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Building Construction


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Building Construction

  1. 1. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 [ARC 1523] Assignment 1: Experiencing, documentation and analysing construction process Tutor: Ar. Chin Tuck Hing Members: Cheong Siew Leong 0310845 Lee Yuan June 0311128 Ong Yii Siang 0302692 Phang June Ee 0311954 Tan Ming Long 0311069 Tan Wei How 0310707 Yong Chang Theng 0310925
  2. 2. Table Content building construction Title Page Introduction (TML) Introduction of site Site and Safety Plants and Machinery External Work Foundation (YCT & CSL) Superstructure (from site visit and reference) Beam and Column (PJE) Slab Wall (OYS) Staircase Doors and Windows (TWH) Roof (LYJ) Summary (CSL) Reference 1 2 3-6 7-9 10-13 14-18 19-21 22-23 24-28 29-33 34-39 40-42 43 44
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION building construction 1 Experiencing Construction by experiencing, documentation and analyzing construction process is the first assignment of Building Construction. Our task was to visit ongoing construction site which is either medium rise or low rise buildings. It's better to see once than to hear hundred times. It is a great opportunity for us to explore different types of building elements and its construction process, details and materials guided by architect and contractor at the construction site. We have studied and recorded construction of different building elements. We have learnt the basic principles and procedures of construction process through real life project after visited construction site. Tan Ming Long, Tan Wei How, Phang June Ee, Cheong Siew Leong, Yong Chang Theng, Lee Yuan June, Ong Yii Siang
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION building construction 2 Introduction to our site Address – Lot Asal PT129227, Klang Selatan (KS09) Mukim Klang, Klang Bandar Diraja, Selangor Darul Ehsan. Type – Two Storey Semi – D House & Two Storey Bungalow Type A & B; Beginning of construction, Foundation, Superstructure, Doors & Windows, & Roof A 52 Acres land, building 56 unit of houses. With guided by one of the architects in charge, we have observed and understood basic information of the whole construction process from earth work, foundation until the almost complete show house unit. We have observed some good practice and also not good or bad practice of the whole construction process at the site such as the construction methods, external work, safety issues, hygiene issues and site management.
  5. 5. Site Safety building construction 3 Most accidents can be prevented by taking simple actions or take on proper working procedures. sites for easy reference by the workers. If we work carefully and take appropriate safety measures, there will definitely be less work injury cases, and our sites will become a safe and secure place to work in. The Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, which came into operation on 23 May 1997, covers most workplaces in order to protect the safety and health of employees at work. Other legislation applicable to construction sites includes the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance and its subsidiary legislation, particularly the Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations.
  6. 6. Site Safety building construction 4 Safety Helmet Safety Footwear Safety Vast Personal Safety  Wear protective equipment. Always wear safety helmet, safety vast and safety footwear at construction site.  Do not drink or take drugs while working.  Pay attention to personal hygiene.  Do not play in the workplace.  Report to your supervisor immediately if you notice any unsafe condition. Public Safety  Pay attention to public safety. Members of the public are often unaware of or do not understand the work carried out on construction sites and the hazards involved.  Take great care to prevent the fall of materials from height.  Do not stack materials on floor edges or on scaffolds.
  7. 7. Site Safety building construction 5 Safety Sign Board at Our Site Safety Sign Board Safety sign boards at the entrance before go into the construction working area. Safety sign board and notice board hanging at the outside of site office. The safety sign boards at our site are not a good practice because the sign boards are not big enough, the colours of the sign are not noticeable and clear. The site should have install standard and proper safety sign board to aware people of their safety on site. Examples of Standard Safety Sign Board at Construction Site Safety Sign Board Example of good practice safety sign board placed at the entrance of construction site. Safety sign boards which are more obvious and clearer at construction site.
  8. 8. Site Safety building construction 6 Site Security Safety at Construction Site Construction sites are easy targets for theft; the high value of plant and equipment can lead to quick and easy profit for the thief. Depending on area, each site will have its own issues of concern. Construction sites are subject to a number of threats, in which security should be a main concern. These include theft, vandalism and deliberate damage and terrorism. the perimeter of the construction site to places frequented by the public should be guarded to the extent in which unauthorized access to the construction site must be prohibited. SECURITY FENCING/HOARDING Fencing can be an effective way of restricting unauthorized entry to a construction site where hazards are present. the installation of a fence, either permanent or temporary, which should be maintained until the end on the construction. An unauthorized person is not likely to enter a construction site while there is a physical barrier such as a fence, rather than, for example, simply a warning sign.
