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Effective HR Training & Development Strategies


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In this presentation, we will understand the needs of systematic training for a various jobs/ levels and the benefits reaped.
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Effective HR Training & Development Strategies

  2. 2. CHAPTER 1 TRAINING AN OVERVIEW• Training if effectively managed achieves aims andobjectives of an organization.• Training is always job orientated for the developmentof the general culture of the company.• Training is a process to improve aptitude skills andabilities of the employees to perform specific jobs.• Due to rapid growth in technology fields there is agreat need for training for updating skills of employees.• To respond effectively to competition from rivalbusiness organization in house training is given to keepabreast with latest development in their field.
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1 Present day role of training.Now a days training is a crucial element , a sound basis for modernday management at the micro level.It has an extensive role in – a) enhancing productivity. b) improving organizational functions. At macro level it serves as an important agency to contribute to the economic and social progress of the country thus creating a need for large scale organized efforts to develop technical and enterprising skills in youth to make them productive units of society.
  4. 4. CHAPTER 1 What is the need for Training of Personnel?Continuous management training is required to build up a strongeffective , motivated and dedicated managerial cadre.In PEs training must shape the managers to understand therequirement of the employers in terms of organization and personalgrowth.It is essential for gaining competitive edge.For imparting diverse skills and performance management abilitiesto managers for effectiveness of business activities.For enhancement of emotional and intelligent quotient in managers.
  5. 5. CHAPTER 1 TRAINING- SIGNIFICANT MEANINGS ATTRIBUTED TO EACH LETTER OF THE WORD. T : - Talent and N:- Novelties tenacity I ;- Intensity R:- Reinforcement N:- Nurturing A:- Awareness G:- Grip I:- Interest The gap between performance of the organization and theA growing organization must be changing needs of the society in tune with the changing can be reduced through needs of the society. proper training of the employees by increasing their knowledge, skill, ability and attitude.
  6. 6. CHAPTER 1 Definitions of trainingTraining is defined to be a organized activity involving systematic proceduresfor transferring technical know how to the employees for increasing theknowledge and skills of the people for a definite purpose.Definition by Edwin B Flippo. The purpose of training is to achieve a changein the behavior of those trained to enable them to do their jobs better. It isequally necessary for the new as well as the old employees. Training is acontinuous process to bring a positive change in1) knowledge2) Skills3) Attitude Of the workers Contd.
  7. 7. CHAPTER 1John P. Jkenny and others (1979) definedtraining to help out an individual to learn howto carry out his present job satisfactorily.Edger H. Schein defined managementdevelopment as a how an organization bringsa change in an individual in a direction whichorganization regards to be in his own andorganization’s best interests. Most importantlyvarious training programs try to influence themanagerial attitudes.
  8. 8. CHAPTER 1 SCOPE OF TRAINING•Lately the scope and application of traininghas widened to include positive behavioralchanges, developing life skills leading topersonal growth that helps to cope with day today problems of living and manageinterpersonal relations, and interpersonaleffectiveness
  9. 9. CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVESDefining training objectives is a pre requisite of anytraining program.They may vary according to the requirements of aparticular situationObjectives of any training program should indicate thatat the end of training whatever knowledge , skills andattitudes that have been identified as necessary foreffective work performance should be achievedIn complex subject like management it is not easy todefine training objectives in terms of performancemeasurable terms of specific objectives. Contd.
  10. 10. CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVESTraining objectives determine the details of designand provision which must include the people whodesign and provide training and the methods andlocations that might be used in practice. Systematic methods are evolved for increasing thenew employees knowledge and developing his skillsand also giving core- training of its existingemployees. Objectives are statement of intent written in clear,specific and precise terms which specify whatlearners will be able to do at the end of each stage oflearning process. Objectives are essential for validating the training.
  11. 11. CHAPTER1 Three elements of training objectives1) Outcomes: This is the observable behaviorrequired at the end of training.2) Conditions : These are circumstances inwhich the outcomes should take place3) Standards: The expected level of attainmentin terms of quality, accuracy , quantity orwhatever is relevant to the job.p.s. Objectives should always be written to avoidmental manipulation.
  12. 12. CHAPTER 1Systematic Assessment of Training (SAT) It defines training objectives as one systemand the assessment of learning achievementand training effectiveness as another beingtotally interdependent.
  13. 13. CHAPTER 1 Setting out the program objectivesThis includes the following modules: Understanding Program Objectives.•Program objectives are broad statement of intent, actionand outcomes which are the end result of the training.•Learning Objectives express learning expected from aspecific training activity, event or module.•Program objectives are the aggregate of learning outcomes.•There are three broad areas of learning associated withprogram objectives which reflects the changes that can comeabout in an individual as a result of training. They are :- Contd.
  14. 14. CHAPTER 1APPROACHES Cognitive Learning : Focusing on acquisition of information and knowledge, including concepts ,theories and principles etc..Behavioral Learning : Developing competenciesrequired for the actual performance of the job.Affective Learning: Also aimed at enhancing jobperformance by fostering appropriate attitudes andvalues. By helping individuals in better management ofof feelings, emotions and reactions to situations andpeople. These three area are interrelated resulting in all rounddevelopment of an individual. .
