The wehrmacht

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The wehrmacht

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  2. 2. IntroductionGeneral The Wehrmacht which meant Defence Power, was the total of the armed forces of the GermanUnion from 1933 when the NSDAP political party which governs until our days came to power thenunder Adolf Hitler while simultaneously the Treaty of Versailles was abolished until 1943 when theSecond World War ended with victory while simultaneously the armed forces changed names as wellas structures, while, the text representates its situation on 1 September 1939 when the SecondWorld War started which situation in any case remained unchanged during the rest of this war. TheWehrmacht was divided into four arms of service the Heer which meant Army, the Luftwaffe whichmeant Air Arm, the Seewaffe which meant Sea Arm and the SS from the words Schutzstaffel whichmeant Protection Squadron which was a paramilitary organisation and in addition variousindependent agencies being manned however with personnel from the four arms of service.Personnel The Wehrmacht had a total personnel of always approximately 8,200,000 on the papers about theongoing mobilisation of full scale which papers were to be realised several months later and the halfof the figure just above in the reality under the current mobilisation of part scale. By the totalpersonnel of the mobilisation of full scale just above: all were men with the participation of womenbeing prohibited; all were Germans with the participation of other races being prohibited; 1,200,000were regulars including both professionals of various categories as well as conscripts with a two-yearperiod of service in peace time or an unlimited period of service in war time and 7,000,000 werereservists; 7,000,000 were for service in the Heer, 1,000,000 were for service in the Luftwaffe,100,000 were for service in the Seewaffe and 100,000 were for service in the SS; 200,000 wereofficers or officer equivalents and 8,000,000 were enlisteds or enlisted equivalents.Organisation The Wehrmacht was in full or in part under the command of the RWM from the wordReichswehrministerium which meant Union Defence Ministry (which ministry with its series wasunder the direct command of Adolf Hitler). This ministry, under a variety of independent agenciesincluding amongst them a general staff which were manned however with personnel from the fourarms of service, has under its command fully the arms of service of the Heer, the Luftwaffe and theSeewaffe and in addition partially the arm of service of the SS (together with the ROM from theword Reichsordnungsministeriun which meant Union Order Ministry operationally and the NSDAPruling political party administratively). The Heer, under its own OKH from the words Oberkommando des Heer which meant HighCommand of the Army, was simultaneously divided into agencies, elements, arms and regularities.The agencies were: various including amongst them a general staff. The elements as concerns theseon the papers about the ongoing mobilisation of full scale which papers were to be realised severalmonths later included: 4 commands of fronts; 14 armies; 57 corpses including 11 motorised, 8armoured, 4 mountain-hunters, 1 airborne-hunters and 1 seaborne-hunters; 171 divisions of which96 infantry, 41 motorised, 16 armoured, 12 mountain-hunters, 3 airborne-hunters and 3 seaborne-hunters; endless single-arm or similar multiple-arm elements. The smallest element of this arm ofservice was the squad, with various names and structures, although in the infantry a rifle squad hadsix riflemen, a sniper and a commander giving a total of 8 men. Next was the platoon, with a varietyof names and structures, although in the infantry a rifle platoon had three rifle sections and acommand section and in addition 32 men. Following was the company, with various names andstructures, although in the infantry a rifle company consisting of three rifle platoons, a machine-gunplatoon, a mortar platoon, a transport platoon and a command platoon and in addition some 160men. Next followed the battalion, which had various names and structures, although in the infantryan infantry battalion consisted of three rifle companies, an anti-tank-gun company, an infantry-guncompany, a support company and a command company and in addition some 900 men. Next wasthe regiment, with various names and structures, but in the infantry with an infantry regimentconsisting of three infantry battalions, an anti-tank-gun battalion, an infantry-gun battalion and a
  3. 3. command battalion and in addition some 3,700 men. Next followed the division and some otherelements of similar size, with various names and structures, although an infantry division wasconstituted by three infantry regiments, an artillery division command, a support division commandand a command division command and in addition approximately 19,000 men. Next were the corpsand some other elements of similar size, with various names and structures, but with a commoncorps consisting of three infantry divisions, an artillery corps command, a support corps commandand a command corps command and in addition sometimes an anti-vessel corps command with apersonnel of approximately 67,000 up to 70,000 men. Following was the army and the similardefence district of the replenishment army, with varying names and structures, although an armyhad two up to five common and in addition sometimes motorised and armoured corpses as well asvarious other elements with a personnel ofsome160,000 up to 380,000 men. Next was the commandof front which was an element with no absolute structure with two up to five armies and variousother elements and in addition with hundreds of thousands up to millions of men. It must be notedthat in addition to the above elements of permanent, formal and standardised structure there werealso elements of not permanent, not formal and not standardised structure which were namedgroups. The arms were: the infantry, the motorised troops, the armoured troops, the mountain-hunters troops, the airborne-hunters troops, the seaborne-hunters troops, the artillery, the anti-aircraft troops, the anti-vessel troops, the engineer, the pioneer troops, the staffs, the signal troops,the supply troops, the railways troops, the technical troops, the gendarmerie and the sanitary and inaddition various similar specifications of officer equivalents and enlisted equivalents. The regularitieswere collectively known as: the field army which was the primary such and had the main battleduties and in addition