Human Resource Management Training and Development Strategies


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Training if effectively managed achieves aims and objectives of an organization, it’s important to understand on how effective human resource training generates a positive impact in your effective production. In these set of slides bought to you by Welingkar’s distance learning division, we go through the importance of the effectiveness in HR training and Development Strategy.

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Human Resource Management Training and Development Strategies

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division CHAPTER-01 Effective Human Resource Training and Development Strategy We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training an Overview • Training if effectively managed achieves aims and objectives of an organization. • Training is always job orientated for the development of the general culture of the company. • Training is a process to improve aptitude skills and abilities of the employees to perform specific jobs. • Due to rapid growth in technology fields there is a great need for training for updating skills of employees. • To respond effectively to competition from rival business organization in house training is given to keep abreast with latest development in their field. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  3. 3. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Present day role of training. • Now a days training is a crucial element , a sound basis for modern day management at the micro level. It has an extensive role in – a) enhancing productivity. b) improving organizational functions. At macro level it serves as an important agency to contribute to the economic and social progress of the country thus creating a need for large scale organized efforts to develop technical and enterprising skills in youth to make them productive units of society. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  4. 4. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division What is the need for Training of Personnel? • Continuous management training is required to build up a strong effective , motivated and dedicated managerial cadre. • In PEs training must shape the managers to understand the requirement of the employers in terms of organization and personal growth. • It is essential for gaining competitive edge. • For imparting diverse skills and performance management abilities to managers for effectiveness of business activities. • For enhancement of emotional and intelligent quotient in managers. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  5. 5. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division TRAINING-SIGNIFICANT MEANINGS ATTRIBUTED TO EACH LETTER OF THE WORD. T : -Talent and tenacity N:- Novelties R:- Reinforcement I ;- Intensity A:- Awareness N:- Nurturing I:- Interest G:- Grip A growing organization The gap between performance of must be in tune with the organization and the changing the changing needs of needs of the society can be the society. reduced through proper training of the employees by increasing their knowledge, skill, ability and attitude.We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  6. 6. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Definitions of training • Training is defined to be a organized activity involving systematic procedures for transferring technical know how to the employees for increasing the knowledge and skills of the people for a definite purpose. • Definition by Edwin B Flippo. The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained to enable them to do their jobs better. It is equally necessary for the new as well as the old employees. Training is a continuous process to bring a positive change in 1) Knowledge 2) Skills 3) Attitude Of the workers Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  7. 7. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • John P. Jkenny and others (1979) defined training to help out an individual to learn how to carry out his present job satisfactorily. • Edger H. Schein defined management development as a how an organization brings a change in an individual in a direction which organization regards to be in his own and organization’s best interests. Most importantly various training programs try to influence the managerial attitudes. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  8. 8. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division SCOPE OF TRAINING • Lately the scope and application of training has widened to include positive behavioral changes, developing life skills leading to personal growth that helps to cope with day to day problems of living and manage interpersonal relations, and interpersonal effectiveness We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  9. 9. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division OBJECTIVES • Defining training objectives is a pre requisite of any training program. • They may vary according to the requirements of a particular situation • Objectives of any training program should indicate that at the end of training whatever knowledge , skills and attitudes that have been identified as necessary for effective work performance should be achieved • In complex subject like management it is not easy to define training objectives in terms of performance measurable terms of specific objectives. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  10. 10. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Training objectives determine the details of design and provision which must include the people who design and provide training and the methods and locations that might be used in practice. • Systematic methods are evolved for increasing the new employees knowledge and developing his skills and also giving core-training of its existing employees. • Objectives are statement of intent written in clear ,specific and precise terms which specify what learners will be able to do at the end of each stage of learning process. • Objectives are essential for validating the training. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  11. 11. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Three elements of training objectives 1) Outcomes: This is the observable behavior required at the end of training. 2) Conditions : These are circumstances in which the outcomes should take place 3) Standards: The expected level of attainment in terms of quality, accuracy , quantity or whatever is relevant to the job. 4) p.s. Objectives should always be written to avoid mental manipulation. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  12. 12. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Systematic Assessment of Training (SAT) It defines training objectives as one system and the assessment of learning achievement and training effectiveness as another being totally interdependent. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  13. 13. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Setting out the program objectives This includes the following modules: Understanding Program Objectives. • Program objectives are broad statement of intent, action and outcomes which are the end result of the training. • Learning Objectives express learning expected from a specific training activity, event or module. • Program objectives are the aggregate of learning outcomes. • There are three broad areas of learning associated with program objectives which reflects the changes that can come about in an individual as a result of training. They are :- We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  14. 14. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division APPROACHES Cognitive Learning: Focusing on acquisition of information and knowledge, including concepts ,theories and principles etc. Behavioral Learning: Developing competencies required for the actual performance of the job. Affective Learning: Also aimed at enhancing job performance by fostering appropriate attitudes and values. By helping individuals in better management of feelings, emotions and reactions to situations and people. These three area are interrelated resulting in all round development of an individual. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  15. 15. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Need for setting Program Objectives The need for setting program objectives are listed as follows: a) Provide Direction to the Program Objectives define the direction of the program and indicate areas of emphasis. b) Serve as a basis of Evaluation. Objectives facilitates the process of setting standards of performance for the training team. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  16. 16. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division c) A Tool for Meeting Participants’ Training Needs Objectives assist the participants in establishing their personal learning objectives. d) Define Limits for the Program Objectives also set out parameters for the programs, the can do and cannot do’s. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  17. 17. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Establishing program objectives-Consideration and guidelines. Program objectives are established on the training needs. which needs to be identified. using appropriate methodology sound procedures and principles .Some of the points to keep in mind: Program Objectives are Set Out from the Learner’s Perspective: The primary aim is to inform the participants of the learning they should expect to receive from the program. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  18. 18. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Sample Program Objectives Training Program: Leadership and its Development At the end of the training program the participants will be able to : • Discuss and analyze the concept of and dynamics of leadership and examine its application to the situation in their respective organizations. • Illustrate various theories and models of leadership and appraise their relevance and validity to their job. • Become aware of their leadership style and recognize the need for bringing about changes in accordance with the requirements of the job and the organization. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  19. 19. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training and education – As Approaches to Learning The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. • Training and development must contain an element of education. • For this purpose organizations depute and encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis in Institute of Public Enterprise, Business schools etc. • Education is more important for managers and executives than for lower cadre workers. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  20. 20. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Defining Training and Development • Flippo defined training as the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job and prepare himself for higher level job. • Training imparts the ability to detect and correct error. • It provides skills and abilities that may be called on in the future to satisfy the organization’s human resource needs. • It may be carried out on the job off site or on site. • It may be given in a simulated environment that is similar to work environment in important respects. • Trainees are expected to acquire abilities and knowledge that will enable them to do their job more effectively. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  21. 21. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Some Key Attributes of Training and Education We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum Training Education Though training is concerned with the future of an individual , his past and present provide a crucial frame of reference. Education is mainly directed towards the future of an individual and any reference to his past and present state is incidental. The scope of training is limited, determined by training objectives. It is specific and highly structured. It has relatively short term perspective of the future of the individual. Education is not targeted towards specific behavior. So it lacks the specificity of training. Education has a long term perspective of an individual’s life.
  22. 22. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Some Key Attributes of Training and Education We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum Training Education Transfer of learning can be monitored and assessed. The organization and even the training agencies can exercise greater control on the process. Difficult to monitor how the learning acquired by the individual is used by the individual. The educational institute has virtually no control over the situation and the circumstances of the individual. Training has less emphasis on ideology and social values ,societal forces play a far less significant role than they do in education. Education is firmly rooted in the culture of the society. Its key concern is the inculcation of socially accepted values in an individual.
  23. 23. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Some Key Attributes of Training and Education We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum Training Education Social institutions like state , family and the community play an important role in the education of an individual. In training the group comes together for a specific purpose and disperses after the program objectives are assumed to have been achieved. In education, the group is more enduring and there is sustained interaction over a long period of time.
