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Role of Information Technology in Business

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IT enables in the quick access of information and it also accelerates productivity. IT ensures that additional staff may not be necessary when the business grows.
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Published in: Business, Education, Technology
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Role of Information Technology in Business

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division I.T. for Management CHAPTER-14 Role of information technology in business We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role of information technology in business Information technology has become very pervasive & is therefore touched every aspect of business as well as our personnel lives. The inherent characteristics of computer have made a tremendous impact on every aspect of work which it has been used. Much of office work productivity depends on the above characteristics where human s seen to have short comings We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  3. 3. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role of information technology in business How does IT gives productivity advantage? • Speed of Processing Consider preparing pay slip or 10,000 employee or dividend cheque for 4 lakh shareholders If done manually imagine amount of time & number of people required to make it possible , Computer can make things faster than ever before. • On-Line storage Quick access to information is the key to running business effectively. Thus entire companies transaction can be accessible in real time • Dis-Intermediation The possibility of having multi user systems or by installing a local or wide area network We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  4. 4. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role of information technology in business Thus to answer one query of an outside party so many departments get busy. With online ERP systems it is now possible for sale engineer to view updated data right on his screen. The data is kept updated since all departments are integrated to this ERP • Replacing Human Labor There is usually cost saving associated with replacing human labor. Human labor particularly in developed country is expensive We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  5. 5. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role of information technology in business Scalability In many cases existing personnel may not be actually displaced, However, the need for increasing the staff to cope with growth in transaction may not be necessary Computes thus help in making the organization scalable, This may not cut current employees but certainly reduce the need to increase the strength in future We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  6. 6. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role of information technology in business Email & Communication The effort, time & cost require in conventional method is very high as compared to computer based email & other forms of communication The biggest impact is speed with which this form of communication works. The speed of communication has increased the speed at which we can do the business Business at the sped of thought Bill Gates coined this phase & emphasized on need to construct digital nervous system We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  7. 7. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Information for competitive Advantage Impact of IT can be summarized in the following manner • Productivity • Business Process transform • Business Network Transform • Business Scope transform We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  8. 8. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Information for competitive Advantage • Business Process Transform is the use of IT for significant improving the business process. Reduction of cycle time for production from 50 days to 10 days, reducing time required to process insurance from one month to one day The reduction in stock from one month to just in time. all these are enabled by IT We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  9. 9. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Information for competitive Advantage Business Network Transform Is the transformation of the Network consisting of customers, suppliers & other business partner It is radical change in the way the conducts its business. The close alliance ,the level of trust sharing of information& transparency helps in network as a whole to respond faster & better. Thus in today’s world competition is not between singular entities but rather between We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  10. 10. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Information for competitive Advantage • Business Network Transform On the customer side IT creates a natural lock in for instance a bank which is offers a terminal to a customer creates a feeling of direct contact, security & convenience to customer The business process transform is the use of IT for significantly improving the business process IT can help in dramatically changing the nature of partnership between the partners in a business network this is known as We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  11. 11. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Information for competitive Advantage • Business Scope Transform IT has lead to the growth of several hitherto unheard businesses and innovative business models The need for the use huge physical Infrastructure is become the thing of the past Websites and Interactive technologies help make e- Business possible One can create a globally competitive business with global reach We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  12. 12. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications Material Requirements Planning (MRP)is a software based production planning and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Although it is not common nowadays, it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well. An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet 3 objectives: Ensure materials and products are available for production and delivery to customers. Maintain the lowest possible level of inventory. Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  13. 13. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications The scope of MRP in manufacturing All manufacturing organizations, whatever it is they produce, face the same daily practical problem -that customers want products to be available in a shorter time than it takes to make them. This means that some level of planning is required. Companies need to control the types and quantities of materials they purchase, plan which products are to be produced and in what quantities and ensure that they are able to meet current and future customer demand, all at the lowest possible cost. Making a bad decision in any of these areas will lose the company money. A few examples are given below We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  14. 14. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications If a company purchases insufficient quantities of an item used in manufacturing, or the wrong item, they may be unable to meet contracts to supply products by the agreed date. If a company purchases excessive quantities of an item, money is being wasted -the excess quantity ties up cash while it remains as stock and may never even be used at all. This is a particularly severe problem for food manufacturers and companies with very short product life cycles. However, some purchased items will have a minimum quantity that must be met, therefore, purchasing excess is necessary. Beginning production of an order at the wrong time can mean customer deadlines being missed. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  15. 15. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications MRP is used by many organizations as a tool to deal with these problems. The questions it provides answers for are: WHAT items are required, HOW MANY are required and WHEN are they required by. This applies to items that are bought in and to sub- assemblies that go into more complex items. The END ITEM(s) being created (a.k.a. Independent Demand, Level "O" on BOM)How much is required at a time When the quantity(s) are required to meet demand Inventory status records. Records of NET materials AVAILABLE for use already in stock (on hand) and materials on order from suppliers We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  16. 16. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications Bills of materials. Details of the materials, components and subassemblies required to make each product. Planning Data. This includes all the restraints and directions to produce the end items. This includes such items as: Routings, Labor and Machine Standards, Pull/Work Cell and Push commands, Lot sizing technique(s) (i.e. Fixed Lot Size, Lot-For-Lot, Economic Order Quantity), Scrap Percentages, and other inputs We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  17. 17. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications Outputs There are only two (2) outputs and a variety of messages/reports Output 1 is the "Recommended Production Schedule" which lays out a detailed schedule of the required minimum start and completion dates, with quantities, for each step of the Routing and Bill Of Material required to satisfy the demand from the MPS Output 2 is the "Recommended Purchasing Schedule". This lays out the dates that the purchased items should be both received into the facility AND the date(s) the Purchase orders, or Blanket Order Release should occur to match the production schedules We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  18. 18. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications Messages and Reports: Purchase orders. An order to a supplier to provide materials. Reschedule notices. These RECOMMEND cancel, increase, delay or speed up existing orders. Note that the OUTPUTS are RECOMMENDED. Due to a variety of changing conditions in companies, since the last MRP / ERP system Re-Generation, the recommended outputs need to be reviewed by TRAINED people to group orders for benefits in set- up or freight savings. These actions are beyond the linear calculations of the MRP computer software We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  19. 19. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications Problems with MRP systems The major problem with MRP systems is the integrity of the data. If there are errors in the inventory data, the bill of material (commonly referred to as 'BOM') data or the master production schedule then the output will also be incorrect. Most vendors of this type of system recommend at least 98% data integrity for the system to give useful results. Another major problem with MRP systems is the requirement that the user specify how long it will take a factory to make a product from its component parts (assuming they are all available). Additionally, the system design also assumes that this "lead time" in manufacturing will be the same each time the item is made, without regard to quantity being made, or other items being made simultaneously in the ft. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  20. 20. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications Production may be in progress for some part, whose design gets changed, with customer orders in the system for both the old design, and the new one, concurrently. The overall ERP system needs to have a system of coding parts such that the MRP will correctly calculate needs and tracking for both versions. Parts must be booked into and out of stores more regularly than the MRP calculations take place. Note, these other systems can well be manual systems, but must interface to the MRP. For example, a 'walk around' stock take done just prior to the MRP calculations can be a practical solution for a small inventory. (especially if it is an "open store".) We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  21. 21. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division MRP II Process Manufacturing Applications The other major drawback of MRP is that takes no account of capacity in its calculations. This means it will give results that are impossible to implement due to manpower or machine or suppler capacity constraints. However this is largely dealt with by MRP II. Generally, MRP II refers to a system with integrated financials. An MRP II system can include finite / infinite capacity planning. But, to be considered a true MRP II system must also include financials We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum

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