  15. 15. CHAPTER 1 Need for setting Program Objectives. The need for setting program objectives are listed asfollows:a) Provide Direction to the Program Objectives define the direction of the program andindicate areas of emphasis.b) Serve as a basis of Evaluation. Objectives facilitates the process of setting standardsof performance for the training team. Contd…
  16. 16. CHAPTER 1 c) A Tool for Meeting Participants’ Training Needs. Objectives assist the participants in establishing their personal learning objectives.d) Define Limits for the Program Objectives also set out parameters for the programs ,the can do and cannot do’s.
  17. 17. CHAPTER 1 Establishing program objectives-Consideration and guidelines.Program objectives are established on the training needs. which needs to be identified. using appropriate methodology sound procedures and principles .Some of the points to keep in mind: Program Objectives are Set Out from the Learner’s Perspective: The primary aim is to inform the participants of the learning they should expect to receive from the program.
  18. 18. CHAPTER 1 Sample Program ObjectivesTraining Program: Leadership and its Development At the end of the training program the participants will be able to :• Discuss and analyze the concept of and dynamics of leadership and examine its application to the situation in their respective organizations.• Illustrate various theories and models of leadership and appraise their relevance and validity to their job.• Become aware of their leadership style and recognize the need for bringing about changes in accordance with the requirements of the job and the organization.
  19. 19. CHAPTER 1 Training and education – As Approaches to LearningThe purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. Training and development must contain an element of education. For this purpose organizations depute and encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis in Institute of Public Enterprise, Business schools etc. Education is more important for managers and executives than for lower cadre workers.
  20. 20. CHAPTER 1 Defining Training and Development•Flippo defined training as the act of increasing the knowledge andskills of an employee for doing a particular job and prepare himselffor higher level job.•Training imparts the ability to detect and correct error.•It provides skills and abilities that may be called on in the future tosatisfy the organization’s human resource needs.•It may be carried out on the job off site or on site.•It may be given in a simulated environment that is similar to workenvironment in important respects.•Trainees are expected to acquire abilities and knowledge that willenable them to do their job more effectively.
  21. 21. CHAPTER 1 Some Key Attributes of Training and EducationTraining Education Though training is Education is mainly directedconcerned with the future of towards the future of anan individual , his past and individual and any referencepresent provide a crucial to his past and present stateframe of reference. is incidental.The scope of training is Education is not targetedlimited, determined by training towards specific behavior. Soobjectives. It is specific and it lacks the specificity ofhighly structured. It has training. Education has a longrelatively short term term perspective of anperspective of the future of individual’s life.the individual.
  22. 22. CHAPTER 1Some Key Attributes of Trainingand EducationTraining EducationTransfer of learning can be Difficult to monitor how themonitored and assessed. The learning acquired by theorganization and even the individual is used by thetraining agencies can exercise individual. The educationalgreater control on the process. institute has virtually no control over the situation and the circumstances of the individual. Training has less emphasison ideology and social values Education is firmly rooted in,societal forces play a far less the culture of the society. Itssignificant role than they do in key concern is the inculcationeducation. of socially accepted values in an individual.
  23. 23. CHAPTER 1Some Key Attributes of Trainingand EducationTraining Education Social institutions like state , family and the community play an important role in the education of an individual. In training the group comes In education, the group is more together for a specific enduring and there is sustained purpose and disperses after interaction over a long period of the program objectives are time. assumed to have been achieved.
  24. 24. CHAPTER 1 Training vs DevelopmentTraining is often referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior.Development in contrast is more general and more oriented to individualneeds as well as organizational needs often aimed towards managementpeople.Development is to provide knowledge and understanding to people to carryout functions such as problem solving , decision making related to people.Training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers.Training improves specific skill whereas development aims in improvingtotal personality of an individual.Training is a one shot deal whereas development is a continuous process. Contd.
  25. 25. CHAPTER 1 Training is the result of some outside motivation whereas development is the result of inside motivation Training seeks to meet the current requirement of the job, it is a reaction process whereas development is a proactive process.Learning Training DevelopmentDimensionsWho Non managers managersWhat Technical mechanical Theoretical operations conceptual ideasWhy Specific job related General knowledge informationWhen Short term long term
  26. 26. CHAPTER 1 Triggers of TrainingTraining programs is a stimulating process and should takeoff with enthusiastic participation.Some example of triggering are:1) CEOs initiative with a ceremony for introduction of new technology.2) HRD document with mission policy and action plan3) An incentive for fast learners4) A letter from the CEO on the subject to employees5) Publicity for skilled persons6) Shram shakti awards7) Unveiling career plan for the newly trained people or new skill base.8) Threat of lateral recruitment instead of internal promotions for higherposts
  27. 27. CHAPTER 1 Benefits of trainingTraining offers innumerable benefits both to employees and employers.Tips for Trainees on how to benefit from business seminars.•Plan your schedule ahead of time•Make sure what your company would like you to learn from the seminar.•Learn about the proper attire for the seminae•Network at the seminar. Bring business cards•Meet people before each session.and break the ice by making usefulconversation. Introduce yourself to the presenter.•Bring back information to the company by either making a oralpresentation or written report
  28. 28. CHAPTER 1 Benefits of training to a companyThe major benefits are:•1) Increased productivity•2) Improved morale•3) Reduced supervision•4) Reduced accidents•5) Increase organizational stability
  29. 29. CHAPTER 1 Benefits of Training to the employee•Training makes employee more useful hence he will findemployment more easily.•Training makes employee s more efficient and effective.•Training helps them to secure promotions easily and realize theircareer goals.•Training helps an employee to move from one company to the othereasily. He can be more mobile and pursue career goals easily.•Employees can avoid mistakes ,accidents on the job thus handle jobwith more confidence, be more satisfied and would have high morale.•It helps employees to cope with organizational , social andtechnological change. It is an invaluable investment in humanresource of an organization.