  9. 9. Plants & Machinery building construction 7 Excavator - An vehicle consists of a bucket on the front only. It uses are excavating below/above natural surface of ground, digging bigger trenches & pits for basements, general grading work, loading onto haul units and lifting. Backhoe Loader - An engineering vehicle, which consists of a shovel/bucket on the front and a small backhoe on the back. It uses are digging shallow excavations/trenches, general grading, lifting loads and loading & carrying materials. Forklift Loader - Forklift is a potent industrial truck that is used to lift and transport material by steel forks that are inserted under the load. Forklifts are normally used to move loads and equipment that is stored on pallets. Excavating & earth moving equipment Trucks & hauling equipment Truck - An hauling unit used to transport excavated materials over a distance at fairly low costs. Productive capacity depends on size of loads and number of trips that can be made in an hour. Safety measures Operating Load Shifting Machinery  Unless you are a worker concerned, do not work in an area where a loader, an excavator, etc. is in operation.  Do not operate any load shifting machinery without training and approval.  Operators of forklift trucks, bulldozers, loaders, excavators, trucks or lorries should possess appropriate certificates. Plants and machineries are the helpful equipment to maximize the outcome with minimum work energy for building construction. Without these plants and machineries invented, our construction works will be very tough and take long duration to complete. There are many types of equipment nowadays help in construction process at different stages.
  10. 10. Plants & Machinery building construction 8 Concrete Truck - It is a mobile concrete mixer truck which transport the concrete from factory to construction site. The mixer tank keeps rolling during transmission to prevent curing of the mixed concrete. Concrete Mixing Plant - It is a small mobile concrete mixer which usually use at construction site. Concrete plant & equipment Pile Driving equipment Hydraulic lead Pile Driving Rig - hydraulic leads utilize a system of hydraulic cylinders connected between the bottom of the leads and the driving rig to control pile position. This system allows the operator to position the pile very quickly and accurately. Telescoping-Boom Truck Mounted Mobile Crane - A full revolving superstructure mounted on a truck with multi section-telescoping boom. It is used to hoist and place materials and machineries. This crane can travel on public roads between projects under own power with minimum or no dismantling and reassembling. Lifting & Vertical transportation equipment Lattice Boom Crawler Mounted Crane - This crane have full revolving superstructure mounted on a pair of crawler tracks. It is used to hoist and place materials and machineries
  11. 11. Plants & Machinery building construction 9 Safety Measures on Operating Plants and Machineries  Before you operate a machine, ensure that the dangerous part of the machine has been installed with a guard.  Avoid going to any area with insufficient lighting as there may be some dangerous places which have not been provided with fencing.  Keep vigilant all the time and watch out for moving cranes, hooks or other lifting equipment.  Before you use any electrical installation or tool, check the condition of its electric cables.  Avoid dragging electric cables on the ground or allowing the cables to come into contact with water.  Use electrical tools installed with an earth leakage circuit breaker.  Use and handle chemicals with care. Borehole Machine - It used to dig a borehole and test the soil on site. Soil investigations are necessary for engineering structures founded in deep excavations. They also provide important information on the soil and ground water condition. Pneumatic Air Compressor - It is a portable air compressor. It is a machine that is capable of converting electrical power into kinetic energy, specifically by utilizing compressed air. Air compressors are designed to work with various tool attachments in order to provide pneumatic power. A variety of electric tools use the air compressor, including blo-guns, nail guns, air staplers and others. Other equipment
  12. 12. External Work building construction 10 Safety Measures on Excavations  Keep the fence on all sides of an complete excavation.  Use safe access for access and way out.  Do not pile soil or any other materials at the edge of an excavation.  Make sure that a trench is securely shored before working in it. Excavation Excavation is the process of moving earth, rock or other materials with tools, equipment or explosives. It includes earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunneling and underground. Excavation is used in construction to create building foundations, reservoirs and roads. Some of the different processes used in excavation include trenching, digging, dredging and site development. During new construction, site excavation is one of the earliest stages. The site is excavated to create a level, clean area to work, with the foundations being established in the excavated area. A site may also be excavated and backfilled to confirm that the material directly under the site is of high quality. The depth of site excavation can vary, depending on what is being built and where the building is occurring.
