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Estudo dos gases power point

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Estudo dos Gases

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Estudo dos gases power point

  1. 1. ESTUDO DOS GASES Profº: Wellton Sybalde
  2. 2. Compressibilidade e Expansibilidade <ul><li>Ao dobrar a pressão exercida sobre um gás seu volume se reduz à metade . </li></ul><ul><li>Ao reduzir a pressão pela metade o volume do gás é duplicado. </li></ul>
  3. 3. TEORIA CINÉTICA DOS GASES <ul><li>As moléculas de um gás estão em contínuo movimento e separadas por grandes espaços vazios. </li></ul><ul><li>O movimento das moléculas ocorre ao acaso e em todas as direções e sentidos . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A pressão do gás é resultante das colisões das moléculas contra as paredes do recipiente. </li></ul><ul><li>Estas colisões e as colisões entre as moléculas são elásticas (sem perda de energia) </li></ul><ul><li>As moléculas são livres em seu movimento, ou seja, não existe atração entre as moléculas. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Variáveis de estado de um gás <ul><li>Volume: é igual ao volume do recipiente que o contém. </li></ul><ul><li>1m 3 = 1000dm 3 = 1000L </li></ul><ul><li>1dm 3 = 1L = 1000cm 3 = 1000mL </li></ul><ul><li>Pressão : quanto maior a altitude menor a pressão . A nível do mar : </li></ul><ul><li>1atm =760mmHg = 760 torr </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatura : nos interessam as escalas Celsius e Kelvin </li></ul><ul><li>T(K) = T  C + 273 </li></ul>
  6. 6. EQUAÇÃO GERAL DOS GASES SITUAÇÃO INICIAL EM QUE O GÁS SE ENCONTRA. PRESSÃO VOLUME TEMPERATURA SITUAÇÃO FINAL EM QUE O GÁS SE ENCONTRA. PRESSÃO VOLUME TEMPERATURA
  7. 7. Transformação Isotérmica <ul><li>As transformações gasosas envolvem as variáveis de estado (volume, pressão e temperatura). </li></ul><ul><li>A transformação isotérmica ocorre a temperatura constante . </li></ul><ul><li>O volume ocupado por uma massa de gás é inversamente proporcional à pressão exercida sobre ele. </li></ul>
  8. 8. RELAÇÃO ENTRE PRESSÃO E VOLUME
  9. 9. Em temperatura constante quanto maior for a pressão, menor será o volume ocupado pela massa gasosa. Lei de Boyle-Mariotte : P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
  10. 10. Transformação Isobárica <ul><li>A transformação isobárica ocorre a pressão constante. </li></ul><ul><li>O volume ocupado por uma massa de gás é diretamente proporcional a sua temperatura . </li></ul><ul><li>O aumento da temperatura aumenta a energia cinética (movimento) das moléculas do gás. </li></ul>
  11. 11. RELAÇÃO ENTRE TEMPERATURA E VOLUME
  12. 12. A pressão constante, quanto maior a temperatura maior o volume ocupado pelo gás. Lei de Charles/Gay-Lussac : V 1 / T 1  =  V 2 / T 2
  13. 13. Transformação isovolumétrica (isocórica ou isométrica) <ul><li>A transformação isovolumétrica ocorre a volume constante . </li></ul><ul><li>O aumento da temperatura provoca um aumento na pressão exercida pelo gás. </li></ul>
  14. 14. A volume constante, quanto maior a temperatura maior a pressão exercida pelo gás. Lei de Charles/Gay-Lussac : P 1 / T 1  = P 2 / T 2
  15. 15. Equação de Clapeyron <ul><li>Relaciona quantidade de mols de um gás com pressão, volume e temperatura. </li></ul><ul><li>P . V   =   n . R . T </li></ul><ul><li>P= pressão (atm ou mmHg) </li></ul><ul><li>V= volume (L) </li></ul><ul><li>n= nº de mol </li></ul><ul><li>R= constante dos gases ( 0,082 atm.L/mol.K ou 62,3 mmHg.L/mol.K) </li></ul><ul><li>T= temperatura em Kelvin </li></ul>

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