the replenishment army which was the secondary such and had training aswell as rear-security duties. The Luftwaffe, under its own OKL from the words Oberkommando der Luftwaffe which meant HighCommand of the Air Arm, was simultaneously divided into agencies and elements. The agencieswere: various including amongst them a general staff. The elements included: five air fleets;thousands of lesser elements. The structures of the elements were similar to those of the Heer. The Seewaffe, under its own OKS from the words Oberkommando der Seewaffe which meant HighCommand of the Sea Arm, was simultaneously divided into agencies and elements. The agencieswere: various including amongst them a general staff. The elements included: two fleets; thousandsof lesser elements. The structures of the elements were similar to those of the Heer. The SS, under its own complex command, was basically divided into four parts which werecollectively known as the combat SS, the utility SS, the police SS and the concentration-camps SS andin addition simultaneously was also divided into thousands of elements. The structures of theelements were similar to those of the Heer. Equipments of ground warfareArmoured vehicles The armoured vehicles served into the armoured divisions and certain other important elementsand in addition always into the Heer. They had as follows. _The PzKpfw III light fighting armoured vehicle. It was a light full-tracked figting armoured vehiclewhich became operational in 1937. It featured, a crew of five men, a maximum weight of 16 t, aMaybach KM1102 eight-cylinder vee-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of 200 PS, a maximum speedof 40 km/h, a maximum range of 200 km, an armour of 10 up to 25 mm, and, an armament of onegun of 37 mm/60 cal firing the same ammunition with the lPAK35 3.7cm L/60 anti-tank gun of 37mm/60 cal in a fully-enclosed fully-traversed turret and two MG34 7.9mm machine guns of 7.9 mmof which the one in a ball mount in the front of the superstructure while the other coaxial to the gunin the turret. The vehicle constituted the numerically basic fighting armoured vehicle as it equippedas concerns the operational use all the elements of fighting armoured vehicles except the commandsuch giving a total of 162 pieces per armoured division. The derivatives were: the PzPnrw I light
  4. 4. pioneer armoured vehicle, with a gun of 75 mm/12 cal firing the same types of ammunition with thelIG35 7.5cm L/12 infantry gun of 75 mm/12 cal in a fully-enclosed fully-traversed turret and twoMG34 7.9mm machine guns of 7.9 mm of which the one in a ball mount in the front of thesuperstructure while the other coaxial to the gun in the turret and in addition with a specialequipment for the destruction of landmines and obstacles, in operational use with the supportdivision commands of the armoured divisions at a rate of 13 pieces per such combination; thePzSlblK 7.5cm L/48 armoured selfpropelled gun of 75 mm/48 cal, with a gun of 75 mm/48 cal usingthe same ammunition with the lFK35 7.5cm L/48 field gun of 75 mm/48 cal in the front of a fully-enclosed superstructure, in operational action with the artillery division commands of the armoureddivisions at a rate of 24 pieces per such combination. _The PzKpfw IV heavy fighting armoured vehicle. This was a heavy full-tracked fighting armouredvehicle which entered service in 1937. It had, a crew of five men, a maximum weight of 23 t, aMaybach KM1103 twelve-cylinder vee-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of 300 PS, a maximumspeed of 40 km/h, a maximum range of 200 km, an armour of 10 up to 50 mm, and, an armament ofone gun of 57 mm/60 cal firing the same ammunition with the sPAK35 5.7cm L/60 anti-tank gun of57 mm/60 cal in a fully-enclosed fully-traversed turret and in addition two MG34 7.9mm machineguns of 7.9 mm of which the one in a ball mount in the front of the superstructure and the othercoaxial to the gun in the turret. It was operationally used as the command armoured fighting vehicleof the elements with fighting armoured vehicles giving a total of 88 items per armoured division. Thederivatives were: the PzPnrw II pioneer armoured vehicle, with a gun of 120 mm/11 cal firing thesame ammunition with the sIG35 infantry gun of 120 mm/11 cal in a fully-enclosed fully-traversedturret and two MG34 7.9mm machine guns of 7.9 mm of which the one in a ball mount in the frontof the superstructure while the other coaxial to the gun in the turret and in addition with a specialequipment for the destruction of landmines and obstacles, in operational use with the support corpscommands of the armoured corpses at a rate of 13 items per each combination of this kind; thePzSlblK 12cm L/45 armoured selfpropelled gun of 120 mm/45 cal, with a gun of 120 mm/45 cal firingthe same ammunition with the sFK35 12cm L/45 field gun of 120 mm/45 cal in the front of a fully-enclosed superstructure, in operational deployment with the artillery corps commands of thearmoured corpses with 24 pieces per each such combination. _The PzZgkw 0.5t transport armoured vehicle of 0.5 t. It was a light half-tracked transportarmoured vehicle which entered service in 1936. It had, a crew of one or two men, a maximumweight of 4.5 t, a KHD KM1200 four-cylinder line-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of 48 PS, amaximum speed of 60 km/h, a maximum range of 300 km, an armour of 5 up to 13 mm, and, a usualarmament of nothing or one MG34 7.9mm machine gun of 7.9 mm in a shield mount on the roof. Itconstituted the most numerous armoured vehicle and was operationally used by various elementsfor general transport, liaison, reconnaissance, anti-aircraft defence etc. _The PzZgkw 1t transport armoured vehicle of 1 t. This was a light half-tracked transport armouredvehicle which became operational in 1936. It featured, a crew of two men, a maximum weight of 6.5t, a KHD KM1201 six-cylinder line-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of 72 PS, a maximum speed of60 km/h, a maximum range of 300 km, an armour of 5 up to 13 mm, and, a usual armament of oneMG34 7.9mm machine gun of 7.9 mm in a shield mount on the roof. It was operationally deployedby various elements for assault transport, general transport, reconnaissance, anti-aircraft defenceand various other duties. _The PzZgkw 2t transport armoured vehicle of 2 t. This was a medium half-tracked transportarmoured vehicle which entered service in 1936. It had, a crew of two men, a maximum weight of 11t, a Maybach KM1100 four-cylinder line-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of 100 PS, a maximumspeed of 50 km/h, a maximum range of 250 km, an armour of 5 up to 15 mm, and, a usual armamentof one MG34 7.9mm machinegun of 7.9 mm in a shield mount on the roof. The operationaldeployment was into various elements for general transport, reconnaissance, anti-aircraft defence,command etc. _The PzZgkw 4t transport armoured vehicle of 4 t. It constituted a medium half-tracked transport