  13. 13. External Work building construction 11 Sewerage works It provides the construction and completion of the sewerage system complete with sewerage pipes including joint, concrete bed and encasing, formwork, excavation and backfilling; manholes and inspection chamber including and connection to main sewer line and make good all works concerned all to the approval of Local Authority. Our site has install underground sewer piping for sewerage system. manhole Excavate trench for sewer pipe installation at our site. Trench Isometric Drawing Trench Cross Section terminology Sewer Pipe - Underground Installation Foundation - A foundation is required only when the native trench bottom does not provide a firm working platform for placement of the pipe bedding material. Bedding - The bedding directly underneath the pipe is required only to bring the trench bottom up to grade. It should not be so thick or soft that the pipe will settle and lose grade. The sole purpose of the bedding is to provide a firm, stable and uniform support of the pipe. A bedding thickness of 100 mm (4") is most times sufficient. Haunching - This area is the most important in terms of limiting the vertical deflection of the flexible pipe. Pipe support is obtained in the haunch zone by compacting soil in both directions away from the pipe to the undisturbed trench walls. Initial Backfill - This zone begins above the spring line to a level 150 mm (6") to 300 mm (12") above the top of the pipe. Compaction here will give little additional side support to the pipe, but may be required to maintain stability of any above ground surfaces. Final Backfill - The remainder of the trench fill above the initial backfill provides no support for the pipe and should be free of stones 150 mm (6") and larger. Compaction may be required for reasons other than support of the PVC pipe since this zone is very significant in supporting the above ground surfaces.
  14. 14. External Work building construction 12 Signs and Notices Signs and notices are essential elements at construction site to guide, show and notice the public , workers and employees for general information of the construction and safety precautions. General safety signs, warning signs, prohibition signs, mandatory signs and scaffolding banners are quite important to minimize the safety issues which is usually and easily to occur at construction site. Specifically, signs and notices at construction site are used as following:  Administration area and office signs for visitors to report to  To help in directing plant and materials deliveries  For security and to act as warnings to the public and employees  For ease of location of administration, safety, health and welfare facilities  To show the names and organizations who are party to the contract  To help maintain good public relations Safety signs and notices board at site office Safety signs at the entrance of our site Construction Board Administration office sign Site Plan
  15. 15. External Work building construction 13 Hoarding/ Fencing Where appropriate, perimeter hoardings should be installed to protect the peripheral space around the construction site or building. Flat sided hoardings are considered better than fences because they are more difficult to climb and prevent viewing of the site interior. It is recommended that hoardings or fences should be a minimum height of 2.4m and high security fences at least 3m. The construction site that we visited do not install hoarding around, which is not a good example to follow. Our site only separated by a big drain from the road. The hoarding is important for the security safety to prevent stealing of building materials from site. It also avoid the public especially children to come into the site unauthorized and accidents happen in the site.