  30. 30. CHAPTER 1Benefits of Training to the Business •Wastage is eliminated to a large extent as workers work more effectively. •There are fewer accidents. As trained workers have improved knowledge of use and handling of machines. •Workers turn out better quality goods •Training makes workers more loyal to the organization as they will have more growth opportunities.
  31. 31. CHAPTER 1Current Training and Development Practices, National Perspective•World bank has given a warning signal that by the turn of thiscentury India will have nearly three fourth of world’s illiteratepopulation. We have to convert this human resource as an assetthrough formal, informal and non formal education involving trainingand retraining.•On analysis of the present day training programs in the country arequite inadequate. Public sectors have training programs withemployee development approach whereas private sectors have onlydevelopment of the organization in mind.•Though most of the Public Sectors have taken up HRD in a big waybut so far private sectors have been having half hearted efforts sofar. Recent globalization and new economic policies have broughtchanges , they are also opening up training centres, even
  32. 32. CHAPTER 1•The essence of training is to meet the future requirement of theorganization where as development helps the individual to handlefuture responsibilities other than the concerns of the present job.•The concept of HRD is already established in successfulorganizations in the form of HR planning, recruitment and selection,training and development personnel and administrative policies,planning and implementation , career counseling, industrial relationetc. These are managed by the professionals in HR from a holisticviewpoint, throwing up creative solutions which were previously notthought of.•Today’s tragic truth is the rapid rate of obsolescence of skills. Thusretraining and development of millions of workers for alternativecareers is a crucial area. Training is essential both to workers andsupervisors and managers to improve their skills and performance. Contd.
  33. 33. CHAPTER 1•The shift from planned economy to market economy has raisedconsumerism and up gradation of technology.• Introduction to computers needed retraining and redeployment ofemployees.•The New Industrial policy of 1991 brought about many structuralchanges. The Indian economy has switched from domestic toglobal market.•To have competitive edge, Indian industries had to improve qualityand meet the national challenge of training and deployment.•All public enterprise need to have well trained and experiencedpeople.•In a rapidly changing society in order to maintain a viable andknowledgeable work force, organization must commit resources totraining.
  34. 34. CHAPTER 1 HRD in Public Sectors•Public sectors contribute most to the national economy so they need toimprove their efficiency.•The reward and promotional system based on time bound scale ratherthan merit basis defeats the basic concept of HRD process in thesesectors.•Though there are a number of central and state level institutionsconducting HRD programs for civil administrative and public sectororganizations but much more is yet to be done.•HRD can be hall mark of public sector automatically improving thequality of work and productivity if the objectives are clearly defined andgoals are achieved.•The economic consideration will have to be given more weightage to
  35. 35. CHAPTER 1 Role of HRD in Economic Development•Competencies and behavior are major factors in theeconomic growth of the country•Structural changes in Indian economy is dominated by itspopulation and their contribution.•As population growth , human resource development andeconomic development are interrelated by implementingHRD policies a change in GNP can be noticed.•Only an educated and developed population can becomebest human capital and help in National Economic growth.
  36. 36. CHAPTER 1 HRD in Private Enterprises•The private sector is on the growth path in India and has to move fromold economy to new economy where owners and employees aresubordinated by the enterprise.•They are going for employee stock ownership scheme ,greaterrepresentation of the employees on the board .•In order to meet the modern day challenges big business houses haveset up their own business schools and management academy’s like TataManagement training centre, Reliance Management Academy etc.•Though there is technology boom in India there is a gap in setting uptechnical management institutes.•The private sector cannot make any meaningful beginning on themanagement development unless it starts developing existing personnel.