  5. 5. armoured vehicle which entered service in 1936. The characteristics included, a crew of two men, amaximum weight of 16 t, a Maybach KM1101 six-cylinder line-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of150 PS, a maximum speed of 50 km/h, a maximum range of 250 km, an armour of 5 up to 15 mm,and, a usual armament of one MG34 7.9mm machine gun of 7.9 mm in a shield mount on the roof.The operational use was into various elements for general transport, command,communications etc. _The PzZgkw 8t transport armoured vehicle of 8 t. This was a heavy half-tracked transportarmoured vehicle which entered service in 1936. It had, a crew of two men, a maximum weight of 22t, a Maybach KM1102 eight-cylinder vee-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of 200 PS, a maximumspeed of 50 km/h, a maximum range of 250 km, an armour of 5 up to 15 mm, and, a usual armamentof one MG34 7.9mm machine gun of 7.9 mm in a shield mount on the roof. The operationaldeployment was in various elements for general transport, bulldozer duty, command,communications etc. _The PzZgkw 16t transport armoured vehicle of 16 t. It constituted a heavy half-tracked transportarmoured vehicle which entered action in 1936. It featured, a crew of two men, a maximum weightof 32 t, a Maybach KM1103 twelve-cylinder vee-form liquid-cooled benzine engine of 300 PS, amaximum speed of 50 km/h, a maximum range of 250 km, an armour of 5 up to 15 mm, and, anarmament of usually one MG34 7.9mm machine gun of 7.9 mm in a shield mount on the roof. Theoperational use was into various elements for general transport, bridge launching, recovery ofdamaged armoured vehicles, communications etc.Weapons of artillery form The weapons of this category served in the Heer as well as in the SS. They had as follows. _The lGG35 3.7cm L/28 mountain gun of 37 mm/28 cal. It was a light towed mountain gun whichentered service in 1936. It fired various ammunition with main the high-explosive, the armour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. The operational deployment was intothe mountain-hunters troops of the Heer with 6 items in the mountain-gun company of eachmountain-hunters battalion. _The lPAK35 3.7cm L/60 anti-tank gun of 37 mm/60 cal. This was a light towed anti-tank gun whichentered action in 1936. It fired various ammunition with main the high-explosive, the armour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. The operational deployment was intothe infantry, the motorised troops and the armoured troops of the Heer and in addition the combatSS of the SS always at battalion level with 6 pieces in the anti-tank-gun company. A mounted variantwas fitted on an Lkw 1t or Zgkw 1t or PzZgkw 1t vehicle for reconnaissance purposes with thiscombination being operationally deployed by the infantry, the motorised troops and the armouredtroops in the Heer and in addition the combat SS in the SS at battalion level with 1 piece in thecommand company. _The lIG35 7.5cm L/12 infantry gun of 75 mm/12 cal. It constituted a light towed infantry gunwhich entered service in 1936. It launched various rounds with main the high-explosive, theincendiary and the chemical such. The operational use was into the infantry, the motorised troopsand the armoured troops in the Heer and in addition the combat SS in the SS always at battalionlevel with 6 pieces per infantry-gun company. _The sGG35 5.7cm L/28 mountain gun of 57 mm/28 cal. It was a light towed mountain gun inservice by 1936. It fired various ammunition with basic the high-explosive, the armour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical ammunition. The operational use was into the mountain-hunters troops of the Heer with 12 pieces in the mountain-gun battalion of each mountain-huntersregiment. _The sPAK35 5.7cm L/60 anti-tank gun of 57 mm/60 cal. This was a light towed anti-tank gun whichentered service in 1936. It used various ammunition with basic the high-explosive, the armour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. It was operationally used by theinfantry, the motorised troops and the armoured troops in the Heer and in addition the combat SS inthe SS always at regiment level with 12 pieces in the anti-tank-gun battalion. A mounted variant wasfitted on an Lkw 2t or Zgkw 2t or PzZgkw 2t vehicle for reconnaissance purposes with this
  6. 6. combination being operationally used by the infantry, the motorised troops and the armouredtroops into the Heer and in addition the combat SS into the SS at regiment level with 2 items in thecommand battalion. _The sIG35 12cm L/11 infantry gun of 120 mm/11 cal. It was a light towed infantry gun whichentered action in 1936. It used a variety of ammunition with main the high-explosive, the incendiaryand the chemical such. The operational deployment was into the infantry, the motorised troops andthe armoured troops in the Heer and the combat SS in the SS always at regiment level with 12 piecesin the infantry-gun battalion. _The lGH35 7.5cm L/24 mountan howitzer of 75 mm/24 cal. This was a medium towed mountainhowitzer in service by 1936. It launched various ammunition with basic the high-explosive, thearmour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical ammunition. It was operationallydeployed with the artillery division commands of the mountain-hunters divisions of the Heer at arate of 24 pieces per each such combination. _The lFK35 7.5cm L/48 field gun of 75 mm/48 cal. This constituted a medium towed field gunwhich entered service in 1936. It fired a variety of ammunition with main the high-explosive, thearmour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. It was operationally deployedinto the Heer within the artillery division commands of the infantry and motorised divisions at a rateof 8 pieces per each such combination. _The lFH35 8.8cm L/34 field howitzer of 88 mm/34 cal. It constituted a medium towed fieldhowitzer in service by 1936. It used various ammunition with basic the high-explosive, the armour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical ammunition. The operational deploymentwas into the artillery division commands of the infantry and motorised divisions of the Heer at a rateof 24 