  16. 16. Foundation The lowest part of a building or other construction, partly or wholly below the surface of the ground, It is designed to support and secure the superstructure and transmit its weights directly to the earth. Shallow foundation (Raft, Strip & Pad) transfer the load to the earth at the base of column or wall of the substructure Deep foundation (Piled) Piles are used to penetrate through upper layers of incompetent soil in order to transfer the load to competent load bearing soil or rock deeper within the earth Piled Foundation This is the type of foundation used at the site. The reason why this foundation is chosen is because the site is located near to sea where the soil condition is loose. So, a series of columns are inserted into the ground to transmit the load(s) of the structure to a stable load bearing subsoil Strip Foundation Suitable for most subsoil and light structural loadings such as those encountered in low to medium rise domestic dwellings where mass concrete can be used. Reinforced concrete is usually required. Pad Foundation Suitable for most subsoil except loose sands, loose gravels and filled areas. Pad foundations are usually constructed of reinforced concrete and usually square in plan Raft Foundation These are used to spread the load of the superstructure overall large base to reduce the load per unit area being imposed on the ground and this is particularly useful where low bearing capacity soils are encountered and where single column loads are heavy Foundation building construction 14
  17. 17. Pile Drive A pile driver hammers a precast concrete pile into the ground. The pile is supported by the vertical structure (leads) of the pile driver and driven by a heavy piston mechanism that follows it down the leads as it penetrates deeper into soil 12 Pile used on site There are many different types of pile. The pile used on site is PRECAST CONCRETE PILES They are square in sizes and reinforced by rebar. The typical cross-sectional dimensions range from 25 to 41 Centimeters and bearing capacities from 45 to 500 tons. Common mangrove pile Mangrove piles are used for car porch foundation on site. They are usually straight tree trunks cut off above and allowable load ground swell, trimmed of a branches and the bark removed, usually sizes between 75 to 125mm in diameter 5 to 10 kn. The piles must be approved for building construction first. Then, it must be free of sharp bends ,large or loose knots, splits or decay. Foundation building construction 15
  18. 18. Excavation -the subsoil of the site is excavated to reduce level for the construction of pile cap -The excavated material is disposed off-site by lorries Lifting -The pile is tied on its lifting lug -Lifting the pile -The pile is straighten and ready for hammering Hammering Process -The pile is driven into the ground by using drop hammer -The subsoil around the pile shaft is displaced -The pile is hammered into the ground until it cannot be driven into the soil any further or to certain depth Cutting of the Pile -the concrete is crushed by Pneumatic hammer -The reinforcement in the pile is cut by oxy-cutter -The cut pile is lifted off and disposed Construction of Pile Cap -The formwork is build by using plywood -The reinforcement is inserted into the formwork -Then, concrete is poured into the formwork and vibrated it Section of Pile Cap Foundation building construction Piling process The end of the pile is not structurally connected with the footing which connect the column to the base 16
  19. 19. Spread Footing Spread Footing is a structure which help to spread the weight of a structure throughout its surface area to provide stability. it can be categorized into 5 types which are : Strip Footing Strip Footing is the made with the continuous spread footings of foundation walls Continuous Footing Continuous Footing is made from extended Reinforced concrete footing in order to Support a row of columns Strap Footing Combined Footing is a reinforced concrete footing extended out to support an interior column load Strap Footing is made from a column Footing connected to another footing by Tie beam in order to support an asymmetrically imposed load Combined Footing Isolated Footing This is the type of footing that our site used. It is an individual footing supporting free standing columns and piers Foundation building construction The tip of starter bars are tied up in preparation for the next level where more rebars will be added to the existing one 17
  20. 20. Foundation building construction • Reinforced Concrete Slab, Minimum Slab Thickness : 10cm • Polyethylene Moisture Barrier (DPM), To prevent water from running into the ground during concrete curing, Thickness : 0.15mm • Sand Layer, to provide a flat surface for concrete pouring • Compacted Course gravel or crushed stone Layer, to prevent the rise of groundwater, minimum thickness : 10cm • Stable dense soil base Layer, compaction can be used to improve load bearing capacity, resistance to water penetration and increase soil stability • Underground wiring and piping will be installed before the concrete slab is cast Correct Foundation Layer Wrong Foundation Layer (From Site) From the site, we found out that the foundation work are not properly executed 1. Wrong Position of Concrete Rod Spacer (Figure A) 2. No course gravel or crushed stone layer ( Figure B) Figure A Figure B Correct way of placing a concrete rod spacer 18