  24. 24. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training VS Development • Training is often referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. • Development in contrast is more general and more oriented to individual needs as well as organizational needs often aimed towards management people. • Development is to provide knowledge and understanding to people to carry out functions such as problem solving , decision making related to people. • Training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers. • Training improves specific skill whereas development aims in improving total personality of an individual. • Training is a one shot deal whereas development is a continuous process. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  25. 25. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Training is the result of some outside motivation whereas development is the result of inside motivation • Training seeks to meet the current requirement of the job, it is a reaction process whereas development is a proactive process. Learning Training Development Dimensions Who Non managers managers What Technical mechanical Theoretical operations conceptual ideas Why Specific job related General knowledge information When Short term long term We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  26. 26. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Triggers of Training Training programs is a stimulating process and should take off with enthusiastic participation. Some example of triggering are: 1) CEOs initiative with a ceremony for introduction of new technology. 2) HRD document with mission policy and action plan 3) An incentive for fast learners 4) A letter from the CEO on the subject to employees 5) Publicity for skilled persons 6) Shram Shakti awards 7) Unveiling career plan for the newly trained people or new skill base. 8) Threat of lateral recruitment instead of internal promotions for higher posts We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  27. 27. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Benefits of training Training offers innumerable benefits both to employees and employers. Tips for Trainees on how to benefit from business seminars. • Plan your schedule ahead of time • Make sure what your company would like you to learn from the seminar. • Learn about the proper attire for the seminar • Network at the seminar. Bring business cards • Meet people before each session and break the ice by making useful conversation. Introduce yourself to the presenter. • Bring back information to the company by either making a oral presentation or written report We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  28. 28. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Benefits of training to a company The major benefits are: 1) Increased productivity 2) Improved morale 3) Reduced supervision 4) Reduced accidents 5) Increase organizational stability We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  29. 29. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Benefits of Training to the employee • Training makes employee more useful hence he will find employment more easily. • Training makes employee s more efficient and effective. • Training helps them to secure promotions easily and realize their career goals. • Training helps an employee to move from one company to the other easily. He can be more mobile and pursue career goals easily. • Employees can avoid mistakes, accidents on the job thus handle job with more confidence, be more satisfied and would have high morale. • It helps employees to cope with organizational , social and technological change. It is an invaluable investment in human resource of an organization. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  30. 30. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Benefits of Training to the Business • Wastage is eliminated to a large extent as workers work more effectively. • There are fewer accidents. As trained workers have improved knowledge of use and handling of machines. • Workers turn out better quality goods • Training makes workers more loyal to the organization as they will have more growth opportunities. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  31. 31. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Current Training and Development Practices, National Perspective • World bank has given a warning signal that by the turn of this century India will have nearly three fourth of world’s illiterate population. We have to convert this human resource as an asset through formal, informal and non formal education involving training and retraining. • On analysis of the present day training programs in the country are quite inadequate. Public sectors have training programs with employee development approach whereas private sectors have only development of the organization in mind. • Though most of the Public Sectors have taken up HRD in a big way but so far private sectors have been having half hearted efforts so far. Recent globalization and new economic policies have brought changes , they are also opening up training centers, even universities. Contd... We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  32. 32. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • The essence of training is to meet the future requirement of the organization where as development helps the individual to handle future responsibilities other than the concerns of the present job. • The concept of HRD is already established in successful organizations in the form of HR planning, recruitment and selection, training and development personnel and administrative policies, planning and implementation , career counseling, industrial relation etc. These are managed by the professionals in HR from a holistic viewpoint, throwing up creative solutions which were previously not thought of. • Today’s tragic truth is the rapid rate of obsolescence of skills. Thus retraining and development of millions of workers for alternative careers is a crucial area. Training is essential both to workers and supervisors and managers to improve their skills and performance. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  33. 33. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • The shift from planned economy to market economy has raised consumerism and up gradation of technology. • Introduction to computers needed retraining and redeployment of employees. • The New Industrial policy of 1991 brought about many structural changes. The Indian economy has switched from domestic to global market. • To have competitive edge, Indian industries had to improve quality and meet the national challenge of training and deployment. • All public enterprise need to have well trained and experienced people. • In a rapidly changing society in order to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force, organization must commit resources to training.z We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  34. 34. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division HRD in Public Sectors • Public sectors contribute most to the national economy so they need to improve their efficiency. • The reward and promotional system based on time bound scale rather than merit basis defeats the basic concept of HRD process in these sectors. • Though there are a number of central and state level institutions conducting HRD programs for civil administrative and public sector organizations but much more is yet to be done. • HRD can be hall mark of public sector automatically improving the quality of work and productivity if the objectives are clearly defined and goals are achieved. • The economic consideration will have to be given more weightage to dilute politicians’ dominations . We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  35. 35. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Role of HRD in Economic Development • Competencies and behavior are major factors in the economic growth of the country • Structural changes in Indian economy is dominated by its population and their contribution. • As population growth , human resource development and economic development are interrelated by implementing HRD policies a change in GNP can be noticed. • Only an educated and developed population can become best human capital and help in National Economic growth. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  36. 36. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division HRD in Private Enterprises • The private sector is on the growth path in India and has to move from old economy to new economy where owners and employees are subordinated by the enterprise. • They are going for employee stock ownership scheme ,greater representation of the employees on the board . • In order to meet the modern day challenges big business houses have set up their own business schools and management academy’s like Tata Management training center, Reliance Management Academy etc. • Though there is technology boom in India there is a gap in setting up technical management institutes. • The private sector cannot make any meaningful beginning on the management development unless it starts developing existing personnel. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  37. 37. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division HRD in Banking • Banks are key sectors of national economy and are important public sector enterprise. • Being in service sector Banks realize the importance of HRD and they do have brain storming sessions , idea banks at zonal centers • Human values are given greater importance. • They have schemes for career planning management development process by rotation of staff, open and planned appraisal systems. • In their HRD programs due importance is given to interpersonal skill development and analysis of consumer behavior. • On the job class room , optimization of available staff, continued education and vocational training are some good features of HRD plans. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  38. 38. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Problems in Training • Despite setting up institutes various problems in respects of training have surfaced from time to time . • Questions of appropriate organizations model , training mix , faculty composition, and methodology of evaluation are some areas of trouble. • Adequacy of training budgets, interface of training objectives with the other functionaries in the organization are some thorny issues. • To address such problems a concerted research is initiated on the functioning of in house training departments in PEs to assess their performance. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  39. 39. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division International Perspective: The Singapore Training Experience • Singapore is the best prototype of a nation that has successfully up skilled its work force over the last 40 years. • Worlds Economic Forum has rated its labor force 1stin terms of computer literacy and 2ndin terms of worker motivation and availability of skilled work force. • Its education system meets the needs of a competitive economy . • Singapore is ranked 1stamongst all developing nations in terms of number of human resource dimensions. • On education standards, comparing scores in maths and science Singapore is ranked 1st. • On both educational and training dimensions or national human resource development they have excellent achievements. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  40. 40. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Factors contributing to the success of Singaporean Skills –development system. • The linkage between Skills Development and economic development. • The EDB’s Evolving model of Technology Transfer, Foreign Investment and Skills Development • Skills Development Fund • Long term skills Development Education Policy. contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  41. 41. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Skills Development Fund • SDF is the institution that has been touted as model for other countries. • Employers have to contribute 1% of the gross salary of each employee earning less than 1000 Singapore dollars /month to the SDF. • Companies can get upto80% of its contribution back if they apply to the SDF for grants for training and skills enhancement. • It is a way to induce companies to continuously invest in skills up gradation and it penalizes companies which persists in using low-skilled-workers in low-value-added operations by increasing their labor costs. Contd... We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  42. 42. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • The employers who submit a Total Training Plan affecting atleast50% of their work force would be awarded with higher grants and subsidies from the SDF. • Grants are typically awarded to companies to use the funds for training programs necessary to enhance the expertise of the workers. • The objective of the training program should be consistent with Singapore’s new economic strategy and direction. • Special incentives are provided to companies to train older workers aged 40 and above, to train women to get back to workforce, for basic education etc. • On both education and training dimensions or national human resource development Singapore’s achievements are excellent. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  43. 43. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The United States Training Scene • The Training and educational systems of Germany and Japan are far more consistent than that of USA. • In USA company sponsored training focuses on managers and technicians; the quality tends to vary widely. • Germany is best known for its outstanding apprenticeship program. • On the other hand while comparing USA’s training scene with Japan .it is found that Japan boasts having one of the best primary and secondary educational systems in the world. • Once employed Japanese workers receive extensive ongoing , company sponsored training. • Workers in Japanese automobile plants average 90 hours of training whereas workers in US Automobile plants average about 30 hrs of training annually. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  44. 44. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Canada’s training and education system is quite similar to US. • Primary , secondary as well as vocational education system varies greatly in terms of quality . Companies provide as much as half of training that is given in US. • Compared to USA in Korea though there is a strong primary and secondary school system as well as vocational education , but company sponsored training programs are scarce and poor in quality. • Thus we see that in US training and education programs can be improved to have more effectiveness to greatly affect country’s ability to compete globally. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  45. 45. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene • Employers in Japan are well regarded for their significant and long term commitment to developing skills of their workers perhaps more than any other industrialized nation. • Employee development is the key factor in Japan’s economic advantage over US and other countries. • In spite of a lengthy economic recession a decade later Japan’s commitment to worker training remained unshaken and superior to practices elsewhere. • Skill development remains at the very heart of Japanese business. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  46. 46. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene, Expenditures • Japanese respondents reported a slower rate of growth in training expenditure. • Training investment figures are significantly lower in almost all major respects than those from other regions as shown: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum Japan Canada Europe US Training expenditure per employee. $390 $530 $960 $650 Training expenditure as a percentage of pay roll. 1% 1.5% 3% 1.8%