  37. 37. CHAPTER 1 HRD in Banking•Banks are key sectors of national economy and are importantpublic sector enterprise.•Being in service sector Banks realise the importance of HRD andthey do have brain storming sessions , idea banks at zonal centres•Human values are given greater importance.•They have schemes for career planning managementdevelopment process by rotation of staff, open and plannedappraisal systems.•In their HRD programs due importance is given to interpersonalskill development and analysis of consumer behavior.•On the job class room , optimization of available staff, continuededucation and vocational training are some good features of HRD
  38. 38. CHAPTER 1 Problems in Training•Despite setting up institutes various problems in respects oftraining have surfaced from time to time .•Questions of appropriate organizations model , training mix ,faculty composition, and methodology of evaluation are someareas of trouble.•Adequacy of training budgets, interface of training objectiveswith the other functionaries in the organization are somethorny issues.•To address such problems a concerted research is initiatedon the functioning of in house training departments in PEs toassess their performance.
  39. 39. CHAPTER 1 International Perspective: The Singapore Training Experience•Singapore is the best prototype of a nation that has successfully upskilled its work force over the last 40 years.•Worlds Economic Forum has rated its labor force 1st in terms ofcomputer literacy and 2nd in terms of worker motivation andavailability of skilled work force.•Its education system meets the needs of a competitive economy .•Singapore is ranked 1st amongst all developing nations in terms ofnumber of human resource dimensions.•On education standards, comparing scores in maths and scienceSingapore is ranked 1st.•On both educational and training dimensions or national humanresource development they have excellent achievements. Contd.
  40. 40. CHAPTER 1 Factors contributing to the success of Singaporean Skills – development system.•The linkage between Skills Development and economicdevelopment.•The EDB’s Evolving model of Technology Transfer,Foreign Investment and Skills Development•Skills Development Fund•Long term skills Development Education Policy. contd..
  41. 41. CHAPTER 1 Skills Development Fund•SDF is the institution that has been touted as model for othercountries.•Employers have to contribute 1% of the gross salary of eachemployee earning less than 1000 Singapore dollars /month to theSDF.•Companies can get upto 80% of its contribution back if they apply tothe SDF for grants for training and skills enhancement.•It is a way to induce companies to continuously invest in skills upgradation and it penalizes companies which persists in using low-skilled-workers in low-value-added operations by increasing theirlabor costs. Contd.
  42. 42. CHAPTER 1•The employers who submit a Total Training Plan affecting atleast50% of their work force would be awarded with higher grants andsubsidies from the SDF.•Grants are typically awarded to companies to use the funds fortraining programs necessary to enhance the expertise of theworkers.•The objective of the training program should be consistent withSingapore’s new economic strategy and direction.•Special incentives are provided to companies to train olderworkers aged 40 and above, to train women to get back toworkforce, for basic education etc.•On both education and training dimensions or national humanresource development Singapore’s achievements are excellent.
  43. 43. CHAPTER 1 The United States Training Scene•The Training and educational systems of Germany and Japan arefar more consistent than that of USA.•In USA company sponsored training focuses on managers andtechnicians; the quality tends to vary widely.•Germany is best known for its outstanding apprenticeship program.•On the other hand while comparing USA’s training scene withJapan .it is found that Japan boasts having one of the best primaryand secondary educational systems in the world.•Once employed Japanese workers receive extensive ongoing ,company sponsored training.•Workers in Japanese automobile plants average 90 hours oftraining whereas workers in US Automobile plants average about 30hrs of training annually. Contd..
  44. 44. CHAPTER 1•Canada’s training and education system is quite similar to US.•Primary , secondary as well as vocational education systemvaries greatly in terms of quality . Companyies provide as muchas half of training that is given in US.•Compared to USA in Korea though there is a strong primary andsecondary school system as well as vocational education , butcompany sponsored training programs are scarce and poor inquality.•Thus we see that in US training and education programs can beimproved to have more effectiveness to greatly affect country’sability to compete globally.
  45. 45. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene•Employers in Japan are well regarded for their significant andlong term commitment to developing skills of their workersperhaps more than any other industrialized nation.•Employee development is the key factor in Japan’s economicadvantage over US and other countries.•In spite of a lengthy economic recession a decade later Japan’scommitment to worker training remained unshaken and superiorto practices elsewhere.•Skill development remains at the very heart of Japanesebusiness. Contd.
  46. 46. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene, ExpendituresJapanese respondents reported a slower rate of growth in trainingexpenditure.Training investment figures are significantly lower in almost all majorrespects than those from other regions as shown: Japan Canada Europe US Training expenditure $390 $530 $960 $650 per employee. Training expenditure 1% 1.5% 3% 1.8% as a percentage of pay roll.
  47. 47. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene, Non- financial measuresIn this there are significant differences between Japanese participants andthose in other countries. Japan Canada Europe US Average employee 1700:1 <400:1 <400:1 400:1 to trainer ratio Percentage of 45% 69% 69% 75% employees received training in 2000 .
  48. 48. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene, Delivery , Evaluation and Resources•Training in Japan is evaluated and delivered differently.•All regions reported that most training was delivered in aninstructor –led classroom, 10% of training used a variety of learningtechnologies. The comparable percentage of classes delivered vialearning technologies in Japan was just 1%.•Japanese organizations were less likely to use evaluation methodsother than Kirkpatrick’s level1 ( reaction) evaluations.•Resources•The distribution of training costs, such as wages and salaries ofthe training staff and tuition reimbursements, was similar to that inother regions. Japanese expenditures on outside providers werealso in line with other regions, at just under one third of the total.