  21. 21. Concrete Beam Reinforced concrete beams are designed to act together with longitudinal and web reinforcement in resisting applied forces. Cast-in-place concrete beams are almost always formed and placed along with the slab they support. Because a portion of the slab acts as an integral part of the beam, the depth of the beam is measured to he top of the slab. 12 Concrete beam section Concrete column Reinforcement bar Beams are rigid structural members designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements. The non-concurrent pattern of forces subjects a beam to bending and deflection, which must be resisted by the internal strength of the material. The beam, column and slab that is in our site is constructed together. It is a continuous casting of concrete column, beam and slab. Reinforcing bars extend into and down column support for structural continuity and to develop the required embedment length for anchorage Beam building construction 19
  22. 22. 12 Constructing concrete beam process Fix the reinforcement bar for concrete beam Fix the formwork for the concrete beam Pour concrete, wait for the concrete to be cured then remove the formwork Ground beams sometimes are casted together with the slab, but in our site, they casted the beams before they cast the slab. As for the first floor beam, they casted the beam together with the slab because it is not possible to cast the beam first then the slab later. Beam building construction 20
  23. 23. Concrete Column Columns are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the members. The concrete column that is built in our site was built along with the concrete beam and slab. 12 Concrete column section Type of columns Wood/Timber column Steel column Concrete column The column that is applied in our site is concrete column. Concrete column construction process Fix the reinforcement bar for the concrete column Fix the formwork for the concrete column Pour concrete, wait for it to be cured then remove the formwork Column building construction 21
  24. 24. Soil / Fill Concrete Slab According to our observation on the site, the type of slab that they use is concrete slab. Concrete slabs are plate structures that are reinforced to span either one or both directions of a structural bay. 12 Two-way Slab By observing the dimension of the slab, we concluded that the slab that is applied in this site is a two-way slab. A two-way slab of uniform thickness may be reinforced in two directions and cast integrally with supporting beams and columns on all four sides of square or nearly square bays. Two-way slab and beam construction is effective for medium spans and heavy loads, or when a high resistance to lateral forces is required. Suspended Slab The slab in our site doesn’t sits directly on the ground, it is suspended. They also fill the suspended area with soil. Slab building construction 22
  25. 25. Slab building construction 23 Prepare the ground Sequence of constructing a concrete slab Fix the formwork Install service pipe Finish the slab surface Place and compact concrete Fix the reinforcement bar Cure the concrete slab Before curing the concrete slab After curing the concrete slab Reinforce rebar Sand and Gravel Ground soil Damp proof membrane Concrete slab
  26. 26. Walls are often used to support loads, to insulate the building and to work as a climatic enclosure, protecting the building from sun, wind and rain. Walls can be load bearing, supporting the floor and roofs or non-load bearing. However, they always separate a place from another, working like filters in space. Their qualities affect the space they create. There are different types of walls made from different materials, according to the requirements of the context and the client’s wishes. A wall can be a solid wall that carries its loads in compression throughout its length and so it requires supporting beams or a continuous foundation. 12 On-site clay brick walls on-site concrete brick walls Wall building construction 24
  27. 27. Masonry wall Masonry walls are made of piled up modular blocks, usually made of clay, stone, cement or concrete. They are various ways a masonry wall can be stacked and they create different patterns. Usually they are hold together with the help of mortar that is made of sand, cement and water. English bond On-site concrete bricks arranged in English bond 12 Specification of standard modular brick Concrete brick made from solid concrete which is a combination of Portland cement, aggregates and water. Clay brick Made from a mixture of clay and water then pressed into forms and fired in a kiln. Wall building construction 25
  28. 28. Mortar Mortar is a workable paste consists of cement or lime, or a combination of both with sand and water. It is used as a bonding agent in masonry construction. A standard mortar mix for new brickwork would be 1:1:6 (cement:lime:sand) or1:4 (Portland cement:sand). On-site concrete bricks with mortar 12 Types of Mortar Joints Wall building construction 26
  29. 29. Step 1: Measure the length of wall Start by putting a brick down at each end of the wall. Measure from the outer edge of the brick at one end to the outer edge of the brick at the other end to get the length of the wall Procedures of constructing concrete brick wall 12 Step 2: Measure the brick Measure the bricks and mark a few marks at 10 inch intervals. add about 3/8 of an inch onto the length of the bricks to compensate for the mortar in between the bricks which is a "joint". Step 3: Consistency Keep the height of all bricks the same by using a spirit level. Step 4: set up the line Hook a line at both ends so it lines up with the very top of the two bricks. Then fill up the middle. Wall building construction 27
