Introduction to Financial Accounting

2,553 views

Published on

Financial accounting is the process of Accounting all incomes, expenses, assets & liabilities in monetary terms, thus enabling preparation of principal financial statements. This first lesson as a part of Financial Accounting is brought to you by Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division.

For more such innovative content on management studies, join WeSchool PGDM-DLP Program: http://bit.ly/SlideshareFaccounting

Join us on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/welearnindia
Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WeLearnIndia
Read our latest blog at: http://welearnindia.wordpress.com
Subscribe to our Slideshare Channel: http://www.slideshare.net/welingkarDLP

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,553
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
188
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introduction to Financial Accounting

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Financial Accounting CHAPTER-1. Introduction to Financial Accounting We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Importance Accounting all incomes, expenses, assets & liabilities in monetary terms is the sole determinant of all economic activities of all businesses, industry, trade ,commerce as well as software giants, media and even NGOs like CRY or Lijjat Papad.
  3. 3. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Importance Accounting helps recording all financial transactions thus enabling preparation of these principal financial statements: - Trial Balance - Profit & Loss Account - Balance Sheet - Cash Flow Statement
  4. 4. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Importance Several segments of the Society called Stakeholders need to use Financial Statements. Shareholders Investment Advisors Creditors Investment Analysts Suppliers, Vendors Workers, Employees Local, State, Central Researchers Governments Students of Finance
  5. 5. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Limitations £ Reflects and records only monetary values of all transactions and hence quantitative measurements; hence qualitative aspects are ignored. £ On account of inflation value of rupee fluctuates and decreases; but no adjustments made in the accounts.
  6. 6. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Scope A financial accounting system provides summarized and categorized information about the company’s performance and state of affairs mainly for external decision makers.
  7. 7. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Scope A financial accounting system provides summarized and categorized information about the company’s performance and state of affairs mainly for external decision makers, allowing them to answer questions: $ Is the company earning satisfactory income? $ How does the company compare in size and profitability with competitors? $ Will the company be able to pay its debts when they become due?
  8. 8. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 GAAP Financial accounting is governed by rules or guidelines collectively called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
  9. 9. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 GAAP Financial accounting is governed by rules or guidelines collectively called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). - many of these are mandatory by law of the country.
  10. 10. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 GAAP Financial accounting is governed by rules or guidelines collectively called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). - many of these are mandatory by law of the country. - those that are not mandatory, have considerable persuasive force.
  11. 11. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 GAAP Financial accounting is governed by rules or guidelines collectively called Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). - many of these are mandatory by law of the country. - those that are not mandatory, have considerable persuasive force. - primary agency responsible for GAAP in India, is the Standards Board of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.
  12. 12. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept “ An accounting entity is a separate and distinct unit, standing apart from its owners & shareholders”.
  13. 13. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept “ An accounting entity is a separate and distinct unit, standing apart from its owners & shareholders”. Hence : $ Share Capital and reserves of the company ( really belonging to owners) are shown under liabilities.
  14. 14. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept “ An accounting entity is a separate and distinct unit, standing apart from its owners & shareholders”. Hence : $ Share Capital and reserves of the company ( really belonging to owners) are shown under liabilities. $ Losses are shown under assets ( because they represent what owners owe the business).
  15. 15. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept Є Reliability Principle “ accounting records and statements must be based on the most objective data available” - hence importance of bills, invoices, vouchers during audit.
  16. 16. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept Є Reliability Principle Є Historical Cost Concept “ acquired assets, inventories and services are recorded at their actual costs.” - Hence current market value not considered.
  17. 17. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept Є Reliability Principle Є Historical Cost Concept Є Going Concern Concept “assumes that the accounting entity will continue in the foreseeable future” - hence fixed assets held by the business are always shown at actual cost less accumulated depreciation.
  18. 18. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept Є Reliability Principle Є Historical Cost Concept Є Going Concern Concept Є Stable Monetary Unit Concept “ business transactions are recorded in terms of single currency (rupees in India) , and no adjustment is made for inflation”
  19. 19. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept Є Reliability Principle Є Historical Cost Concept Є Going Concern Concept Є Stable Monetary Unit Concept Є Full Disclosure Principle “ all circumstances and events that are likely to make a difference to users of the financial statements must be disclosed”.
  20. 20. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept Є Reliability Principle Є Historical Cost Concept Є Going Concern Concept Є Stable Monetary Unit Concept Є Full Disclosure Principle Є Materiality “ The constraint of determining whether an item is large enough to likely influence a decision”.
  21. 21. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 Concepts Є Entity Concept Є Reliability Principle Є Historical Cost Concept Є Going Concern Concept Є Stable Monetary Unit Concept Є Full Disclosure Principle Є Materiality Є Conservatism “ The constraint of determining whether an item is large enough to likely influence a decision”. “ In addition to these principles, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has issued 28 accounting standards for compliance with varying degrees of legal compulsion”
  22. 22. Financial Accounting Introduction to Financial Accounting Chapter 01 “ The importance of accounting is that it is the universal language of business, and a basic understanding of it is necessary for almost any job in the business world!”

×