  49. 49. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene : Innovative practices•Japanese employers use innovative training and work practicessimilar to others around the globe.•The number of Japanese organizations providing : Apprenticeship programs Coaching programs Training information systems Employee involvement Access to key business information is very similar to those in otherregions.•In other aspects of workspace learning and performance Japanesefirms led much of the world.•Japanese firms compensated employees on the basis of overallorganizational performance . They practice gain sharing, profitsharing .•Employee stock ownership plans were twice as common in Japan.
  50. 50. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene: Cultural due diligence•Data says that the training methods in Japan are quite differentfrom those in rest of the world.•The apparent direction of disparity between Japan and othercountries is surprising. Being the recognized world leader inworkplace training and development it is anticipated that most ofthe measures would be higher – not lower than those of othercountries.•The true nature of unique training system that prevails in Japandepends on the some important ways that may affect directcomparison. They are 1) Lifetime employment. 2) A holistic approach to Development. 3) The Technology Angle. Contd..
  51. 51. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene, Lifetime Employment•Japanese companies place great importance on the concept oflifetime employment.•On entering work Japanese workers must evaluate their employerscarefully as they get few opportunities to work elsewhere.•Lifetime employment creates a unique context for the skilldevelopment and learning opportunities.•Employers in Japan do not have to worry making substantialinvestments in employees who might walk out before they recoupthe cost.•Japanese firms take a long term approach to developing theiremployees.
  52. 52. CHAPTER 1Japanese Training Scene; A Holistic Approach to Development•Japanese firms provide a full development process which alsoincludes short training events .•Employee learning in Japan can either be planned or unplanned ,formal or informal.•They can be further subdivided into on the job or off the jobleaning.•Off-the-job formal learning is called training which is classroombased, instructor – led.•The three primary ways of employee learning in Japanese firmsare Off-the-job formal learning On-the-job informal learning Off-the-job informal learning. Contd.
  53. 53. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene, A Holistic Approach to Development•Most of what US employees learn occurs informally during activitiesas team and customer interactions,meetings, cross-training and shiftchanges.•Employees of Japanese firms obtain much of their learninginformally, their proportion is substantially smaller than that of USfigured at 90%.•Sizable % of Japanese worker training happens as formal,structured , on the job learning. This is missing from US.•According to 1998 Measurement Kit following is the statistics ofJapanese employment training.: –Informal 40% , Formal on- the- job learning 39% and Formal off- the – job learning 21%
  54. 54. CHAPTER 1 Japanese Training Scene, The Technology Angle•Japanese firms differ from others in their use of learning technologies todeliver training.•Japanese firms engage in the use of non-electronic, self paced deliverymethods more frequently•Most distance learning in Japan occurs through the mail ( correspondencecourses) rather than online.•They rely less on learning technologies than rest of the world.• Small amount of formal off-the-job training in Japan creates feweropportunities to use learning technologies like IT training.• In Japan the use of In US the use of CD-ROM is 24% CD-ROM is 49 E-mail is 25% E-mail is 34% Company internet 8% Company internet 24%
  55. 55. CHAPTER 1•Strategies for Effective Human ResourceTraining and Development in 21st. Century•The main focus is how to link HR with business strategies.•The corporate training must be understood in terms of paradigmshift that is taking place in Indian Industry.•Three factors have added new dimension to the need for trainingin all industries , they are 1) Liberalization 2) Imbalance in demand and supply of professional talent 3) Growing expectation of employees regarding their professional and personal development. •Training is an effort into immediate position while development is an effort directed towards growth.
  56. 56. CHAPTER 1 Classifying Employees for trainingBCG matrix can be applied to human resource portfolio.The two by two grid gives four types of employees.1) Dead Wood: Employees in this category are incompetent, unsatisfactoryand wholly unsuitable occupants of their present positions; have lowpotential for growth.2) Work horses: These people have reached their peak of performance inthe light of definitely limited capacity.3)Stars: These are people of high potential who are performing at thehighest quadrant of the potential.4) Problem Children:These people have great potential and genuinecapacities but are working below that capacity or only with mixed results.Sometimes they divert their energy to make mischief and misuse theirtalents.
  57. 57. CHAPTER 1A Model for creating a Training and Development Strategy M Values and beliefs in Maintaining i people development care Mission s competenci ,vision, values s es & long term i goals o n SPECIFIC DRIVERS SPECIFIC , (REACTIVE) DRIVERS PROACTIVE v i s Training & Development Operational i Strategy issues Business strategies o Individual needs n Business Goals Term needs Organization and v External man power plans a Belief Policies changes l Change initiative u e s a n
  58. 58. CHAPTER 1 A Model for creating a Training and Development StrategyThe principle of the model is simple and there are three categories of thebusiness factors that our strategies should contain.The 1st set of drivers are more or less permanent for the organization.First will be the mission , vision and the values of the organization.Secondly there will be set of values relating specifically to peopledevelopment.Thirdly there is a need to maintain and enhance the core competencies ofthe organization. Contd.
