glorified, glorious Other Referring to GOD 304 65% Referring to Humanity 139 29% Referring to Other 27 6% 470 HumanityAwake, my glory! … –Psalm 57:7 GODHow can you believe, when you receiveglory from one another and do not seekthe glory that comes from the only God? –John 5:44Data compiled by Werner Mischke using English Standard Version. To request spreadsheet, write to werner@mission1.org.
  85. 85. Could it be,we have a blind spot?
  86. 86. Could it be?We in the West have a blind spot that keeps us fromseeing the pivotal cultural value of honor andshame in the Bible. This hinders…• our understanding of Scripture• our being awakened to our own sense of honor and glory in Christ• our ability to use Scriptural insights by which to build healthier, more fruitful cross-cultural relationships and partnerships
  87. 87. 2.b.
  88. 88. 2.b.Honor and shame is the pivotalcultural value of most of theMajority World /unreached peoples.
  89. 89. Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location —a broad generalization Chart used by permission of Jason Borges
  90. 90. Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location —a broad generalization West or North South (Sub-Sahara East (Asia, Middle East, Geographical Location (North America, Europe) Africa, Latin America) North Africa) Cultural Orientation Justice-Guilt Power-Fear Honor-Shame Cultural Civilizations Muslim, Indian, Sinic, Western, Orthodox Latin American, African (Huntington) Buddhist, Japanese Christian Status Post Christian Emerging Christian Non Christian % Christian in 1910 95% 16% 2.7% % Christian in 2010 81% 62% 8.5% Total population in 2010 1.08 billion 1.42 billion 4.37 billion Theological Orientation Augustinian, Western Pentecostal, Charismatic Undeveloped Chart used by permission of Jason Borges
  91. 91. Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location —a broad generalization West or North South (Sub-Sahara East (Asia, Middle East, Geographical Location (North America, Europe) Africa, Latin America) North Africa) Cultural Orientation Justice-Guilt Power-Fear Honor-Shame Cultural Civilizations Muslim, Indian, Sinic, Western, Orthodox Latin American, African (Huntington) Buddhist, Japanese Christian Status Post Christian Emerging Christian Non Christian % Christian in 1910 95% 16% 2.7% % Christian in 2010 81% 62% 8.5% Total population in 2010 1.08 billion 1.42 billion 4.37 billion Theological Orientation Augustinian, Western Pentecostal, Charismatic Undeveloped Chart used by permission of Jason Borges
  92. 92. Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location —a broad generalization West or North South (Sub-Sahara East (Asia, Middle East, Geographical Location (North America, Europe) Africa, Latin America) North Africa) Cultural Orientation Justice-Guilt Power-Fear Honor-Shame Cultural Civilizations Muslim, Indian, Sinic, Western, Orthodox Latin American, African (Huntington) Buddhist, Japanese Christian Status Post Christian Emerging Christian Non Christian % Christian in 1910 95% 16% 2.7% % Christian in 2010 81% 62% 8.5% Total population in 2010 1.08 billion 1.42 billion 4.37 billion Theological Orientation Augustinian, Western Pentecostal, Charismatic Undeveloped Chart used by permission of Jason Borges
  93. 93. Comparison of Cultures by Geographical Location —a broad generalization West or North South (Sub-Sahara East (Asia, Middle East, Geographical Location (North America, Europe) Africa, Latin America) North Africa) Cultural Orientation Justice-Guilt Power-Fear Honor-Shame Cultural Civilizations Muslim, Indian, Sinic, Western, Orthodox Latin American, African (Huntington) Buddhist, Japanese Christian Status Post Christian Emerging Christian Non Christian % Christian in 1910 95% 16% 2.7% % Christian in 2010 81% 62% 8.5% Total population in 2010 1.08 billion 1.42 billion 4.37 billion Theological Orientation Augustinian, Western Pentecostal, Charismatic Undeveloped Chart used by permission of Jason Borges
  94. 94. West or North South (Sub-Sahara Africa, East (Asia, Middle East, Geographical Location (North America, Europe) Latin America) North Africa) Cultural Orientation Justice-Guilt Power-Fear Honor-Shame Cultural Civilizations Muslim, Indian, Sinic, Western, Orthodox Latin American, African (Huntington) Buddhist, JapaneseComparison Christian Status Post Christian Emerging Christian Non Christianof Cultures by % Christian in 1910 95% 16% 2.7% % Christian in 2010 81% 62% 8.5%Geographical Total population in 2010 1.08 billion 1.42 billion 4.37 billionLocation: Theological Orientation Augustinian, Western Pentecostal, Charismatic Undeveloped 5 POPULATION, BILLIONSA broad generalization 3.75 % Non-Christian % Christian 2.5 1.25 0 WEST SOUTH EAST GEOGRAPHICAL REGION
  95. 95. Map from floatingsheep.org: User-Created Geographies of Religion: Allah, Buddha, Hindu, Jesus http://www.floatingsheep.org/ 2009/12/user-created- geographies-of-religion.htmlThe world ofISLAM is anhonor/shameculture
  96. 96. Map from floatingsheep.org: User-Created Geographies of Religion: Allah, Buddha, Hindu, Jesus http://www.floatingsheep.org/ 2009/12/user-created- geographies-of-religion.htmlThe world ofISLAM is anhonor/shameculture
  97. 97. The worldof BUDDHISM isan honor/shameculture
  98. 98. The worldof BUDDHISM isan honor/shameculture
  99. 99. The world ofHINDUISMis an honor/shame culture
  100. 100. The world ofHINDUISMis an honor/shame culture
  101. 101. The world of the BIBLE is an honor/shame culture
  102. 102. The world of the BIBLE is an honor/shame culture
  103. 103. Examine applications 3to cross-cultural ministriesand partnerships throughunderstanding the dynamics ofhonor and shame.