  47. 47. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene, Non-financial measures • In this there are significant differences between Japanese participants and those in other countries. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum Japan Canada Europe US Average employee to trainer ratio 1700:1 <400:1 <400:1 <400:1 Percentage of employees received training in 2000. 45% 69% 69% 75%
  48. 48. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene, Delivery , Evaluation and Resources • Training in Japan is evaluated and delivered differently. • All regions reported that most training was delivered in an instructor –led classroom, 10% of training used a variety of learning technologies. The comparable percentage of classes delivered via learning technologies in Japan was just 1%. • Japanese organizations were less likely to use evaluation methods other than Kirkpatrick’s level1 ( reaction) evaluations. • Resources • The distribution of training costs, such as wages and salaries of the training staff and tuition reimbursements, was similar to that in other regions. Japanese expenditures on outside providers were also in line with other regions, at just under one third of the total. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  49. 49. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene : Innovative practices • Japanese employers use innovative training and work practices similar to others around the globe. • The number of Japanese organizations providing : • Apprenticeship programs Coaching programs • Training information systems Employee involvement • Access to key business information is very similar to those in other regions. • In other aspects of workspace learning and performance Japanese firms led much of the world. • Japanese firms compensated employees on the basis of overall organizational performance . They practice gain sharing, profit sharing • Employee stock ownership plans were twice as common in Japan. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  50. 50. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene: Cultural due diligence • Data says that the training methods in Japan are quite different from those in rest of the world. • The apparent direction of disparity between Japan and other countries is surprising. Being the recognized world leader in workplace training and development it is anticipated that most of the measures would be higher –not lower than those of other countries. • The true nature of unique training system that prevails in Japan depends on the some important ways that may affect direct comparison. They are 1) Lifetime employment. 2) A holistic approach to Development. 3) The Technology Angle. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  51. 51. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene, Lifetime Employment • Japanese companies place great importance on the concept of lifetime employment. • On entering work Japanese workers must evaluate their employers carefully as they get few opportunities to work elsewhere. • Lifetime employment creates a unique context for the skill development and learning opportunities. • Employers in Japan do not have to worry making substantial investments in employees who might walk out before they recoup the cost. • Japanese firms take a long term approach to developing their employees. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  52. 52. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene; A Holistic Approach to Development • Japanese firms provide a full development process which also includes short training events . • Employee learning in Japan can either be planned or unplanned , formal or informal. • They can be further subdivided into on the job or off the job leaning. • Off-the-job formal learning is called training which is classroom based, instructor –led. • The three primary ways of employee learning in Japanese firms are: Off-the-job formal learning On-the-job informal learning Off-the-job informal learning. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  53. 53. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene, A Holistic Approach to Development • Most of what US employees learn occurs informally during activities as team and customer interactions, meetings, cross- training and shift changes. • Employees of Japanese firms obtain much of their learning informally, their proportion is substantially smaller than that of US figured at 90%. • Sizable % of Japanese worker training happens as formal, structured , on the job learning. This is missing from US. • According to 1998 Measurement Kit following is the statistics of Japanese employment training.: –Informal 40% , Formal on-the-job learning 39% and Formal off-the –job learning 21% We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  54. 54. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Japanese Training Scene, The Technology Angle • Japanese firms differ from others in their use of learning technologies to deliver training. • Japanese firms engage in the use of non-electronic, self paced delivery methods more frequently • Most distance learning in Japan occurs through the mail ( correspondence courses) rather than online. • They rely less on learning technologies than rest of the world. • Small amount of formal off-the-job training in Japan creates fewer opportunities to use learning technologies like IT training. • In Japan the use of In US the use of CD-ROM is 24% CD-ROM is 49 E-mail is 25% E-mail is 34% Company internet 8% Company internet 24% We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  55. 55. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Strategies for Effective Human Resource Training and Development in 21st. Century • The main focus is how to link HR with business strategies. • The corporate training must be understood in terms of paradigm shift that is taking place in Indian Industry. • Three factors have added new dimension to the need for training in all industries , they are 1) Liberalization 2) Imbalance in demand and supply of professional talent 3) Growing expectation of employees regarding their professional and personal development. • Training is an effort into immediate position while development is an effort directed towards growth. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  56. 56. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Classifying Employees for training BCG matrix can be applied to human resource portfolio. The two by two grid gives four types of employees. 1) Dead Wood: Employees in this category are incompetent, unsatisfactory and wholly unsuitable occupants of their present positions; have low potential for growth. 2) Work horses: These people have reached their peak of performance in the light of definitely limited capacity. 3) Stars: These are people of high potential who are performing at the highest quadrant of the potential. 4) Problem Children: These people have great potential and genuine capacities but are working below that capacity or only with mixed results. Sometimes they divert their energy to make mischief and misuse their talents. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  57. 57. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division A Model for creating a Training and Development Strategy We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum Mission Vision, Values & long term goals Specific Drivers Proactive Business Strategies Business Goals Organization and Man power plans Change initiative Values and beliefs in people development Maintaining care competencies Specific Drivers (Reactive) Operational Issues Individual needs Terms needs External changes Training & Development Strategy Belief Policies