  59. 59. CHAPTER 1 A Model for creating a Training and Development StrategyThough many organizations could not explain their strategy but wouldproduce various documents describing thing that they do in HRD.The information required for making personal plan s is required to a greatextent for the training plan.The next step in the training process is analyzing training needs,This is done at organizational, group and individual levels.A number of different methods and models conducting needs analysishave evolved over time.All these process gives the gap between demand and the supply.
  60. 60. CHAPTER 1A Model for creating a Training and Development Strategy –Assessment methodsTraining needs may be analyzed by the following assessmentmethods1) Observation2) Consultation key3) Print media4) Study of job description / specification5) Appointing external consultants6) Performance appraisals7) Special questionnaire/ surveys8) Skill gap analysis, or9) Interviews with supervisors /peers10) Self assessmentThe methods chosen differ with the level of need assessment, that iswhether it is at the organizational level, group level or individual level.
  61. 61. CHAPTER 1 Issues involved with Training Needs Assessment1) Determining felt needs Vs real needs.2) Balancing organizational needs with the individual needs.3) Reducing individual anxiety about being evaluated- overcomingreluctance.4) Establishing a two way communication in tradionally one – waycommunication.5) Shielding top management from unpleasant data and shieldingemployees from hidden concerns of top management.6) Erroneous interpretation of surveys results.7) Ethics for probing for personal information about attitudes andpersonal goals.8) Extra time required to collect additional data required to designprogram; Contd.
  62. 62. CHAPTER 1The next step is the selection of trainees which must have a strategy.To determine the obvious target group.All training cannot be important in one go and it is generally spreadover a time often stretching a long period on a rolling plan basis.An important variable for success of training activity is the motivationof the trainee to acquire skills , knowledge and abilities.Motivation can be related to rewards, succession plan and promotion.
  63. 63. CHAPTER 1 BenchmarkingBenchmarking with the other organizations will be a valuable exercise andcan be done on number of fronts:How do we compare in terms of our beliefs and philosophies?How do we compare in terms of efficiency?How well do we link our activities into the business priorities?How do we compare in terms of achievement of key goals?Some other question might cover:Level of involvement in strategy.Methodologies for linking business goals to learning goalsThe value placed on training as a support of business change.Beliefs and principles. Contd.
  64. 64. CHAPTER 1Needs Analysis process.Line manager involvement.Range of learning methods used.Uses of accreditation and management education.Roles and skills in HRD staff.Evaluation methods and resultsOrganizational learning and knowledge management.All bench marking should have clear focussed objectives so that it does notresult in masses of data that cannot lead to much action.Where should we carry our activities?There are two options:Own premises.External facilities. Contd…
  65. 65. CHAPTER 1 Own premisesPremises cost - rent or ownership cost, utilities, servicesEquipment purchases and depreciation.Catering costs.Travel for company delegates.Extent of subsidy obtainable through external revenues by allowingothers to use the facility.Facilities management cost and time.
  66. 66. CHAPTER 1 External FacilitiesDelegates day rate including all –in room hire and meals.Special equipment hireTravel for company delegatesTravel and accommodation for training staff.As every organizations situation will be different ,one cannot predict anygeneral outcome of such calculationsFor large amount of standard training, economics will likely swing infavor of ‘dedicated site.’Standard training course is not very effective way of learning.The HRDM needs to have a overall control of the resource to have theright balance.A good cost comparison brings in the necessary factors.The way to do itis to zero- base all the training that is done.
  67. 67. CHAPTER 1 Funding StrategiesMoney is the most critical resource needed. Money can be resourcedfrominternally from the organization .externally from bodies with funds.It can also be procured from external revenue generating activities frominternal resources.External revenue can come from: Letting out facilities – utilizing spare capacities and maximizing the return on mixed costs. Selling places on internal training courses – this is commonly done on technical courses,or routine skill courses or whenever open discussion on the organization is needed. Contd.
  68. 68. CHAPTER 1Providing external client consultancy – Utilizing spare capacity of learningconsultants or trainers on external client opportunities.Licensing training methodologies or selling materials – where these are notdeemed to be of competitive advantage.Providing HRD services to other organizations – ‘in sourcing’ – utilisingfixed costs and resource to provide service to other organization as well asthe home base.
  69. 69. CHAPTER 1 Should any of HRD be outsourced?Some organizations have a general policy of not investing management timeand effort in anything other than their core business. Then the HRD activityis given totally to the service provider and monitored against performancecriteria.The arguments on each side in respect of HRD department are: FOR AgainstReduced direct overhead cost. Lack of commitment toReduced management attention. Organizational goalsAbility to control Lack of long term ownershipcriteria.Ability of wider range of skills Degrees of freedom incontrolling performance. Risk in lack of continuity of key skills.