  104. 104. Application: RELATIONSHIPBy understanding New Testament culturebetter—namely the pivotal cultural value ofhonor and shame…would we communicate better withour partners and reduce misunder-standing and conflict—becausewe understand and speak the“language of honor and shame?”
  105. 105. Application: RELATIONSHIPBy understanding New Testament culturebetter—namely the pivotal cultural value ofhonor and shame…would we communicate better withour partners and reduce misunder-standing and conflict—becausewe understand and speak the“language of honor and shame?”
  106. 106. Application: RELATIONSHIPTo those of us who support indigenous ministries…Do our ministry partners view us as: • investors • benefactors • or friends?
  107. 107. Application: TRAININGCan we develop skills in using the biblicallanguage of honor and shame? …• to present the glorious gospel of Jesus Christ in a more relevant way• to better equip servant leaders• to improve mobilization for mission
  108. 108. Application: SPIRITUAL FORMATIONTo what degree do we recognize But we impart athis profound honor, this great secret and hidden wisdom of God, whichprivilege? … in and with one another? God decreed beforeThat as cross-cultural partners the ages for ourco-laboring to impart the glorious, glory. (1 Cor. 2:7 ESV)transforming grace and truth of JesusChrist—“God has decreed this before See also Eph. 3:6–8the ages for our glory.”
  109. 109. Application: EVALUATIONCan we evaluate our partnerships using And we all, withthe “language of honor and shame”— unveiled face, beholding the glory of• Personal Transformation: In what ways the Lord, are being are we as leaders changing “from glory to transformed into the glory”? same image from one• Community Transformation: In what degree of glory to ways is our ministry gaining honor/glory in another. For this the view of the community? … and our comes from the Lord community gaining honor in the region? who is the Spirit. (2 Cor. 3:18 ESV)
  110. 110. Application: PERSECUTED CHURCHHow can we show honor to our Then they left the presence of thebrothers and sisters who serve inside of council, rejoicing thatthe community of the persecuted they were countedchurch? worthy to sufferShould we in the West derive honor dishonor for the name.from those in our family, especially ourpartners, who suffer “for the sake of his (Acts 5:41 ESV)name”?
  111. 111. Application: APOSTOLIC VISIONBy ignoring the biblical language of To those outside thehonor and shame in building law I became as one outside the law…relationships and communicating that I might win thosethe gospel … outside the law. …are we forfeiting advances for the I have become allkingdom of Christ among Muslim, things to all people, that by all meansHindu, Buddhist and other groups I might save some.whose pivotal cultural value is honor (1 Cor. 9:21-22 ESV)and shame?
  112. 112. Application: APOSTOLIC VISION But we impart a secret and hidden wisdom of God, which God decreed before the ages for our glory. None of the rulers of this ageunderstood this, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. (1 Corinthians 2:7-8 ESV)
  113. 113. Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
  114. 114. Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame …
  115. 115. Reading God’s Wordthrough the pivotalcultural value ofhonor and shame … … helps Christian leaders from the West and Majority World understand each other better—to build more fruitful cross-cultural partnerships.
  116. 116. For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen (Romans 11:36 ESV)
  117. 117. Training servicesWERNER MISCHKE offers training services concerning honor and shame—to churches, mission agencies and ministry teams of all kinds. Using adult learningtheory, Werner designs seminars and workshops in which participants…• Examine six main features of an honor/shame-based culture, FOR MORE INFORMATION: and how to recognize it in Scripture.• Explore how the teachings of Christ incorporate the pivotal cultural value of honor and shame.• Develop skills in using the “language of honor and shame” Werner Mischke to talk about faith and what it means to follow Jesus. Executive Vice President• Recognize honor/shame-based dynamics in cross-cultural Director of Training Ministries ministry in order to avoid misunderstanding and build trust. Mission ONE• Identify next steps for their missional journey or cross- werner@mission1.org cultural relationships. Office: 480-951-0900

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