Introduction to Quality


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In this presentation, we will discuss the concept of quality management with specific importance on quality assurance, quality control and different views of quality, types of quality, levels of quality and quality determinants. We will also talk about the industrial revolution and beginning of quality control methods.
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Introduction to Quality

  1. 1. Total Quality ManagementChapter 1Introduction to Quality Chapter1 1
  2. 2. Introduction to QualityWhat is Quality?•Traditional thinking would say that Quality is conference tospecifications,that is does the product do what it designed todo?•One is Quality Assurance which is the "prevention ofdefects", such as the deployment of a Quality ManagementSystem and preventative activities like FMEA.•The other is Quality Control which is the "detection ofdefects", most commonly associated with testing which takesplace within a Quality Management System typicallyreferred to as Verification and Validation. Cont Chapter1 2
  3. 3. Introduction to Quality• "Conformance to requirements". The difficulty with this is that the requirements may not fully represent what the customer wants; Crosby treats this as a separate problem.• "Fitness for use". Fitness is defined by the customer.• A two-dimensional model of quality. The quality has two dimensions: "must-be quality" and "attractive quality". The former is near to the "fitness for use" Chapter1 3
  4. 4. Evolution of Quality Management Chapter1 4
  5. 5. Evolution of Quality Management Chapter1 5
  6. 6. Evolution of Quality Management Chapter1 6
  7. 7. Evolution of Quality Management Chapter1 7
  8. 8. Quality Movement in IndiaQuality movement was consolidated in Indianindustries in the 1980s by pioneering efforts ofConfederation of Indian Industries.•Walter Shewhart ,father of statistical controlvisited India in 1947-48 & initiated SQCmovements through visiting many factories.•The year 1987 brought the ISO900 standards intoreality•Visible strategies emerged from the Europianmarket Chapter1 8
  9. 9. Quality-What it stands for?Q: Quest for ExcellenceU: Understanding Customer needsA: Action to achieve customers appreciationL: Leadership Determination to be leader.I: Involving all peopleT: Team spirit to work for common goalY : Yard stick measure progress Quality means staying in business Chapter1 9
  10. 10. Quality Definitions Garvin’s Definitions of QualityManufacturing Based Definition•If the product conforms to design specifications,it has good quality.Value-Based Definition•If the product is perceived as providing goodvalue for the price, it has good quality. Chapter1 10 Cont
  11. 11. Quality DefinitionsGarvin’s Definitions of Quality•Transcendent Definition•Quality is something that is intuitivelyunderstood but nearly impossible tocommunicate such as beauty or love.•Product-Based Definition•Quality is found in the components andattributes of a product.•User-Based Definition•If the customer is satisfied, the product has goodquality. Chapter1 11
  12. 12. Quality DefinitionsQuality is defined as:•The ability of product or services to meetcustomer needs.•The totality of features and characteristics of aproduct or services that bears on its ability tosatisfy stated or implied needs.•Meeting or exceeding Customer requirementsnow and in future Cont. Chapter1 12
  13. 13. Quality DefinitionsOther definitions of Quality are:•Quality is a measure of how closely a goods orservice confirms to specified standards orspecifications•Quality is meeting or exceeding customersrequirement.•Quality can be described as doing right things,righttime ,first time & every time•Quality is a means to an end Chapter1 13
  14. 14. Quality DefinitionsService Quality is determined by:•Reliability•Responsiveness•Competence•Access•Communication•Courtesy•Security•Understanding•Tangibles Chapter1 14
  15. 15. Quality DefinitionsOld Quality is New Quality isAbout Product About Organization Technical Strategic For inspectors For Every one Led by experts Led by Management High grade Appropriate grade About control About Improvement Chapter1 15
  16. 16. Five Views of Quality•Transcendental View•Product Based View•User Based View•Manufacturing Based view•Value Based View Chapter1 16
  17. 17. Quality DimensionsPerformanceFeaturesReliabilityConformanceDurabilityServiceabilityAestheticsPerceived Quality Cont…. Chapter1 17
  18. 18. Quality Dimensions•Performance Refers to the efficiency withwhich a product achieves its intended purpose.•Features Attributes of a product thatsupplement a product’s basic performance.•Reliability The propensity for a product toperform consistently over its useful design life.•Conformance Numerical dimensions for aproduct’s performance, such as capacity, speed,size, durability, color, or the like. Chapter1 Cont.. 18
  19. 19. Quality Dimensions•Durability The degree to which a producttolerates stress or trauma without failing.•Serviceability•Ease of repair.•Aesthetics•Subjective sensory characteristics such astaste, feel, sound, look, and smell.•Perceived Quality•Based on customer opinion. Customers imbueproducts and services with their understandingof their goodness. Cont Chapter1 19
  20. 20. Quality Dimensions•Include the physical appearance of the servicefacility, the equipment, the personnel, and thecommunication material.•Service Reliability•Differs from product reliability in that it relatesto the ability of the service provider to performthe promised service dependably and accurately.•Responsiveness•The willingness of the service provider to behelpful and prompt in providing service. Chapter1 20
  21. 21. Types of Quality•Indifferent Quality:That customer does not notice•Expected Quality:Is the quality that customerexpects•One dimensional Quality:is the quality thecustomer expects but that does not necessarilyresult in lots of order•Exiting Quality is the quality that exceedscustomer requirements Chapter1 21
  22. 22. Customer driven QualityQuality is meeting or exceeding customerexpectations.•Directing attention toward satisfying anddelivering value to the customer.•Tools for Influencing Customer Perceptions ofQuality•Price and advertising are the primary tools forinfluencing customer perceptions of quality, but areimperfect mechanisms. Cont.. Chapter1 22
  23. 23. Customer driven Quality•Focus on Service•Another important contribution of the marketingperspective has been the focus on service.•Customer service surveys are important tools forassessing the multiple dimensions of quality.•In short Customer Driven Quality is meeting orexceeding customer expectation. Chapter1 23
  24. 24. Quality in production SystemsProduction is the process of converting theresources available to an organization into productsGoods & services.Quality involved in followingareas:•Nature of Engineering Perspective•Engineers are interested in applying mathematicalproblem solving skills and models to the problemsof business and industry.•Two of the major emphases in engineering•Product design•Process design Chapter1 24
  25. 25. Quality in production Systems•Product Design Engineering•Involves all of those activities associated withdeveloping a product from concept development tofinal design and implementation.•Product design life cycle•Key to quality as quality is assured at the designstage.•Concurrent engineering•The simultaneous performance of product andprocess design activities. Chapter1 25
  26. 26. Quality in production Systems•Related Concepts•Life Testing•Is a facet of reliability engineering that concernsitself with determining whether a product will failunder controlled conditions during a specified life.•Is applied so that a back up system can take overfor the failed primary system.•Statistical Process Control•Is concerned with monitoring process capabilityand process stability. Chapter1 26
  27. 27. Three levels of Quality1 Organizational Level At organizational level ,quality concerns centerton meeting external customer requirements2. At process levelOrganizational units are classified as functions ordepartments such as marketing design,product3.Performance level(Job level) These standards include requirements foraccuracy,completeness Chapter1 27
  28. 28. Determinants of QualitySeveral activities are necessary to achieveQuality they are:• Quality of Design• Quality capability of production processes• Quality of conformance• Quality of customer service•Organization Quality culture Chapter1 28
  29. 29. Quality & competitive advantageOne of the critical drivers of business success ishaving a unique competitive advantage.•Most managers understand that to attract a largershare of the market, or find enough customersprepared to pay a premium price, they must providesomething of greater value than their competition.•For most managers, competitive advantage boilsdown to providing superior quality and service.Think about it. Is this what you are aiming for? Chapter1 29
  30. 30. Quality & competitive advantageCompetitive advantage denotes a firms ability toachieve market superiorityCharacteristics of a strong competitive advantageidentified by S.C Whelwright are:•It is customer driven needs & wants•It makes significant value to success of business•It matches the organizations unique resources withopportunities in the environment•It is durable and lasting & difficult for competitorsto copy Cont.. Chapter1 30
  31. 31. Quality & competitive advantage•It provides a basis for further development•It provides directions and motivation to the entireorganizationCustomers don’t believe vague claims and theydon’t believe you, unless you can back up yourstatement with irrefutable facts. The same goes forservice. What does better service mean? Is it faster,more personal, more user friendly? How can yousupport your claims? Chapter1 31
  32. 32. Quality & ProfitabilityGood Quality can also pay off in higher profitsSeveral research studies undertaken by PIMS havefound that:•Product Quality is important determinant ofbusiness profitability•Business that offer premium quality & serviceshave large market shares•Quality is positively and significantly related to ahigh return•High Quality producers can usually changepremium price Chapter1 32
  33. 33. Quality as a source of valueMany customers regard Quality as a Importantsource of value•Improved reputation•Easier selling•Legal Implications•Reduced lead time•Enhanced Flexibility•Improved Productivity•Reduced Cost•Employer pride Chapter1 33
  34. 34. Quality and personal values•Today companies are asking employees to takemore responsibility for acting as the point ofcontact between the organization and thecustomer,to be team players & to provide moreeffective & efficient customer service.•Personal Quality may be thought of as personalempowerment.•Personal Quality is an essential ingredient to makequality happens at work place Chapter1 34
  35. 35. Quality Drives the productive MachineJapanese manufactures are credited with populatingthe notion that quality drives the productivitymachine•This means If the production does it right first time,& produces product and services which are defectfree,Waste is eliminated & costs are reduced.•Productivity & Quality are often closely related•Poor quality can adversely affected if defectiveparts are reworked.•Poor quality tolls & equipment can lead to injuries&defective output Chapter1 35
  36. 36. Total Quality Management End Of Chapter 1 Chapter1 36
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