  30. 30. Step 5: continue on the next level Always start at each end then fill in the middle until the destined height. Remember to adjust the hook line on every level. Wall building construction 28 Step 6: Wiring and piping After constructing the brick until the top, get all kinds of piping ready such as wire, air conditioner, water and etc. Then, craft a cylindrical-like space on the wall vertically or horizontally depending on the piping system. After that, start setting up the pipes. Step 7: PLASTER & SKIM COAT Apply the plaster in a smooth layer over the brick wall and let it dry before applying a second coating which should be thinner than the first layer. Smooth over the wall with a skim coat of mud, applied with a special squeegee knife. Plastering Skim coating
  31. 31. A staircase is a construction designed to link a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances which is called steps. It allows easy movement between the different levels of a design. Aspect that should be considered when designing a staircase is the placement of stairs, ease of travel and most importantly the safety. Also, The design of a staircase should take proper consideration of the width, landings, handrails, guardrails, treads, risers and nosing which are the requirements of a staircase. On-site concrete staircase 12 Staircase building construction 29
  32. 32. Concrete staircase Concrete staircases are often specified for their strength, durability, fire protection, flood resistance and sound reduction properties. On-site concrete Quarter Landing Staircase 12 Quarter Landing Staircase This staircase connects one level to another where it makes a right-angled turn in the path of travel. However, the two flights connected by an intervening landing may be equal or unequal. Parts of staircase Staircase building construction 30
  33. 33. Procedures of constructing concrete staircase 12 Step 2: Determine the foundation’s dimension The dimensions of the staircase’s foundation are the total length of run and total width of staircase as measured in step 1. Step 3: Build the form Use either plywood or framing lumber to build the form. Cut the side forms according to the tread and riser calculations. Step 1: Calculate the stairs’ dimension Standard measurement of Rise (7 inches) and Tread (11 inches). Measure the height of one floor to the other. (to get the total number of rise) Divide the height with 7.25 inches to get the number of steps. Measure the horizontal distance the staircase will span (total run) and measure the width of staircase from left to right (total staircase width). Staircase building construction 31
  34. 34. 12 Step 4: Prepare the concrete produce sufficient and well-mixed mortar with a portable cement mixer. Step 5: Pour the mortar Start at the bottom and pour one step at a time. Make sure the mortars are spread evenly. Use a spade to remove the trapped air bubbles. Step 6: Add finishing touches Use a simple wood float to clean and smooth the surface of the mortars. Step 7: Leave and wait Spray the stairs with curing compound and cover it with burlap. After a week, remove the form lumber. Staircase building construction 32
  35. 35. Staircase building construction 33 Disadvantages/issues of glass balustrade • Stain and fingerprint magnet (glass) • Difficult to Maintain (little space between glass and stringer) • Unsafe (no handrail) Solution • install the glass panels above the staircase instead of fixing beside the stringer so that the wall can be easily access when cleaning or painting. • Attach handrail to the glass balustrade for safety purpose. glass balustrade Glass balustrade is used as a modern device to keep the interior of the living space light and open. It allows light to flow easily and also add a touch of contemporary glamour. However, in this case, it comes with disadvantages as well. Figure 5.4.3 On-site Glass Balustrade
  36. 36. Door building construction Door Definition A door is an opening or closing structure used to block off an entrance, typically consisting of an interior side that faces the inside of a space and an exterior side that faces the outside of that space. 34 Sliding Door A sliding door is a type of door which opens horizontally by sliding, whereby the door is either mounted on or suspended from a track. Easy-to-fit runner Running track Glazing bread Single glazing Thermal break Mainframe Multi-chambered sash Weather-strip
  37. 37. Door building construction 35 Flush Door Flush doors are simple interior and exterior doors that feature plain facings on both sides of the construction. The flush doors on the site are made from wood. Solid wood frame Insulation rubber seal Wood pin Bar strip Main Board Out covering Wood pin & Fix plate Solid wood Wood reinforced ribbon Wood block Wood veneer
  38. 38. Window building construction Windows Definition - an opening in a wall, door, roof that allows the passage of light, air and sound. - Modern windows are usually glazed or covered by transparent or translucent materials, which held in place by frames. - Many glazed windows can be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather. - Windows often have a latch or similar mechanism to lock the window shut. 36 Types of Windows 1. Top Hung Window An awning window is a casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top. 1. Side Hung Window A window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising. 1. Fixed Window A window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter. 1. Bay Window A multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different angles to create a protrusion from the wall line. 1. Tilt and Turn Window A tilt and turn window can both tilt inwards at the top or open inwards from hinges at the side.
  39. 39. Window building construction Side Hung Window 37 Casement Window Multi-chambered sash and mainframe Step-down frame Window hinge Single Glazing Weather-strip Glazing bread 1.5m 0.5m 0.8m 0.8m 4cm 3cm 3cm 0.5cm A window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising. The frames of the fixed windows on the site are made from aluminium.
