Critical Success Factor (CSF analysis) - IT pRoject Management

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CSF analysis is a method developed to guide businesses in creating and measuring success. It is widely used for technology and architectural planning in enterprise IT. Critical success factors are those factors which the management of organizations must focus and manage effectively. 

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Critical Success Factor (CSF analysis) - IT pRoject Management

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division I.T. for Management CHAPTER-6 Determining Information Need We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need Critical Success Factor(Overview) CSF analysis is: • A method developed at MIT’s Sloan school by John Rockart to guide businesses in creating and measuring success • Widely used for technology and architectural planning in enterprise I/T • A top-down methodology that is especially suitable for designing systems as opposed to applications • A reductionist method for going from an abstract vision to concrete requirements Cont…. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  3. 3. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need What is Critical Success Factor • A key area where satisfactory performance is required for the organization to achieve its goals • A means of identifying the tasks and requirements needed for success • At the lowest level, CSFs become concrete requirements • A means to prioritize requirements Cont…. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  4. 4. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need What is Critical Success Factor • Start with a vision: mission statement • Develop 5-6 high level goals • Develop hierarchy of goals and their success factors • Leads to concrete requirements at the lowest level of decomposition (a single, implementable idea) • Along the way, identify the problems being solved and the assumptions being made • Cross-reference usage scenarios and problems with requirements Cont…. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  5. 5. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need Start with a vision: mission statement • Develop 5-6 high level goals • Develop hierarchy of goals and their success factors • Leads to concrete requirements at the lowest level of decomposition (a single, implementable idea) • Along the way, identify the problems being solved and the assumptions being made • Cross-reference usage scenarios and problems with requirements Cont…. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  6. 6. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need What is analysis? Analysis is process of successively decomposing a system into its constituent subsystem Results of the Analysis • Mission statement • Hierarchy of goals and CSFs • Lists of requirements, problems, and assumptions • Analysis matrices􀂓Problems vs. Requirements matrix • Usage scenarios vs. Requirements matrix • Solid usage scenarios Cont…. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  7. 7. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need Three prominent methods of analysis of information system are: • Data flow method • Decision Analysis • Object Analysis System study: The system study is a formal process of gathering every thing relevant from standpoint of gathering clarity about the purpose & functioning of a system We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  8. 8. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need The System study can be conducted by gathering following: The user requirement document which outlines the basic scope, purpose. Any audit reports which can throw light on short comings on present system Tracing the workflow involves walking through the system to understand how the physical work or service is being delivered & how the associated information flow is happening One to one interview could be part of same experience for tracking workflow …Cont We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  9. 9. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need Interviews have to be however to be planned well getting time from busy executives • Structured Questionnaires Usually in the context of ERP systems and other products organization builds standard checklist • Inspecting Transaction document and other reports browsing through an entire years transaction document such as invoices ,purchase orders & relevant documents provide a good insight into what could happen at an operational level Cont….. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  10. 10. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need • Many a times mangers & department heads tend to describe a system from there past experience & as such they may not be aware of the details of operational aspects of the system • It could also happen that even operational staff may be new & there description may be inaccurate • It could so happen that the person concerned may tend to describe situations which are far from near past & therefore tend to forget some significant situations which may have happened in past, but may occur any time in the future. Cont….. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  11. 11. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need It is therefore always better to insist on a formal review of old transactions documents and reports. This would give insight on following • The purpose of document • Transaction volume & frequency • Content of document • Codification • Redundant data elements • Matching of output to input • Redundancy • Study of decision processes • Modeling/prototyping • Business events and business use cases Cont….. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  12. 12. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need Documenting the facts gathering thru the system study Many a times an analyst may have done a great job in collecting large amount of data about system • Some tools used for documenting data are Flow Charts Grid charts Analysis of Questionnaires Decision Trees/Table Data flow diagram(DFD) We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  13. 13. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need Data Flow Diagram(DFD) Data flow diagrams illustrate how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs and outputs. • Each process has a input (i.e. dataflow) & a output (dataflow) • The process transforms from input to output • The input may come from another process a store of data or from external entity • The output could go to another process, to an external entity or get stored in a data store We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  14. 14. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need Data Flow Diagram(DFD) Symbols used are very simple & illustrated below We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  15. 15. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need The System Requirement Specification(SRS) A more formal document covering all the above, along with a description of the overall purpose of the system and functionality expected, the Technology considerations, the acceptance criteria is usually prepared Such document is called System Requirement Specification (SRS) There is IEEE standard for preparing SRS document It provides template outlining the various aspect of a system. The SRS is reviewed jointly with the user We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  16. 16. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Determining Information Need End of Chapter 6 We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum

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