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Recruitment Management-Ch 7 Selection Tests.


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Recruitment Management-Ch 7 Selection Tests.

  1. 1. Learning Objectives Outline the importance of Selection Methods. Explain Reliability & Validity. Discuss various Selection Methods Evaluate various Selection MethodsChapter Seven Selection Tests 1
  2. 2. Structure1. Introduction2. Methods of Employee Selection 1. Ability Tests 2. Personality Tests 3. Projective Tests 4. Inventories 5. Group Situational Test 6. Personal Interviews 7. Assessment Centres3. SummaryChapter Seven Selection Tests 2
  3. 3. 7.1 IntroductionThe importance of selecting people who meet the requirements of the job description and person specification does not need to be stressed.Mistakes in selection can have a very serious consequence affecting peers, subordinates and clients.Employee selectors have the vital task of identifying the right candidate , but the task is fraught with problems to which there are no answers nor easy answers.Selectors are expected to identify ‘perfect’ candidate within time frame of 60 minutes! [allowed for interview]Chapter Seven Selection Tests 3
  4. 4. 7.2 Reliability & ValidityEffective selection process calls for :- * Clear and comprehensive definitions of the criteria for effective performance by job analysis. * Awareness of the range of potential selection methods, their potential value and predictive capabilities. * Thorough training of all employees involved in the selection process to ensure that they possess the required skills. * A follow up system to check how well the predictions made in the selection process have turned out in the practice.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 4
  5. 5. 7.2 Reliability & Validity There are fundamental requirements a selection method needs to satisfy to be effective – they are : The conditions of reliability and validity.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 5
  6. 6. 7.2 Reliability & ValidityReliabilityA reliable method is one which ensures that results are consistent and do not vary with time, circumstances or subjects. [e.g. a weighing scale].However, since selection methods are conducted by humans and the standards may vary among different selectors and even with the same selector, over a period of time, fluctuations will arise in interpretation of data and assessment.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 6
  7. 7. 7.2 Reliability & ValidityValidity.A valid method is one that truly measures what it purports to measure, for e.g. a measuring tape.Criterion related validity is the extent to which the test measures, what it is supposed to measure.Content related validity is the extent to which the content domain is tested. Construct related validity explores the independence and presence of the psychological construct or trait, and the validity of test in finding this.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 7
  8. 8. 7.2 Reliability & ValidityValidity.Three aspects of validity:1. What are the criteria for successful performance and are they being assessed in the selection process?2. Are the criteria being used, valid and reliable measures of behaviour , experience, personality which predict the performance of candidates?3. Do the tests actually predict what they are purported to predict?Chapter Seven Selection Tests 8
  9. 9. 7.2 Reliability & ValidityValidity.Three answers to these questions are:1. Agree in advance the desirable range of attributes or competencies required for successful job performance.2. Operationalize them so that they can be tested.3. Select, after adequate research , the test or methods that will accurately predict the possession of these attributes or competencies.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 9
  10. 10. 7.3 Methods of Employee Selection1] Ability Tests A] Achievement. B] Aptitude.2] Personality Tests A] Projective Tests B] Inventories3] Group Situational Tests4] Work Simulation Tests5] Personal Interviews6] Assessment CentresChapter Seven Selection Tests 10
  11. 11. 7.3 Methods of Employee Selection7.3.1 Ability TestsAbility tests of achievement are tests that are designed to test the competencies the candidate may possess relative to the job [e.g. skills in programming, web designing, knowledge of the law etc.]Ability tests of aptitude are tests that are designed to predict a candidate’s latent potential which can be developed to meet the requirements of the job through class room and on-the-job training.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 11
  12. 12. 7.3.1 Ability TestsSometimes multiple ability tests are administered to increase the efficacy of the selection method. These tests are common at entry level jobs, but some organizations administer these across management levels. While administering them for senior level positions the company policy must be well explained to the candidates.The tests chosen should meet the reliable and validity criteria. It should be ensured that these ability tests relate to the success of the job.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 12
  13. 13. 7.3.2 Personality TestsPersonality traits have an important effect on job performance , especially in job that involves team work and management, where judgment and influence on and relationships with others are crucial.A candidate who is outgoing and extrovert may be an ideal for sales task but not suitable for desk bound or data collating job.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 13
  14. 14. 7.3.2 Personality TestsBefore choosing any test, it must be ensured that that these tests are reliable and valid , and will test the attributes that are crucial to the job. It is assumed that a candidate cannot fudge such tests unlike data in the CV.Administering these tests is a task for a specialist and recruitment manager may not be able to administer and interpret the tests.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 14
  15. 15. 7.3.3 Projective TestsIn this type of personality test, the candidate is expected to respond freely & spontaneously to different visual stimuli.The most famous among these tests are Rorschach Ink-Blot test, wherein the candidate is expected to respond to inkblot shapes and Thematic Appreciation Test wherein the candidate is expected to respond to a series of pictures.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 15
  16. 16. 7.3.4 InventoriesIn this method, the candidate is expected to respond to questionnaires concerned with their views on certain subjects and situations.A few inventories are designed to be administered and analyzed by anyone, using the instructions and the key; but normally these require assistance from well trained specialists.A few known tests are Cattel[16PF], Eyesenk and Saville, Hordsworth [the occupational personality questionnaire, OPQ].Chapter Seven Selection Tests 16
  17. 17. 7.3.5 Group Situational TestsIn this method, a group of candidates is observed by the selectors over a period of time as they perform a variety of tasks as a team, with or without a leader.The tests are designed to reveal personality traits, ability to work in a team, interpersonal skills, leadership skills etc.Since the test is conducted under artificial circumstances and results measured by personal , subjective interpretations of human behaviour, the method is not fully reliable and valid.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 17
  18. 18. 7.3.6 Personal InterviewsAfter the candidates’ credentials are verified the selection process is completed by holding personal interview to test job related competencies [in functional interview] & soft skills and personality fitment [in HR interview].In a time crunched world Telephonic Interviews and Video Conferencing are increasing in popularity. Added benefit is they are cost efficient , especially for “out of city” candidates.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 18
  19. 19. 7.3.6 Assessment CentresOf all selection techniques, assessment centers have the highest predictive validity. They are a combination of various selection tests that are administered over a full day and include assessment by senior line managers, informal discussions, psychometric and other psychological tests conducted by experts.The option is cost effective if there is a large repeat demand for the job.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 19
  20. 20. 7.4 SummaryIn the absence of a systematic approach to Selection, it becomes more like a lottery. Interviewers should also know that there would be very few job applicants who can meet the standards prescribed in the job description and the person specification. The task is to assess the candidate’s potential to meet the prescribed performance criteria.As discussed there is no single method of selection that passes the test of reliability & validity. A combination of methods suited for the organization and the job would be the optimum method.Chapter Seven Selection Tests 20
  21. 21. This brings us to the end of our session # 07 Nest we move to session # 08 There we shall learn “ The Selection Interview” Chapter Eight Good Luck !Chapter Seven Selection Tests 21