  58. 58. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division A Model for creating a Training and Development Strategy The principle of the model is simple and there are three categories of the business factors that our strategies should contain. The 1st set of drivers are more or less permanent for the organization. First will be the mission , vision and the values of the organization. Secondly there will be set of values relating specifically to people development. Thirdly there is a need to maintain and enhance the core competencies of the organization. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  59. 59. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division A Model for creating a Training and Development Strategy Though many organizations could not explain their strategy but would produce various documents describing thing that they do in HRD. The information required for making personal plan s is required to a great extent for the training plan. The next step in the training process is analyzing training needs, This is done at organizational, group and individual levels. A number of different methods and models conducting needs analysis have evolved over time. All these process gives the gap between demand and the supply. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  60. 60. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division A Model for creating a Training and Development Strategy –Assessment methods Training needs may be analyzed by the following assessment methods 1) Observation 2) Consultation key 3) Print media 4) Study of job description / specification 5) Appointing external consultants 6) Performance appraisals 7) Special questionnaire/ surveys 8) Skill gap analysis, or 9) Interviews with supervisors /peers 10) Self assessment The methods chosen differ with the level of need assessment, that is whether it is at the organizational level, group level or individual level. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  61. 61. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Issues involved with Training Needs Assessment 1) Determining felt needs Vs real needs. 2) Balancing organizational needs with the individual needs. 3) Reducing individual anxiety about being evaluated-overcoming reluctance. 4) Establishing a two way communication in tradionally one –way communication. 5) Shielding top management from unpleasant data and shielding employees from hidden concerns of top management. 6) Erroneous interpretation of surveys results. 7) Ethics for probing for personal information about attitudes and personal goals. 8) Extra time required to collect additional data required to design program; Contd... We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  62. 62. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The next step is the selection of trainees which must have a strategy. To determine the obvious target group. All training cannot be important in one go and it is generally spread over a time often stretching a long period on a rolling plan basis. An important variable for success of training activity is the motivation of the trainee to acquire skills , knowledge and abilities. Motivation can be related to rewards, succession plan and promotion. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  63. 63. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Benchmarking Benchmarking with the other organizations will be a valuable exercise and can be done on number of fronts: How do we compare in terms of our beliefs and philosophies? How do we compare in terms of efficiency? How well do we link our activities into the business priorities? How do we compare in terms of achievement of key goals? Some other question might cover: Level of involvement in strategy. Methodologies for linking business goals to learning goals The value placed on training as a support of business change. Beliefs and principles. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  64. 64. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Needs Analysis process. Line manager involvement. Range of learning methods used. Uses of accreditation and management education. Roles and skills in HRD staff. Evaluation methods and results Organizational learning and knowledge management. All bench marking should have clear focused objectives so that it does not result in masses of data that cannot lead to much action. Where should we carry our activities? There are two options: Own premises. External facilities. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  65. 65. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Own premises Premises cost -rent or ownership cost, utilities, services Equipment purchases and depreciation. Catering costs. Travel for company delegates. Extent of subsidy obtainable through external revenues by allowing others to use the facility. Facilities management cost and time. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  66. 66. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division External Facilities Delegates day rate including all –in room hire and meals. Special equipment hire Travel for company delegates Travel and accommodation for training staff. As every organizations situation will be different ,one cannot predict any general outcome of such calculations For large amount of standard training, economics will likely swing in favor of ‘dedicated site.’ Standard training course is not very effective way of learning. The HRDM needs to have a overall control of the resource to have the right balance. A good cost comparison brings in the necessary factors. The way to do it is to zero-base all the training that is done. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  67. 67. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Funding Strategies Money is the most critical resource needed. Money can be resourced from internally from the organization externally from bodies with funds. It can also be procured from external revenue generating activities from internal resources. External revenue can come from: Letting out facilities –utilizing spare capacities and maximizing the return on mixed costs. Selling places on internal training courses –this is commonly done on technical courses, or routine skill courses or whenever open discussion on the organization is needed. Contd... We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  68. 68. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Providing external client consultancy –Utilizing spare capacity of learning consultants or trainers on external client opportunities. Licensing training methodologies or selling materials – where these are not deemed to be of competitive advantage. Providing HRD services to other organizations –‘in sourcing’–utilizing fixed costs and resource to provide service to other organization as well as the home base. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  69. 69. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Should any of HRD be outsourced? Some organizations have a general policy of not investing management time and effort in anything other than their core business. Then the HRD activity is given totally to the service provider and monitored against performance criteria. The arguments on each side in respect of HRD department are: FOR Against Reduced direct overhead cost. Lack of commitment to Reduced management attention. Organizational goals Ability to control Lack of long term ownership criteria. Ability of wider range of skills Degrees of freedom in controlling performance. Risk in lack of continuity of key skills. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  70. 70. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Different methods of training adopted by trainers. The most popular method is lecture method as it is easiest in the long run. Case studies, buzz groups , brainstorming , business games simulation etc requires innovation and is usually adopted from other countries. Computer based training (CBT) and internet based training are fairly close to program learning and goes at its own pace and moves from one step to the other. It uses computers, videodiscs, floppy, touch screens, browsing the net etc. Simulation programs can also be developed in case of maintenance, planning , process work, sales and marketing. Training can be conducted on–the-job or off-the-job. The off-the-job can be in house or external training. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  71. 71. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The on-the-job training is through counseling ,coaching and guidance and has more advantages than other methods. This shapes the attitude to machine, materials procedures etc. Culture of coaching and guiding is important by the superiors who are held accountable for the development of the subordinates. In case of in-house off-the –job training. Trainers can be insiders, outsider or a combination. The advantages of having as faculty are: They can relate to the company situation far better they develop faith in training being a part of it, and The preparation and actual instruction contributes to self development The major requirement is to teach company employees methods of training to make their efforts effective. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  72. 72. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Strategies for Business Process Outsourcing training Outsourcing the entire training function is a huge change that when handled properly can yield improved services and decreased costs. Due to economic pressure companies are turning to total outsourcing of HR functions. Training is a perfect candidate for BPO as a function , as it is administrative and it is not seen as a revenue producer. Outsourcing all training means comprehensive , end-to-end outsourcing of the management function to the design ,delivery and reporting. The success of outsourcing will depend on company’s motivation, its industry, the type of training and how the process is managed. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  73. 73. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The Benefits: Produce Cost Savings: The potential for cost saving is the initial reason for most companies opting for outsourcing. This cost reduction is through consolidation of services, reengineering of processes, automation of administration and delivery etc. By outsourcing training companies can save 30 to 40 % of their training costs. Deliver high quality, efficient services and products: By outsourcing training companies can focus resources on improving their products. Provide cutting-edge technology: Another benefit of this narrow focus is that the BPO provider stays on the cutting edge. Expand global training capabilities. One reason is the access to global distribution and call centre services 24/5. It also helps to quickly respond to new markets in new countries and meet language requirements. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  74. 74. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Who should outsource? According to the Institute of Public Enterprise(IPE), some companies are better suited to outsourcing than others. Currently non durable –goods manufacturers such as food processing , chemicals and plastics companies are outsourcing training most often. Financial and insurance companies are outsourcing training the least. Industries with a lot of compliance training are prime candidates for outsourcing; examples pharmaceuticals and technology manufacturing Companies in highly cyclical industries such as high tech consider outsourcing because in house training makes it difficult to respond to economic conditions. Companies with a lot of industry –generic training like safety training are great opportunity for outsourcing. Companies with a high degree of proprietary content in their training or training that is very customized to the learners are not good targets for outsourcing services. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  75. 75. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Another deciding factor may be the target audience. Sometimes outsources are educating not only employees but customers as well. Performing a cost-benefit analysis helps to decide whether outsourcing is right for the company. This is done by considering long term and short term costs of continuing to provide in-house training solutions vs using a outside firm. It is important to make the right choice as it is nearly impossible to bring training back in-house. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  76. 76. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The Marriage: Experts differ as to whether it is better to partner with an outsourcing company that specializes in training or one with which you can bundle the rest of the HR functions. Today the trend is to bundle many of the human resources functions together ( including training)and outsource them to a single provider. There is a fundamental difference between HR outsourcing and learning outsourcing. Hr outsourcing tends to focus on transactional processing such as payroll and HRIS. Outsourcing the training function is more than just outsourcing transactional tasks. Training concerns the intellectual value of a company. Making the right decision is imperative as contracts typically last for five to ten years. And it can be difficult to change partners. The vendor must have experience in your requirements; and needs to possess the necessary technical and technological capabilities. Company and outsource employees will be working side by side for years. It is important to look for a partner with appropriate course ware, size and infra structure to support training needs effectively. Given the relative immaturity of the learning BPO industry ,extensive client experience is hard to find. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  77. 77. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division HR’snew strategic role: Outsourcing the training function dramatically changes the HR department, this change is for the better. Training roles will be more strategic. There will be partner management role, or a liaison to the outsourcing company. It helps the HR executive to focus on strategic activities and curriculum design, To drive and define what type of learning and skill set employees need to be successful and ask the outsource partner to create suitable learning products. The success indicator is when employees do not realize training has been completely outsourced. The goal is to deliver high quality training at a reasonable price without losing the personal touch of in-house training. The need is to pay attention to the trend of outsourcing training; to look ways to improve your value and decrease costs. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  78. 78. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Core competencies: From training for functional skills to learning in Indian Organization Abstract: Most current human resource development approaches and techniques are unsuitable for developing core competencies of knowledge workers in competitive firms today. In today’s knowledge organization the traditional model of expertise development is challenged and the new directions are presented. IPE presents a framework of decision-making in firms for the development of the employees from entry level skills to functional skills, and from there to cross-functional and integrative and creative competencies. Indian Organizations are yet to recognize the creative and durable contribution of knowledge workers and invest in them as a matter of strategic concern for business. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  79. 79. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Learning through experience : Learning occurs in both deliberative and incidental modes. The performance of a task often results in incidental learning that has its effect in and beyond the immediate learning environment. Exploring how learning may occur without intention , and awareness is of great relevance to understanding the process of learning tacit knowledge; which have implication for on-the-job training and mentoring programs. An important part of many skills is sequencing of ordering stimuli and responses. Due to the importance of human performance ,the manner and the extent to which sequential structure is learned has been a focus of much research. Most recent investigations of sequence learning have been carried out using choice-reaction tasks in which a single stimulus is presented in each trial, and the task is to make an assigned response based on the identity of that stimulus. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  80. 80. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The most basic finding is a larger practice effect for repeated stimulus sequences as compared to stimuli presented in random order-even though the performers are not told of the existence of the sequence or to try rouse sequential constraints among stimuli. Although the sequence learning exhibited in choice reaction tasks appears to occur in the absence of instruction to look for or use sequential constraints, this does not mean that the performer is unaware of what had been learned. To determine whether knowledge that is evident in implicit measures of learning derived from task performance are also evident in explicit measures of learning obtained from tests of conscious recollection. To evaluate better whether awareness of the sequence is necessary requirement for obtaining the performance benefit of the repeated sequence, experiments were carried on patients suffering from amnesia . The results indicated such learning can occur without awareness. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  81. 81. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Expertise and knowledge creation While expertise draws on knowledge on one hand , it creates knowledge on the other hand. Explicit knowledge or coded knowledge ,as a body of organized information can be understood at three levels. These are: Shallow level ( presenting data in a organized order to provide information in response to the question ‘what is out there?’) Deeper level of understanding ( information is organized to deal with the question ‘why?’: this looks for explanation of phenomena. The analysis of information deals with reasoning, cause-effect analysis, existing knowledge) Further deeper ,one examines “how’ such analysis was made and pays attention to reliability ,validity and tenability of explanations by replicating the analysis previously undertaken. Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995) addressed the issue of tacit vs coded knowledge and raised the importance of tacit knowledge in human endeavors. Contd… We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  82. 82. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division They observed tacit knowledge as experiential, practical and simultaneous and therefore ’subjective’ compared to ‘objective’ explicit or coded knowledge. Complementary relations between two types of knowledge exists and a model of knowledge conversion is based on ‘social’ interaction between tacit and coded knowledge. Nonaka& Takeuchi postulated four different models of knowledge conversion.: 1.Socialization: Where experiences create knowledge. 2.Externalization: A process of articulating tacit knowledge to explicit concepts. Typically concept creation is triggered by dialogue or collective reflection. 3.Combination: A process of systemizing concepts into knowledge system. Individuals exchange and combine knowledge through documents, meetings etc. by way of sorting, categorizing etc. Leading to new knowledge. This takes place in formal education and training. 4.Internalization:A process embodying explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge, closely related to learning by doing. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  83. 83. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The role of organization in the process of organization knowledge creation is to provide the proper context for facilitating group activities as well as the creation and accumulation of knowledge at the individual level. The essence lies in developing the organizational capability to acquire, create ,accumulate and exploit knowledge which can be represented as a knowledge spiral which shows circular movement between the fur modes of knowledge conversion. This is done by the way of linking explicit knowledge ,learning by doing, field building and dialogue. The most critical element of corporate strategy is to conceptualize a visual about what kind of knowledge should be developed and to operationalize it into a management system for implementation. Contd... We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  84. 84. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training is a line management responsibility. The immediate superior at any level in an organization exercises far more potent influence, for good or ill, upon the development of his subordinates. It is he who dispenses rewards and punishments, provides patterns of leadership, creates the climate within the working group and structures the tasks necessary to accomplish objectives. He is the one who can recognize the need for specialist advice. In future the training officer will become much more of an internal consultant to management. The trainer will act as a catalyst adviser to the working group, for his qualities of judgment and insight as of his specialized knowledge of training techniques. Contd.. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  85. 85. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division There should be a conscious determination to involve managers at every stage in the training process and encourage them to implement their training responsibilities as an integral part of their management of the people. There is no substitute for a challenging job –one which fully extends a managers capabilities and provide him with the opportunities to develop himself. It is the boss’s responsibility to grasp the opportunities . A persistent encouragement of self help and self reliance on the part of the managers is needed. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum