Fluid Mosaic Model


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  • Thermodynamics- energy uses
  • Cascade = menyatukanMatriks phospholipid terdiriatasdualapisan, dandidalamnyaterdapatduatipe protein, ialah protein periferyang dapatbereaksidandapatlarutpada air (polar), dan protein integral yang sukarberikatandansukarlarut air (nonpolar)
  • Fluid Mosaic Model

    1. 1. Fluid Mosaic Model of The Structure of Cell Membrane Wenny Pintalitna Tarigan Pend.Biologi 2013
    2. 2. Background Biological membranes play a crucial role in almost all cellular phenomena Organization of proteins and lipids of membranes can be discerned Generalizations about protein structure – understanding the properties and functions of protein molecules Detailed structure
    3. 3. Objectives  Thermodynamics and Membrane Structure  Properties of proteins and lipids of functional membrane  The fluid mosaic model in detail  Experimental evidence in terms of the model  The fluid mosaic model suggests new ways of thinking about membrane functions and membrane phenomena
    4. 4. Thermodynamics and Membrane Structure  Two kinds of non covalent interactions are hydrophobic and hydrophilic  Hydrophybic – non polar groups, away from water, requires energy  Hydrophylic – polar groups for aqueous environment
    5. 5. Thermodynamics and Membrane Structure  Ratio of proteins to lipids = 1.5 – 4  Cell membrane recognition sites activate enzyme in membrane which begins "cascade" of events which activate other enzymes. This is called signal transduction (pg 155 Campbell)
    6. 6. Properties of Proteins  Peripheral Proteins - mild treatment: increase the ionic strength - dissociate them intact from the membrane - weak non covalent – not strongly associated with membrane lipid (free of lipid) - spread out as monolayer  Integral/Transmembrane Proteins - drastric treatment (using many reagents) - remain associated with lipid - globular in shape, no on the surface – prevent membrane thickness larger than 75-90 A
    7. 7. Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? nonpolar & hydrophobic
    8. 8. Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? polar & hydrophilic
    9. 9. Proteins domains anchor molecule  Within membrane  nonpolar amino acids  hydrophobic  anchors protein into membrane  On outer surfaces of membrane  polar amino acids  hydrophilic  extend into extracellular fluid & into cytosol Polar areas of protein Nonpolar areas of protein Properties of Proteins
    10. 10. Figure 7.9 N-terminus  helix C-terminus EXTRACELLULAR SIDE CYTOPLASMIC SIDE
    11. 11. Membrane Proteins peripheral proteins loosely bound to surface of membrane cell surface identity marker (antigens) integral proteins penetrate lipid bilayer, usually across whole membrane transmembrane protein transport proteins  channels, permeases (pumps)
    12. 12. NH2 H+ COOH Cytoplasm Retinal chromophore Nonpolar (hydrophobic) -helices in the cell membrane H+ Porin monomer b-pleated sheets Bacterial outer membrane proton pump channel in photosynthetic bacteria water channel in bacteria function through conformational change = shape change Examples
    13. 13. Many Functions of Membrane Proteins Outside Plasma membrane Inside Transporter Cell surface receptor Enzyme activity Cell surface identity marker Attachment to the cytoskeleton Cell adhesion
    14. 14. Stronger electron microscopes would show that the cell membrane was not covered in protein, but rather had protein embedded in it. Proteins Embedded on Cell Membrane
    15. 15. Knife Plasma membrane Cytoplasmic layer Proteins Extracellular layer Inside of extracellular layer Inside of cytoplasmic layer TECHNIQUE RESULTS Properties of Lipid
    16. 16. Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer Phospholipids Have a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails Are the main structural components of membranes CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH3 N + O O O–P O CH2 C H CH2 C O C O O O Phosphate group Symbol Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Properties of Lipid
    17. 17. Figure 7.2 Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail WATER WATER Properties of Lipid
    18. 18. Figure 7.6 Lateral movement occurs 107 times per second. Flip-flopping across the membrane is rare ( once per month). Properties of Lipid
    19. 19. Figure 7.8 Fluid Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails Viscous Saturated hydrocarbon tails (a) Unsaturated versus saturated hydrocarbon tails (b) Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane Cholesterol Properties of Lipid
    20. 20. Properties of Lipid
    21. 21.  FUNCTIONS:  Cell protection and/or insulation  Receptor sites for binding of other molecules - signaling  Attachment of cells to one another = tissues  Carbohydrate Chains – Cell ID – autoimmunity Carbohydrate
    22. 22. Mosaic: something made of small pieces
    23. 23. Hydrophilic region of protein Hydrophobic region of protein Phospholipid bilayer Mosaic: Proteins dispersed among phospholipids in membrane
    24. 24. Membrane is a collage of proteins & other molecules embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer Extracellular fluid Cholesterol Cytoplasm Glycolipid Transmembrane proteins Filaments of cytoskeleton Peripheral protein Glycoprotein Phospholipids
    25. 25. Membrane fat composition varies  Fat composition affects flexibility  membrane must be fluid & flexible  about as fluid as thick salad oil  % unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids  keep membrane less viscous  cold-adapted organisms, like winter wheat  increase % in autumn  cholesterol in membrane Fluid Mosaic Model
    26. 26. Permeability to polar molecules?  Membrane becomes semi-permeable via protein channels  specific channels allow specific material across cell membrane outside cell inside cell sugaraaH2O saltNH3
    27. 27. Experimental Evidence  Integral protein - a globular molecule - embedded in the membrane.  In this technique, a frozen specimen is fractured with a microtome knife; some of the frozen water is sub-limed (etched) from the fractured surface if desired;  The surface is then shadow cast with metal, and the surface replica is examined in the electron microscope.  By this method the topography of the cleaved surface is revealed.  A characteristic feature of the exposed surface of most functional membranes examined by this technique, including plasma lemma, vacuolar, nuclear, chloroplast, mitochondrial, and bacterial membranes, is a mosaic-like structure consisting of a smooth matrix interrupted by a large number of particles.
    28. 28. New Ways of Thinking Model restrictions imposed by thermodynamics. In this model, the proteins that are integral to the membrane are a heterogeneous set of globular molecules (amphipathic structure) The bulk of the phospholipid is organized as a fluid bilayer, although a small fraction of the lipid may interact specifically with the membrane proteins. The fluid mosaic structure is therefore formally analogous to a two-dimensional oriented solution of integral proteins (or lipoproteins) in the viscous phospholipid bilayer solvent. Evidence stated that all of which are consistent with, and add much detail to, the fluid mosaic model.
    29. 29. Any Questions??
    30. 30. Bakteri Anthrax Kapsul bakteri