Personnel Selection


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In this presentation, we will discuss the selection procedure of personnel, wherein we will try to understand the meaning of a designation in a profession, sources of job information, job analysis, techniques used in job analysis and job evaluation method.
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Personnel Selection

  2. 2. The task of distinguishing ‘good’ from ‘poor’ and ‘notso good’ workers has occupied the attention ofindustrial psychologists almost from its inception.Today we have a fund of information concerning theprocess of personnel selection which could be o greathelp to those working in and managing an industry.We cannot think of industrial psychology, whichignores this aspect.
  3. 3. The problems of selection, placementand several other related problems, nowform a very important is of industriallypsychology known as manpowerplanning. It may be defined as a strategyfor acquiring, utilizing, improving andmaintaining the human resources of anindustrial organization. It is aimed atoptimum use of currently employedmanpower, to assess and predict theskills of the human beings required by anorganization now and in future and tosee that the necessary human beingsrequired by an available when suchneeds arise
  4. 4. Selection: Selection consists of picking up bypsychologists required number of persons that are likelyto make good workers and again allocating them to theavailable jobs by considering which of the selectedperson is good for which the available worker to a job ormatching the abilities of the worker and requirements of ajob. It’s a random non-random process because thoseselected have been chosen on the assumption that theywill make better workers than those who have beenrejected or eliminated in the selection process.
  5. 5. Selection Selection consists of picking up by psychologistsrequired number of persons that are likely to makegood workers and again allocating them to theavailable jobs by considering which of theselected person is good for which the availableworker to a job or matching the abilities of theworker and requirements of a job. It’s a randomnon-random process because those selectedhave been chosen on the assumption that theywill make better workers than those who havebeen rejected or eliminated in the selectionprocess.
  6. 6. The workers are handpicked and are assigned to the jobs thatare available in the organization-this is the process of placement. Without the knowledge of occupational information and individual differences, no selection process can be sound.
  7. 7. Occupational InformationDOT (Dictionary of occupational Titles was first publishedin 1949 and updated in 1959 and again in 1965. Two other sources are the Occupational Outlook Handbook broughtout by the U.S. Department of Labor, and the Occupational Information brought out by Dr. Shartle.A dictionary of occupational title has been developed by the Directorate General of Resettlement and Employment Valuable source of occupational information
  8. 8. Precise meaning of some termsPosition: It refers to the various taskthat are performed in an industrialorganization by individual workers,each such position is occupied by anindustrial worker.Job: It is group of similar positions inan organization. It is defined as anassignment of worker calling for a et ofduties and conditions that are differentfrom other work assignments.
  9. 9. Precise meaning of some termsJob family: It is a group of similar jobs foundin several organizations, for instance,occupations of mechanical engineer, civilengineer and so on.Occupation: it is a group of jobs involvingalmost more or less similar work operations.Job Description[: It is based on what wecall job analysis. It serves as a basis ofmaking appropriate judgments in the matterof selection, placement, promotion andtraining.
  10. 10. The Job Analysis provides the foundation foralmost everything HR is involved in. Job Descriptions Employee Selection Training Performance Appraisals Job Classification Job Evaluation Job Design
  11. 11. SMEs (Subject Matter Experts) people who have in-depth knowledge of specific job under analysis, job skills, and abilities Job Incumbent Supervisors Job Analyst
  12. 12. InterviewsStructured Questionnaire / InventoryDirect ObservationLogbooks / Work Diaries
  13. 13. Most commonly used method very adaptableUsually conducted with job incumbents technical experts supervisorsQuestions like: what are your most typical duties? How long do they take? How do you do them?Con: people may misrepresent/exaggerate job
  14. 14. Lists of many (>200) job characteristics andactivities rated in term of frequency and importancemethod is most useful for comparing jobs D2 - measure of similarity found job of “housewife” is most similar to “patrolman”!very commonly used (esp. with interviews)
  15. 15. Rate the extent to which each is used by the worker as asource of information in performing the job:Extent of Use: N - Does not apply 1 - Very infrequent 2- Occasional 3 - Moderate 4 - Considerable 5 - Very substantial1.___ Written materials (books, reports, articles).2.___ Quantitative materials (graphs, tables of numbers)3.___ Measuring devices (calipers, tire pressure gauges, thermometers)4.___ Features of nature (landscapes, geological samples, cloud formations)
  16. 16. Unobtrusive method camera; video; audioExcellent for understanding andappreciating conditions under which job isperformedAllows analyst to experience aspects of jobthat worker may not be aware ofNot as good for understanding whybehaviors do/do not occur
  17. 17. Worker makes systematic entries in bookoutlining activitiesMay be useful for jobs that are difficult toobserveBut, not commonly used too much variance in writing skills can exaggerate tasks performedCan be done with beepers
  18. 18. Read any info available re: job training manuals job descriptions equipment manualsInterview middle managers pick up lingo understand job importance acc. to management get feel for job develop questions for later interviews
  19. 19. Observe 3 or 4 people doing jobSchedule interviews with incumbents andsupervisorsDistribute questionnaires/inventories re: jobdutiesCombine/compile info (most imp.) must summarize using all info. no standard procedure; uses creativity
  20. 20. Reduce Role Conflict and Ambiguity reduce discrepancy between what organization thinks job is and what job is in realityDesign and Evaluation of Training focus training on most difficult and/or most frequent elements of jobPerformance Appraisal criteria for appraisal should be matched with most important elements of job
  21. 21. Job Design simplify job with too many disparate activitiesPersonnel Selection once KSAs are identified, job requirements can be generated items on job tests can be written based on JA e.g., if job requires high intelligence, give intelligence test
  22. 22. Compliance with Civil Rights Legislation CRA of 1964, 1991, Age Discrimination Act, Americans with Disabilities Act if discrimination occurs, must be justifiable business practice JA is necessary, but not sufficient componentJob Evaluation judges relative worth of jobs in an organization sets fair compensation rates
  23. 23. Job AnalysisAn accurate information of what a worker has to do ona job is determined by a group of procedures known asjob analysis. The different methods for job analysis are Questionnaire method, checklist, interview method, diary method and critical incident technique. s :It i d etho e g iq ue It m :Lo echn ot aire nd tim d etho tained tt n tion ous a ng m ciden t the m job s Que bori sumi Di ary ain ic al in o ligh f the la con k is m Crit ngs t cts o b oo bri l aspe a c ritic
  24. 24. Some Psychological Techniques used in Job AnalysisJob Psychograph is a technique which consists of a completestatement of personnel requirements of a job. It was developed byViteles in 1932Critical Job Elements is a another technique of job analysis. Criticaljob elements is the list of critical behaviors essential for performing ajob on which successful operation of a job depends. A job element isdefined as an ability that may be required on various jobs, yet which isunique in the sense that it measures something different from otherjob elements. The different 16 job elements are inspection, assembly,judgment & comprehension, ingenuity, alertness, coding, memory,precision, scales, coordination, arithmetic, patterns, components,tables, mechanics, expressions. The test is well known as the FACT (The Flanagan Aptitude Classification Test)
  25. 25. Some Psychological Techniques used in Job AnalysisOccupational Ability Pattern(OAP) . It makes use of several well-standardized psychological tests,which are used presently in industry.These tests are good measures ofvarious abilities, which are requiredin successful performance of a job It is most objective.
  26. 26. Steps n Job Analysis•1st step: Collect the inventory•2nd step: Administer the inventory to theexperienced job incumbents•3rd step: Administer the revised inventory to alarge sample of job incumbents•4th step: Prepare a final list of statement bydetermining the consistency
  27. 27. • Process of systematically determining the relative worth of jobs to create a job structure for the organization.• The evaluation is based on a combination of job content, skills required, value to the organization, organizational culture, and the external market.• This potential to blend internal forces and external market forces is both a strength and a challenge to job evaluation.
  28. 28. Internal alignment Job analysis Job description Job evaluation Job structureWork relationships within theorganization Some Major Decisions in Job Evaluation Some Major Decisions in Job Evaluation •• Establish purpose of evaluation Establish purpose of evaluation •• Decide whether to use single or multiple plans Decide whether to use single or multiple plans •• Choose among alternative approaches Choose among alternative approaches •• Obtain involvement of relevant stakeholders Obtain involvement of relevant stakeholders •• Evaluate plan’s usefulness Evaluate plan’s usefulness
  29. 29. Job Evaluation is: AssumptionA measure of job Content has an innate value outside of external market.contentA measure of relative Relevant groups can reach consensus on relativevalue value.Link with external Job worth cannot be specified without external marketmarket information.Measurement device Honing instruments will provide objective measures.Negotiation Puts face of rationality to a social / political process. Establishes rules of the game. Invites participation.
  30. 30. Job Evaluation MethodsJob Ranking Raters examine job description and arrange jobs according to value to companyJob Classification Classes or grades are defined to describe a group of jobs.Point Method Numerical values are assigned to specific job components; sum of values provides quantitative assessment of job’s worth (Hay Guide Chart-Profile Method)
  31. 31. Overview of the Point System Degree of FactorJobFactor Weight 1 2 3 4 51. Education 50% 100 200 300 400 5002. Respon- 30% 75 150 225 300 sibility3. Physical 12% 24 48 72 96 120 effort4. Working 8% 25 51 80 conditions
  32. 32. Comparison of Job Evaluation Methods Advantage DisadvantageRanking Fast, simple, easy to Cumbersome as number explain. of jobs increases. Basis for comparisons is not called out.Classification Can group a wide range Descriptions may leave of work together in one too much room for system. manipulation.Point Compensable factors call Can become out basis for bureaucratic and rule- comparisons. bound. Compensable factors communicate what is valued.
  33. 33. Differences in the rates paid for different jobs andskills also influences how fairly employees believethey are being treated. Unfair treatment is ultimatelycounterproductive.Job evaluation has evolved into many different formsand methods. Consequently, wide variations exist inits use and how it is perceived.No matter how job evaluation is designed, itsultimate use is to help design and manage work-related, business-focused, and agreed-upon paystructure.
  34. 34. Clustering of Grouping Occupations: List of jobs are known as job families or job clusters. A job cluster or family consists of occupations which demand similar patterns of activity. The job requiressimilar activities, the same worker characteristics or traits, corresponding machines, tools materials and instruments and work in the same kind of material are placed in the same cluster or family. Factor analysis is a much more sophisticated technique used for clustering jobs based on statistical procedures.
  35. 35. Concluding Remarks Selection and placement processes are an integral part of manpower planning of human resources planning of any industrial organization. Any personnel department cannot undertake these functions unless it has adequate occupationalinformation concerning the variety of jobs that are available and for which the workers are to be selected and a assigned to the various positions in the organization.
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