  40. 40. Window building construction Fixed Window 38 Fixed Window Sash and mainframe Backer rod Single Glazing Weather-strip Glazing bread 2m 1.5m 0.5cm 6cm 2cm 2cm 2cm 3cm A window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter. The frames of the fixed windows on the site are made from aluminium.
  41. 41. Window & Door building construction Windows Installation 39 1. Measure the width of the rough opening at the top, middle, and bottom and the height 2. Center a waterproof membrane under the rough opening to avoid water infiltration 3. Set the window's sill into the bottom of the rough opening, and tip the frame into the opening 4. Place a 2-foot level on the windowsill, and note its high side 5. Double-check the window is square by measuring the frame diagonally from corner to corner 7. apply a bead of caulk to the top edge of the window casing, then press the flashing in place 8. Fit the sash into the window frame. 6. Center a waterproof membrane under the window to covers the bottom nailing fin Door Installation 1. Measure the dimension for a perfect fit 2. Build up the sill area to the proper height with treated lumber 3. Apply a bead of caulk along the sides and top of the door opening and at the sill 4. Shim behind each hinge. For large spaces, start with small squares of plywood. Then finish with pairs of shims 5. Screw driven into the framing. Drive additional casing nails along the sides and top of the exterior trim 6. Fill the space between the doorjamb and the framing with minimal expanding foam insulation 7. Cut and install new interior trim or reinstall the old trim 8. Press foam caulk backer into the siding/trim gap. Apply a neat bead of caulk between the siding and the door trim
  42. 42. Roof Definition - part of a building envelope, both the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain, but also heat, wind and sunlight - There are several types of roof such as gable roof, hipped roof, gambrel roof, flat roof, mansard roof, shed roof etc. - The shape of roofs differs greatly from region to region. The main factors which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and the materials available for roof structure and the outer covering. 12 Function of roof 1. Insulation – Heat transfer through three ways which are convection, conduction and radiation. In order to prevent heat to transfer into the house, roof is needed as an insulator to prevent heat from flowing into the house directly. Materials such as sisalation also being used to reflect the heat energy that transfer through convection/conduction/radiation. Fibre glass were also add underneath the roof tiles for insulation. 2. Drainage - The primary job of most roofs is to keep out water. The large area of a roof repels a lot of water, which must be directed in some suitable way, so that it does not cause damage or inconvenience. Roof building construction 40 Gable roof Flat roof Hipped roof Gambrel roof Mansard roof Shed roof
  43. 43. Roofing process 1. After all the levels are done, the roof beam will be constructed on the column of the level below it. 2. The stiffener will come after roof beam, the stiffeners are used to support the roofing system. 3. All the brick will be laid around the stiffener so that they wont fall over easily 4. After all of the bricks are laid, roof beam will be put again at the edge of the bricks to make it more stable. 12 1. 2. 4. 3. Roof building construction 41
  44. 44. Roof layering - From the bottom until the roof top, there are several layers in the roofing system. - The first layer from the bottom is the metal structure or metal truss which act as the support for the whole roofing system. - After the metal structure will be the fiber glass layer which act as an insulator to absorb and reflect heat from penetrates through roof into the house. -The third layer is the sisalation which act as an insulator and also a protector for fiber glass from the water that flow from the roof top. -- the final layer will be the roof tiles which act as a cover for the house from sunlight, wind, rain, etc. Roof building construction 42 Roof structure details The type of roofing system used in the site we choose is metal roofing structure. Roof tiles Sisalation (aluminium foil) Fiber glass Metal truss/ structure Purlin Metal truss/structure
  45. 45. 1. Excavation 2. Piling 3. Ground Beam Pile Cap Formwork On Ground Beam 4. Backfilling 5. Formwork Of Ground Floor Slab 6. Ground Floor Slab Completed 7. Formwork Of First Floor Beam Scaffolding 8. First Floor Beam Completed & Formwork Of First Floor Slab 9. First Floor Slab Completed & Formwork Of Staircase & Roof Beam. 10. Roof Beam Stiffener Window and Door Staircase Bricklaying Excavator Piling Driver Starter Bar Tied Up Pile Tip Summary building construction Building Construction Process 43
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