South and Southeast Asia Before 1200

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South and Southeast Asia Before 1200

  1. 1. South and Southeast Asia Before 1200 AP Art History Catrina Chen
  2. 2. India and Pakistan • • • • • • Indus Civilization Vedic and Upanishadic Period Maurya Dynasty Shunga, Andhra, and Kushan Dynasties The Gupta and Post-Gupta Periods Early Medieval Period
  3. 3. Southeast Asia • Sri Lanka • Java • Cambodia
  4. 4. India and Pakistan
  5. 5. Indus Civilization • 2600 – 1500 BCE • Archaeological sites – Mohenjo-daro – Harappa
  6. 6. Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600-1900 BCE
  7. 7. Robed male figure Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan ca. 2000-1900 BCE Steatite
  8. 8. Nude male torso Harappa, Pakistan ca. 2000-1900 BCE Red sandstone
  9. 9. Seal with seated figure in yoga posture from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan ca. 2300-1750 BCE Seatite coated with alkali and baked
  10. 10. Vedic and Upanishadic Period • • • • ca. 1700 – 500 BCE Village life replaced urban culture Very little art Vedas – oldest Hindu scriptures
  11. 11. Vedas • ca. 1500 BCE • The Aryans • First of 4 Vedas – Sanskrit compilations of religious learning • Caste system
  12. 12. Upanishads • 800 – 500 BCE • Upanishads (religious texts) – Samsara – Karma – Moksha / nirvana
  13. 13. Buddhism • Siddhartha Gautama • Wheel (chakra) of the Law (dharma) • Four Noble Truths – life is suffering – the cause of suffering is desire – one can overcome & extinguish desire – the way to achieve nirvana is to follow the Buddha's Eightfold Path
  14. 14. Buddhism • Theravada Buddhism – The Path of the Elders • Mahayana Buddhism – Great Path – Bodhisattvas • Amitabha Buddha (Amida) – the Buddha of Infinite Light & Life – Pure Land Paradise of the West
  15. 15. Lakshanas (attributes) • • • • • Urna – curl of hair between eyebrows; dot Ushnisha – bump on the head Elongated ears Halo Mudras
  16. 16. Mudras (hand gestures) • dhyana (meditation) • bhumisparsha (earthtouching) • dharmachakra (teaching) • abhaya (do not fear)
  17. 17. Maurya Dynasty • Chandragupta Maurya – r. 323 – 298 BCE – Founder of Maurya dynasty – Capital: Pataliputra • Ashoka – r. 272 – 231 BCE – Converted to & spread Buddhism – Legal code based on Buddhist dharma – Monumental stone art / architecture
  18. 18. Lion capital of the column erected by Ashoka Sarnath, India ca. 250 BCE Polished sandstone
  19. 19. Shunga, Andhra, and Kushan Dynasties • Kushan empire – Mid first century CE – Northern India – Kanishka – Capital: Peshawar
  20. 20. Architecture • Viharas – celled structures where monks live • Chaitya halls – halls with rounded (apsidal) ends for housing smaller stupas • Stupa – grand circular solid earthen mound housing relics of the Buddha
  21. 21. The Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE circumambulation torana
  22. 22. The Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE circumambulation torana yakshi
  23. 23. The chaitya hall, Karle, India, ca. 50 CE
  24. 24. Meditating Buddha Gandhara, Pakistan Second century CE Gray schist
  25. 25. Frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan Second century CE Schist Birth at Lumbini Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya
  26. 26. First sermon at Sarnath Death at Kushinagara (parinirvana)
  27. 27. Buddha seated on lion throne Mathura, India Second century CE Red sandstone
  28. 28. The Gupta and Post-Gupta Periods • 320 – 550 CE • Captial: Pataliputra • Chandragupta II (r. 375-415)
  29. 29. Seated Buddha preaching first sermon Sarnath, India Second half of fifth century Tan sandstone
  30. 30. Interior of cave 19 Ajanta, India Second half of fifth century
  31. 31. Hinduism • Shiva (Destroyer) – Represented by linga – Third eye – Rides the bull Nandi • Vishnu (Preserver) – Four arms – Serpent – Avatars • Devi / Shakti (Great Goddess) – Parvati / Uma, Lakshmi – Durga – Son is Ganesha linga and yoni
  32. 32. Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, cave 5, Udayagiri, India, early fifth century
  33. 33. Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple Badami, India Late sixth century
  34. 34. Shiva as Mahadeva cave 1, Elephanta, India ca. 550 – 575
  35. 35. Vishnu Temple Deogarh, India Early sixth century
  36. 36. Vishnu asleep on the serpent Ananta Relief panel on the south façade of the Vishnu Temple Deogarh, India Early sixth century
  37. 37. Early Medieval Period • 8th – 13th century • Regional dynasties ruled parts of India • Buddhism gradually declined
  38. 38. Rock-cut rathas Mamallapuram, India Second half of seventh century
  39. 39. Hindu Temples • garbha griha – inner sanctuary • Northern – shikhara (mountain peak) - beehive-like tower capped by an amalaka – amalaka - a ribbed cusionlike form – has small towerlike roofs over the halls (mandapas) • Southern – flat roofs – vimanas - shorter towered shrines; resemble multilevel pyramids
  40. 40. Rajarajeshvara Temple Thanjavur, India ca. 1010
  41. 41. Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000
  42. 42. mithunas
  43. 43. Shiva as Nataraja ca. 1000 Bronze
  44. 44. Southeast Asia
  45. 45. Sri Lanka • Formerly Ceylon • Theravada Buddhism
  46. 46. Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana), Gal Vihara, Sri Lanka, 11th – 12th century
  47. 47. Java
  48. 48. Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, ca. 800 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDAoA4qKfek
  49. 49. Cambodia • Khmer King Jayavarman II (r. 802-850) founded the Angkor dynasty
  50. 50. Harihara Prasat Andet, Cambodia Early seventh century Stone
  51. 51. Vishnu lying on the cosmic ocean, from the Mebon temple on an island in the western baray, Angkor, Cambodia, 11th century. Bronze
  52. 52. Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, first half of 12th century
  53. 53. King Suryavarman II
  54. 54. Bayon Temple Angkor Thom, Cambodia ca. 1200
  55. 55. Quiz 1). What art style influenced the sculptures at Gandhara? a. Sumerian b. Egyptian c. Greco-Roman d. Minoan
  56. 56. Quiz 2). Who erected the column with the lion capital during the Maurya dynasty? a. Chandragupta Maurya b. Ashoka c. Jayavarman II d. Chandragupta II
  57. 57. Quiz 3). What is a stupa? a. a place where monks live b. a Hindu temple c. a monumental monolithic column d. a circular mound housing relics of the Buddha
  58. 58. Quiz 4). What is this structure? a. Angkor Wat b. the Great Stupa c. the Great Bath d. Borobudur
  59. 59. Quiz 5). What style is the Rajarajeshvara temple? a. southern style b. northern style c. western style d. eastern style
  60. 60. Quiz 6). How do Buddhists venerate the Buddha’s remains at the stupa? a. circumnavigation b. circumambulation c. circumcision d. circumscription

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