  70. 70. CHAPTER 1 Different methods of training adopted by trainers.The most popular method is lecture method as it is easiest in the longrun.Case studies, buzz groups , brainstorming , business games simulationetc requires innovation and is usually adopted from other countries.Computer based training (CBT) and internet based training are fairlyclose to program learning and goes at its own pace and moves fromone step to the other. It uses computers, videodiscs, floppy, touchscreens, browsing the net etc.Simulation programs can also be developed in case of maintenance ,planning , process work, sales and marketing.Training can be conducted on–the-job or off-the-job. The off-the-job canbe in house or external training. Contd..
  71. 71. CHAPTER 1The on-the-job training is through counseling ,coaching and guidanceand has more advantages than other methods.This shapes the attitudeto machine, materials procedures etc.Culture of coaching and guiding isimportant by the superiors who are held accountable for thedevelopment of the subordinates.In case of in-house off-the –job training. Trainers can be insiders,outsider or a combination. The advantages of having as faculty are: They can relate to the company situation far better they develop faith in training being a part of it ,and The preparation and actual instruction contributes to self development The major requirement is to teach company employees methods of training to make their efforts effective.
  72. 72. CHAPTER 1 Strategies for Business Process Outsourcing trainingOutsourcing the entire training function is a huge change that when handledproperly can yield improved services and decreased costs.Due to economic pressure companies are turning to total outsourcing of HRfunctions.Training is a perfect candidate for BPO as a function , as it is administrativeand it is not seen as a revenue producer.Outsourcing all training means comprehensive , end-to-end outsourcing ofthe management function to the design ,delivery and reporting.The success of outsourcing will depend on company’s motivation, itsindustry, the type of training and how the process is managed. Contd.
  73. 73. CHAPTER 1 The Benefits:Produce Cost Savings:The potential for cost saving is the initial reason formost companies opting for outsourcing.This cost reduction is throughconsolidation of services,reengineering of processes, automation ofadministration and delivery etc.By outsourcing training companies can save30 to 40 % of their training costs.Deliver high quality, efficient services and products:By outsourcing trainingcompanies can focus resources on improving their products.Provide cutting-edge technology:Another benefit of this narrow focus is thatthe BPO provider stays on the cutting edge.Expand global training capabilities.One reason is the access to globaldistribution and call centre services 24/5. It also helps to quickly respond tonew markets in new countries and meet language requirements. Contd..
  74. 74. CHAPTER 1 Who should outsource?According to the Institute of Public Enterprise(IPE), some companies arebetter suited to outsourcing than others.Currently non durable –goods manufacturers such as food processing ,chemicals and plastics companies are outsourcing training mostoften.Financial and insurance companies are outsourcing training the least.Industries with a lot of compliance training are prime candidates foroutsourcing; examples pharmaceuticals and technology manufacturingCompanies in highly cyclical industries such as high tech consideroutsourcing because in house training makes it difficult to respond toeconomic conditions.Companies with a lot of industry –generic training like safety training aregreat opportunity for outsourcing.Companies with a high degree of proprietary content in their training ortraining that is very customized to the learners are not good targets foroutsourcing services. Contd..
  75. 75. CHAPTER 1Another deciding factor may be the target audience.Sometimes outsources are educating not only employees but customers as well.Performing a cost-benefit analysis helps to decide whether outsourcingis right for the company. This is done by considering long term andshort term costs of continuing to provide in-house training solutions vsusing a outside firm.It is important to make the right choice as it is nearly impossible tobring training back in-house.
  76. 76. CHAPTER 1 The Marriage:Experts differ as to whether it is better to partner with an outsourcing companythat specializes in training or one with which you can bundle the rest of the HRfunctions.Today the trend is to bundle many of the human resources functions together (including training)and outsource them to a single provider.There is a fundamental difference between HR outsourcing and learningoutsourcing. Hr outsourcing tends to focus on transactional processing suchas payroll and HRIS.Outsourcing the training function is more than just outsourcing transactionaltasks. Training concerns the intellectual value of a company.Making the right decision is imperative as contracts typically last for five to tenyears. And it can be difficult to change partners.The vendor must have experience in your requirements; and needs to possessthe necessary technical and technological capabilities.Company and outsource employees will be working side by side for years.It is important to look for a partner with appropriate course ware, size and infrastructure to support training needs effectively.Given the relative immaturity of the learning BPO industry ,extensive client
  77. 77. CHAPTER 1 HR’s new strategic role:Outsourcing the training function dramatically changes th HR department,this change is for the better.Training roles will be more strategic. There willbe partner management role, or a liaison to the outsourcing company.It helps the HR executive to focus on strategic activities and curriculumdesign, To drive and define what type of learning and skill set employeesneed to be successful and ask the outsource partner to create suitablelearning products.The success indicator is when employees do not realize training has beencompletely outsourced.The goal is to deliver high quality training at a reasonable price without losingthe personal touch of in-house training.The need is to pay attention to the trend of outsourcing training; to look waysto improve your value and decrease costs.
  78. 78. CHAPTER 1 Core competencies: From training for functional skills to learning in Indian OrganizationAbstract:Most current human resource development approaches and techniques areunsuitable for developing core competencies of knowledge workers incompetitive firms today.In today’s knowledge organization the traditional model of expertisedevelopment is challenged and the new directions are presented.IPE presents a framework of decision-making in firms for the developmentof the employees from entry level skills to functional skills, and from there tocross-functional and integrative and creative competencies.Indian Organizations are yet to recognize the creative and durablecontribution of knowledge workers and invest in them as a matter ofstrategic concern for business.
  79. 79. CHAPTER 1 Learning through experience :Learning occurs in both deliberative and incidental modes.The performance of a task often results in incidental learningthat has itseffect in and beyond the immediate learning environment.Exploring how learning may occur without intention , and awareness is ofgreat relevance to understanding the process of learning tacit knowledge;which have implication for on-the-job training and mentoring programmes.An important part of many skills is sequencing of ordering stimuli andresponses.Due to the importance of human performance ,the manner and the extent towhich sequential structure is learned has been a focus of much research.Most recent investigations of sequence learning have been carried out usingchoice-reaction tasks in which a single stimulus is presented in each trial,andthe task is to make an assigned response based on the identity of thatstimulus. Contd..
  80. 80. CHAPTER 1The most basic finding is a larger practice effect for repeated stimulussequences as compared to stimuli presented in random order- even thoughthe performers are not told of the existence of the sequence or to try ro usesequential constraints among stimuli.Although the sequence learning exhibited in choice reaction tasks appearsto occur in the absence of instruction to look for or use sequentialconstraints,this does not mean that the performer is unaware of what hadbeen learned.To determine whether knowledge that is evident in implicit measures oflearning derived from task performance are also evident in explicit measuresof learning obtained from tests of conscious recollection.To evaluate better whether awareness of the sequence is necessaryrequirement for obtaining the performance benefit of the repeated sequence,experiments were carried on patients suffering from amnesia . The resultsindicated such learning can occur without awareness.
  81. 81. CHAPTER 1 Expertise and knowledge creationWhile expertise draws on knowledge on one hand , it creates knowledge onthe other hand.Explicit knowledge or coded knowledge ,as a body of organized informationcan be understood at three levels. These are:Shallow level ( presenting data in a organized order to provideinformation in response to the question ‘what is out there?’)Deeper level of understanding ( information is organized to deal with thequestion ‘why?’: this looks for explanation of phenomena. The analysis ofinformation deals with reasoning, cause-effect analysis,existing knowledge)Further deeper ,one examines “how’ such analysis was made and paysattention to reliability ,validity and tenability of explanations by replicating theanalysis previously undertaken.Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995) addressed the issue of tacit vs coded knowledgeand raised the importance of tacit knowledge in human endeavours. Contd…
  82. 82. CHAPTER 1They observed tacit knowledge as experiential, practical and simultaneous andtherefore’ subjective’ compared to ‘objective’ explicit or coded knowledge.Complementary relations between two types of knowledge exists and a modelof knowledge conversion is based on ‘social’ interaction between tacit andcoded knowledge.Nonaka & Takeuchi postulated four different models of knowledge conversion.:1.Socialization:Where experiences create knowledge.2,Externalization: A process of articulating tacit knowledge to explicit concepts.Typically concept creation is triggered by dialogue or collective reflection.3.Combination: A process of systemizing concepts into knowledge system.Individuals exchange and combine knowledge through documents,meetings way of sorting,categorizing etc. Leading to new knowledge. This takes placein formal education and training.4.Internalization: A process embodying explicit knowledge into tacitknowledge, closely related to learning by doing. Contd..
  83. 83. CHAPTER 1The role of organization in the process of organization knowledge creationis to provide the proper context for facilitating group activities as well as thecreation and accumulation of knowledge at the individual level.The essence lies in developing the organizational capability toacquire,create ,accumulate and exploit knowledge which can berepresented as a knowledge spiral which shows circular movement betweenthe fur modes of knowledge conversion.This is done by the way of linking explicit knowledge ,learning by doing,fieldbuilding and dialogue.The most critical element of corporate strategy is to conceptualize a visualabout what kind of knowledge should be developed and to operationalize itinto a management system for implementation. Contd.
  84. 84. CHAPTER 1Training is a line management responsibility.The immediate superior at any level in an organization exercises far morepotent influence,for good or ill, upon the development of his subordinates.It is he who dispenses rewards and punishments, provides patterns ofleadership, creates the climate within the working group and structuresthe tasks necessary to accomplish objectives.He is the one who can recognize the need for specialist advice.In future the training officer will become much more of an internalconsultant to management.The trainer will act as a catalyst adviser to the working group,for hisqualities of judgment and insight as of his specialized knowledge oftraining techniques. Contd..
  85. 85. CHAPTER 1There should be a conscious determination to involve managers atevery stage in the training process and encourage them to implementtheir training responsibilities as an integral part of their managementof the people.There is no substitute for a challenging job – one which fully extendsa managers capabilities and provide him with the opportunities todevelop himself.It is the boss’s responsibility to grasp the opportunities . A persistentencouragement of self help and self reliance on the part of themanagers is needed.
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