pieces per each such combination. _The lFGrW35 10.5cm L/22 field shell launcher of 105 mm/22 cal. It was a medium towed fieldshell launcher which entered action in 1936. It fired a variety of rounds with main the high-explosive,the armour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. The operational use wasinto the infantry and motorised divisions of the Heer with 8 pieces within each artillery divisioncommand. _The PnrGrW35 21cm L/9 pioneer shell launcher of 210 mm/9 cal. This constituted a mediumtowed pioneer shell launcher which entered action in 1936. It launched various ammunition withbasic the high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. The operational deployment was intothe support division commands of the infantry divisions at a rate of 6 pieces per each suchcombination into the Heer. A mounted variant on a Zgkw 8t or a PzZgkw 8t vehicle was operationallyused by the the support division commands of the motorised and armoured divisions of the Heer ata rate of 6 pieces per each such combination. _The sGH35 12cm L/24 mountain howitzer of 120 mm/24 cal. This was a heavy towed mountainhowitzer in service by 1936. It fired a variety of rounds with main the high-explosive, the armour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical rounds. It was operationally deployed bythe artillery corps commands of the mountain-hunters corpses of the Heer at a rate of 24 pieces pereach such combination. _The sFK35 12cm L/45 field howitzer of 120 mm/45 cal. This constituted a heavy towed field gunwhich entered service in 1936. It used various ammunition with basic the high-explosive, thearmour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. It was operationally used bythe common and motorised coprses of the Heer at a rate of 8 items in the artillery corps command. _The sFH35 15cm L/30 field howitzer of 150 mm/30 cal. It was a heavy towed field howitzer whichentered action in 1936. It launched a variety of ammunition with basic the high-explosive, thearmour-piercing high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. The operational deploymentwas into the artillery corps commands of the common and motorised corpses at a rate of 24 piecesin each such combination into the Heer. _The sFGrW35 21cm L/14.5 field shell launcher of 210 mm/14.5 cal. This was a heavy towed fieldshell launcher which became operational in 1936. It used high-explosive, armour-piercing high-
  7. 7. explosive and chemical ammunition. The operational deployment was into the artillery corpscommands of the common and motorised corpses of the Heer with 8 items per each suchcombination. _The K 21cm L/45 heavy gun of 210 mm/45 cal. This constituted a superheavy railway gun whichentered service in 1937. It fired high-explosive and armour-piercing high-explosive ammunition. Theoperational use was into the artillery army commands of the armies of the Heer with 8 pieces ineach such combination. _The H 28cm L/28 heavy howitzer of 280 mm/28 cal. It was a superheavy railway howitzer whichentered action in 1937. It launched high-explosive and armour-piercing high-explosive ammunition.It was operationally deployed with the artillery army commands of the armies of the Heer at a rateof 24 pieces per each such combination. _The GrW 38cm L/14 heavy shell launcher of 380 mm/14 cal. It constituted a superheavy railwayshell launcher which became operational in 1937. It fired high-explosive and armour-piercing high-explosive rounds. It was operationally deployed within the artillery army commands of the armies ofthe Heer with 8 pieces per such combination. _The K 28cm L/40 heavy gun of 280 mm/40 cal. It was a superheavy railway gun which becameoperational in 1936. It fired high-explosive and armour-piercing high-explosive rounds. It was usedby an independent artillery command to be attached to any front with 8 pieces into the Heer. _TheH 38cm L/28 heavy howitzer of 380 mm/28 cal. This was a superheavy railway howitzer whichentered service in 1937. It launched high-explosive and armour-piercing high-explosive ammunition.It was deployed with an independent artillery command with 24 pieces into the Heer to be attachedto any front. _The GrW 50cm L/14 heavy gun of 500 mm/14 cal. This was a superheavy railway shell launcherwhich entered action in 1937. It fired high-explosive and armour-piercing high-explosive rounds. Thedeployment was into an independent artillery command of the Heer for attachment to any frontwith 8 pieces.Weapons of anti-aircraft defence The weapons of this category served in the whole Wehrmacht although the Luftwaffe had theresponsibility for the anti-aircraft defence of the whole territory including the ground anti-aircraftweapons. They had as follows. _The FlAMG34 7.9mm anti-aircraft machine gun of 7.9 mm. It was a portable anti-aircraft machinegun which entered service in 1935. It fired various ammunition with basic the ball tracers. It wasoperationally deployed into the command platoons of the companies of most kinds of forces of thewhole Wehrmacht with 1 item per each such combination. A mounted variant on a Zgkw 0.5t or aPzZgkw 0.5t vehicle was operationally deployed with the motorised troops and the armoured forcesof the Heer with 1 piece in each command platoon of company in most companies. _The FlAMK30 2cm L/65 anti-aircraft automatic gun of 20 mm/65 cal. This was a light towed anti-aircraft automatic gun which entered service in 1934. It fired various ammunition with basic thearmour-piercing high-explosive tracer ammunition. It was operationally deployed with the commandcompanies of most battalions into the whole Wehrmacht with 2 items per such combination. Amounted variant was fitted on a Zgkw 1t or PzZgkw 1t vehicle with this combination beingoperationally deployed with the motorised and armoured forces of the Heer at a rate of 2 pieces ineach command company of battalion in most battalions. _The FlAMK36 3cm L/65 anti-aircraft automatic gun of 30 mm/65 cal. It was a light towed anti-aircraft automatic gun which entered action in 1937. It used various ammunition with basic thearmour-piercing high-explosive tracer ammunition. It was operationally used by the wholeWehrmacht with dedicated anti-aircraft units as well as with other forces at regiment level with 4items in each command battalion. A mounted variant was fitted on a Zgkw 2t or PzZgkw 2t vehiclewith this combination being operationally used by the motorised and armoured forces of the Heerat a rate of 4 pieces in each command battalion of regiment in most regiments as well as in thededicated anti-aircraft units of these forces.
  8. 8. _The FlAK35 8.8cm L/65 anti-aircraft gun of 88 mm/65 cal. This was a heavy towed anti-aircraftgun which entered action in 1936. It fired various ammunition with basic the high-explosiveammunition. It was operationally deployed with dedicated anti-aircraft units of the Heer, theLuftwaffe and the Seewaffe. A mounted variant was fitted on a Zgkw 16t or PzZgkw 16t vehicle withthis combination being operationally deployed with the dedicated anti-aircraft units of themotorised and armoured forces into the Heer. _The FlAK36 10.5cm L/60 anti-aircraft gun of 105 mm/60 cal. It was a superheavy static infortifications anti-aircraft gun which entered service in 1937. It used various ammunition with basicthe high-explosive such. It was operationally deployed with dedicated anti-aircraft units of theLuftwaffe and the Seewaffe.Weapons of anti-vessel defence The weapons of this category served in the Heer and the Seewafe although the Seewaffe had theresponsibility for the anti-vessel defence of the whole territory including the land anti-vesselweapons. They had as follows. _The LSASK 10.5cm L/60 anti-vessel gun of 105 mm/60 cal. It was a heavy towed or static infortifications anti-vessel gun which entered service in 1937. It fired various ammunition with basicthe armour-piercing high-explosive such. It was operationally deployed with the anti-vessel corpscommands of some common corpses into the Heer as concerns the towed form or into units of theSeewaffe as concerns the static in fortifications form. _The LSASK 15cm L/60 anti-vessel gun of 150 mm/60 cal. This was a superheavy railway or static infortifications anti-vessel gun which entered action in 1936. It used various rounds with main thearmour-piercing high-explosive such. It was operationally used by the anti-vessel army commands ofsome armies into the Heer as concerns the railway form and into units of the Seewaffe as concernsthe static in fortifications form. _The LSASK 28cm L/52 anti-vessel gun of 280 mm/52 cal. This constituted a superheavy static infortifications anti-vessel gun which entered service in 1936. It used various ammunition with mainthe armour-piercing high-explosive ammunition. The operational deployment was into elements ofthe Seewaffe.Weapons of infantry form The weapons of infantry form served in the whole Wehrmacht while had as follows. _The P35 7.65mm pistol of 7.65 mm. This pistol entered service in 1935. It fired ball ammunition. Itwas used by all the high noncommissioned officers or the equivalents and the officers or theequivalents and in addition by the soldiers or the equivalents and the low noncommissioned officersor the equivalents of the security elements in the whole Wehrmacht. _The MP35 7.65mm submachine gun of 7.65 mm. This submachine gun entered service in 1935. Itfired ball ammunition. It was used by all the high noncommissioned officers or equivalents and thelow officers or equivalents and in addition by the soldiers or equivalents and the lownoncommissioned officers or equivalents of the security elements in the whole Wehrmacht. _The G34 7.9mm rifle of 7.9 mm. This was a bolt-action rifle which entered sevice in 1934. It fired avariety of ammunition with basic the ball ammunition. Also it fired various gun grenades with basicthe high-explosive such. Itwas equipped, with a bayonet in all the cases, as well as, with a sniperscope with which were supplied the snipers who were 1 at squad level, 1 at platoon level _in thecommand squad_ and 4 at company level _in the command platoon_ in all the forces of lightarmament of the whole Wehrmacht in certain cases. It was supplied to all the soldiers or equivalentsand the low noncommissioned officers or equivalents except these of the security elements in thewhole Wehrmacht. _The MG34 7.9mm machine gun of 7.9 mm. This machine gun entered service in 1935. It fired avariety of ammunition with basic the ball ammunition. It was found in a light form for use at platoonlevel _with 1 piece per command squad_ and in a heavy form for use at company level _with 2pieces per machine-gun platoon_ in the light-armament and other forces into the whole Wehrmachtas concerns the operational use. Also, various vehicle variants were fitted to vehicles of various kinds
  9. 9. also in the whole armed forces of the country. _The lMW36 5cm mortar of 50 mm. This was a light mortar which entered service in 1936. It firedvarious ammunition with basic the high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemical such. Theoperational deployment was into most of the forces of light armament of the Heer and into thecombat SS of the SS at a rate of 1 item per command squad of rifle platoon. _The sMW34 8.1cm mortar of 81 mm. It was a heavy mortar which entered action in 1934. Itlaunched various ammunition with basic the high-explosive, the incendiary and the chemicalammunition. It was operationally deployed with most of the forces of light armament of the Heerand into the combat SS of the SS at a rate of 2 pieces per mortar platoon of each rifle company. _The FlW35 flamethrower. This was a portable flamethrower which entered service in 1935. Theoperational use was into the pioneer troops with 12 pieces in the support division command of eachinfantry, motorised, mountain-hunters, airborne-hunters and seaborne-hunters division of the Heer.A mounted variant was fitted on a PzZgkw 0.5t vehicle with this combination being operationallyfound in the pioneer troops of the armoured forces of the Heer with 6 pieces in the support divisioncommand of each armoured division. _Various hand grenades. They were of various types with most important the anti-personnel high-explosive, the anti-armour high-explosive and the incendiary. They supplied almost all the men ofthe armed forces of the country. _Various landmines and remote-control explosive devices. In this case there was a variety of kindsand types but basically anti-personnel high-explosive landmines and anti-armour high-explosivelandmines of various types. These were distributed to the whole Wehrmacht although the basicresponsible institution for the installation were the pioneer troops of the Heer.Unarmoured means of transportation The unarmoured means of transportation were found in the whole Wehrmacht. They had asfollows. _Unarmoured vehicles. They were, various motorcycles with the designation KRad 750c without orwith a basket of 750 cm³, various personnel cars with the designation Pkw 0.25t of 0.25 t, variouslight trucks with the designation Lkw 0.5t of 0.5 t, various light trucks with the designation Lkw 1t of1 t, various medium trucks with the designation Lkw 2t of 2 t, various medium trucks with thedesignation Lkw 4t of 4 t, various heavy trucks with the designation Lkw 8t of 8 t, various heavytrucks with the designation Lkw 16t of 16 t, the Zgkw 0.5t light half-tracked transport unarmouredvehicle of 0.5 t, the Zgkw 1t light half-tracked transport unarmoured vehicle of 1 t, the Zgkw 2tmedium half-tracked transport unarmoured vehicle of 2 t, the Zgkw 4t medium half-trackedtransport unarmoured vehicle of 4 t, the Zgkw 8t heavy half-tracked transport unarmoued vehicle of8 t and the Zgkw 16t heavy half-tracked transport unarmoured vehicle of 16 t. _Unarmoured trains. The whole network of the unarmoured trains was very extended and played avery important role for the transportation of the armed forces. The unarmoured trains served in theHeer, the Luftwaffe, the Seewaffe and a relative independent agency directly under the RWM. Equipments of air warfareAircrafts A total of approximately 13,710 aircrafts was in service within the armed forces and in more detailsonly within the Luftwaffe while the aircraft production continued at a current rate of some 1,100pieces per month. They had as follows with most figures being approximate. _1,500 Focke-Wulf Fw 186 light pursuit aircrafts with the production being continued at a currentrate of 500 pieces per month. It was a light day and short-range pursuit with secondary roles thetactical attack and the tactical reconnaissance momoplane aircraft which entered service in 1939. Ithad, a crew of one man, one Daimler-Benz FM602 twelve-cylinder vee-form liquid-cooled benzineengine of 1,200 PS, a maximum take-off weight of 2.9 t, a maximum speed of 640 km/h, a maximumrange of 800 km on its internal fuel or 1,600 km with an additional dropped external fuel tank, a
  10. 10. maximum altitude of 11,000 m, and, an armament of four FMG33 7.9mm machine guns of 7.9 mm ina fixed installation in the wings and in addition a weapons load of up to 500 kg in one 250-kg under-fuselage for bombs or instead of for an additional dropped external fuel tank of 300 l and two 125-kgunder-wing for bombs or pods with FMK37 2cm L/45 automatic guns of 20 mm/45 cal externalweapons stations. _300 Focke-Wulf Fw 187 heavy pursuit aircrafts with the manufacture being continued at a currentrate of 100 pieces per month. This was a heavy night and long-range pursuit with secondary rolesthe strategical attack and the strategical reconnaissance monoplane aircraft which entered service in1939. It featured, a crew of two men, two Daimler-Benz FM602 twelve-cylinder vee-form liquid-cooled benzine engines of 1,200 PS each, a maximum take-off weight of 6.5 t, a maximum speed of620 km/h, a maximum range of 2,000 km, a maximum altitute of 11,000 m, and, an armament offour FMK37 2cm L/45 automatic guns of 20 mm/45 cal in a fixed installation in the fuselage and inaddition a weapons load of up to 1,000 kg in one 500-kg under-fuselage for bombs or instead of for astrong searchlight and two 250-kg under-wing for bombs external weapons stations. _300 Junkers Ju 287 light bomber aircrafts with the production being continued at a current rate of100 pieces per month. This constituted a light bomber with primary role the tactical attack and inaddition secondary roles the strategical attack and the naval attack always with the dive techniqueat angles of 30 up to 90 degrees monoplane aircraft which entered action in 1939. It had, a crew oftwo men, one BMW FM133 fourteen-cylinder radial-form air-cooled benzine engine of 1,550 PS, amaximum take-off weight of 5.2 t, a maximum speed of 440 km/h, a maximum range of 1,000 km onits internal fuel or 2,200 km with an additional dropped external fuel tank, a maximum altitude of9,000 m, and, an armament of one flexible and two fixed in the wings FMG33 7.9mm machinegunsof 7.9 mm and in addition a weapons load of up to 750 kg in one 500-kg under-fuselage for bombs orinstead of for an additional dropped external fuel tank of 600 l and two 125-kg under-wing forbombs or pods with FMK37 2cm L/45 automatic guns of 20 mm/45 cal external weapons stations. _900 Heinkel He 211 medium bomber aircrafts with the production being continued at a currentrate of 300 items per month. This was a medium bomber with primary role the strategical attack andin addition secondary roles the tactical attack and the naval attack monoplane aircraft whichentered servce in 1939. It had, a crew of six men, two BMW FM133 fourteen-cylinder radial-form air-cooled benzine engines of 1,550 PS each, a maximum take-off weight of 14 t, a maximum speed of420 km/h, a maximum range of 3,000 km, a maximum altitude of 8,000 m, and, an armament of fiveFMG33 7.9mm machine guns of 7.9 mm in flexible installations and in addition a weapons load of upto 2,000 kg in bombs, seamines and torpedoes in an internal weapons station into the fuselage. _300 Dornier Do 219 heavy bomber aircrafts with the production being continued at a current rateof 100 pieces per month. This was a heavy bomber with primary role the strategical attack and inaddition secondary roles the tactical attack and the naval attack monoplane aircraft which enteredaction in 1939. It featured, a crew of seven men, four BMW FM133 fourteen-cylinder radial-form air-cooled benzine engines of 1,550 PS each, a maximum take-off weight of 29 t, a maximum speed of420 km/h, a maximum range of 7,000 km, a maximum altitude of 8,000 m, and, an armament of sixFMG33 7.9mm machine guns of 7.9 mm in flexible installations and in addition a weapons load of upto 4,000 kg by bombs, seamines and torpedoes in an internal weapons station into the fuselage. _10,410 miscellaneous aircrafts with no current production. These included: 3,000 Bücker Bü 180sfor basic-level training; 1,500 Gotha Go 145s for intermediate-level training; 750 Heinkel He 51s foradvanced-level training; 500 Messerschmitt Bf 109s, 50 Messerschmitt Bf 110s, 100 Junkers Ju 87s,300 Heinkel He 111s and 50 Dornier Do 19s for operational-conversion training; 800 Fieseler Fi 156sfor army cooperation; 300 Henschel Hs 126s for tactical reconnaissance; 100 Dornier Do 17s forstrategical reconnaissance; 300 Heinkel He 60s, 200 Heinkel He 59s and 100 Dornier Do 24s fornaval cooperation; 50 Focke-Wulf Fw 200s for naval reconnaissance; 2,000 Junkers Ju 52/3s and 8Junkers Ju 90s for general transport; 200 Messerscmitt Bf 108s, 100 Focke-Wulf Fw 58s and 2Heinkel He 116s for VIPs transport.Aircraft weapons
  11. 11. The aircraft weapons served into most of the aircrafts including amongst them most of themiscellaneous aircrafts within the Luftwaffe and had as follows. High-explosive of 10 kg, high-explosive of 20 kg, high-explosive of 40 kg, high-explosive of 125 kg, high-explosive of 250 kg, high-explosive of 500 kg, high-explosive of 1,000 kg, high-explosive of 2,000 kg, high-explosive of 4,000kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 10 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 20 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 40 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 125 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 250 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 500 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of1,000 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 2,000 kg, armour-piercing high-explosive of 4,000 kg,cluster with various 1-kg or 2-kg or 4-kg bomblets of 125 kg, cluster with various 1-kg or 2-kg or 4-kgbomblets of 250 kg, cluster with various 1-kg or 2-kg or 4-kg bomblets of 500 kg, incendiary of 10 kg,incendiary of 20 kg, incendiary of 40 kg, incendiary of 125 kg, chemical of 125 kg, chemical of 250 kg,chemical of 500 kg, biological of 125 kg, biological of 250 kg, biological of 500 kg and varioussecondary bombs; the FMG33 7.9mm fixed or flexible internal aircraft machine gun of 7.9 mm firingvarious rounds with basic the ball tracer such and in addition the FMK37 2cm L/45 fixed internal orexternal aircraft automatic gun of 20 mm/45 cal firing various rounds with main the armour-piercinghigh-explosive tracer such; various air-dropped seamines which had high-explosive charges; variousair-dropped torpedoes of 450 mm which were unguided with high-explosive charges; various air-dropped anti-submarine bombs which had high-explosive charges. Equipments of sea warfareVessels A total of approximately 749 vessels was in service with the armed forces and in more details onlywithin the Seewafffe while the vessel building continued at a current rate of some 20 vessels permonth which were all submarines. They had as follows with the figures of submarines beingapproximate. _15 submarines of the U6 class being built by 1938 with the building continuing at a current rate of5 units per month. The class of submarines U6 had, a maximum displacement of 2,200 t beingsurfaced and 3,100 t being submerged, a propulsion network of diesel engines and electric motorsincluding a snorkel for diving of long endurance, a maximum speed of 8 kn being submerged and 18kn being surfaced, and, an armament of two FlASMG34 7.9mm anti-aircraft machine guns of 7.9 mmand in addition eight torpedo tubes of 533 mm for torpedoes and seamines. _30 submarines of the U5 class being built by 1938 with the building continuing at a current rate of10 units per month. The class of submarines U5 featured, a maximum displacement of 950 t beingsurfaced and 1,700 t being submerged, a propulsion network of diesel engines and electric motorsincluding a snorkel for diving of long endurance, a maximum speed of 9 kn being submerged and 19kn being surfaced, and, an armament of two FlASMG34 7.9mm anti-aircraft machine guns of 7.9 mmand in addition eight torpedo tubes of 533 mm for torpedoes and seamines. _15 submarines of the U1 class being built by 1938 with the building continuing at a current rate of5 units per month. The class of submarines U1 had, a maximum displacement of 400 t being surfacedand 550 t being submerged, a propulsion network of diesel engines and electric motors including asnorkel for diving of long endurance, a maximum speed of 11 kn being submerged and 20 kn beingsurfaced, and, an armament of two FlASMG34 7.9mm anti-aircraft machine guns of 7.9 mm and inaddition four torpedo tubes of 533 mm for torpedoes and seamines. _2 battleships of the Bismarck class being built in 1935-1939. The class of battleships Bismarck had,a maximum displacement of 51,000 t, a propulsion network of diesel engines, a maximum speed of28 kn, and in addition, an armament of eight SASK 38cm L/52 anti-vessel guns of 380 mm/52 cal infour two-gun turrets, sixteen SASK 15cm L/60 anti-vessel guns of 150 mm/60 cal in eight two-gunturrets, twenty FlASK 10.5cm L/60 anti-aircraft guns of 105 mm/60cal in ten two-gun turrets, fifty-sixanti-aircraft automatic guns FlASMK36 3cm L/65 of 30 mm/65 cal in fourteen four-gun mounts, eighttorpedo tubes of 533 mm for torpedoes in two four-tube mounts, four launchers of anti-submarine
  12. 12. bombs and two launchers of seamines together with a transport capacity for four Heinkel He 60navy-cooperation aircrafts. _3 battlecruisers of the Deutschland class being built in 1929-1936. The class of battlecruisersDeutschland had, a maximum displacement of 15,500 t, a propulsion network of diesel engines, amaximum speed of 28 kn, and, an armament of six SASK 28cm L/52 anti-vessel guns of 280 mm/52cal in two six-gun turrets, eight SASK 15cm L/60 anti-vessel guns of 150 mm/60 cal in eight one-gunturrets, fourteenFlASK 10.5cm L/60 anti-aircraft guns of 105 mm/60 cal in seven two-gun turrets,thirty-two FlASMK36 3cm L/65 anti-aircraft automatic guns of 30 mm/65 cal in eight four-gunmounts, eight torpedo tubes of 533 mm for torpedoes in two four-tube mounts, four launchers ofanti-submarine bombs and two launchers of seamines together with a transport capacity for twoHeinkel He 60 navy-cooperation aircrafts. _5 heavy cruisers of the Admiral Hipper class being built in 1935-1939. The class of heavy cruisersAdmiral Hipper featured, a maximum displacement of 13,500 t, a propulsion network of dieselengines and steam turbines, a maximum speed of 31 kn, and, an armament of eight SASK 21cm L/60anti-vessel guns of 210 mm/60 cal in four two-gun turrets, twelve FlASK 8.8cm L/65 anti-aircraftguns of 88 mm/65 cal in six two-gun turrets, thirty-two FlASMK36 3cm L/65 automatic anti-aircraftguns of 30 mm/65 cal in eight four-gun mounts, eight torpedo tubes of 533 mm in two four-tubemounts, four launchers of anti-submarine bombs and two launchers of seamines together with atransport capacity for two Heinkel He 60 navy-cooperation aircrafts. _5 light cruisers of the Königsberg class being buit in 1926-1935. The class of light cruisersKönigsberg had, a maximum dispacement of 7,900 up to 9,100 t, a propulsion network of dieselengines and steam turbines, a maximum speed of 32 kn, and in addition, an armament consisting ofnine SASK 15cm L/60 anti-vessel guns of 150 mm/60 cal in three three-gun turrets, ten anti-aircraftguns FlASK 8.8cm L/65 of 88 mm/65 cal in five two-gun turrets, twenty-four FlASMK36 3cm L/65anti-aircraft automatic guns of 30 mm/65 cal in six four-gun mounts, twelve torpedo tubes of 533mm for torpedoes in four three-tube mounts, four launchers of anti-submarine bombs and twolaunchers of seamines together with a transport capacity for two Heinkel He 60 navy-cooperationaircrafts. _48 destroyers of the Leberecht Maass class being built in 1934-1937. The class of destroyersLebercht Maass had, a maximum displacement of 3,700 t, a propulsion network of steam turbines, amaximum speed of 36 kn, and, an armament of eight SASK 12cm L/60 anti-vessel guns of 120 mm/60cal in four two-gun turrets, twenty-four in six four-gun mounts FlASMK36 3cm L/65 anti-aircraftautomatic guns of 30 mm/65 cal, eight torpedo tubes of 533 mm for torpedoes in two four-gunmounts, four launchers of anti-submarine bombs and two launchers of seamines. _626 miscellaneous vessels with no current building. These included: 57 patrol; 42 minelayers; 68minesweepers; 18 replenishment; 185 transport; 1 training; 255 auxiliaries.Vessel weapons The vessel weapons served in most of the vessels including amongst them most of themiscellaneous vessels into the Seewaffe and had as follows. The FlASMG34 7.9mm anti-aircraftmachine gun of 7.9 mm firing various ammunition with main the tracer ball ammunition, theFlASMK30 2cm L/65 anti-aircraft automatic gun of 20 mm/65 cal firing various ammunition withmain the armour-piercing high-explosive such, the FlASMK36 3cm L/65 anti-aircraft automatic gun of30 mm/65 cal using various ammunition with basic the armour-piercing high-explosive such, theSASK 8.8cm L/65 anti-vessel gun of 88 mm/65 cal firing a variety of ammunition with main thearmour-piercing high-explosive such, the FlASK 8.8cm L/65 anti-aircraft gun using variousammunition with basic the high-explosive ammunition, the SASK 10.5cmL/60 anti-vessel gun of 105mm/60 cal firing various ammunition with main the armour-piercing high-explosive ammunition, theFlASK 10.5cm L/60 anti-aircraft gun of 105 mm/60 cal launching various ammunition with basic thehigh-explosive such, the SASK 12cm L/60 anti-vessel gun of 120 mm/60 cal launching a variety ofammunition with primary the armour-piercing high-explosive such, the SASK 15cm L/60 anti-vesselgun of 150 mm/60 cal firing various ammunition with basic the armour-piercing high-explosive
  13. 13. ammunition, the SASK 21cm L/60 anti-vessel gun of 210 mm/60 cal using a variety of ammunitionwith primary the armour-piercing high-explosive ammunition, the SASK 28cm L/52 anti-vessel gun of280 mm/52 cal launching various ammunition with basic the armour-piercing high-explosiveammunition and the SASK 38cm L/52 anti-vessel gun of 380 mm/52 cal using various ammunitionwith main the armour-piercing high-explosive such machine guns and guns; various sea-launchedtorpedoes of 533 mm including both guided for all the submarines as well as unguided for shipsalways with high-explosive charges; various sea-dropped anti-submarine bombs with high-explosivecharges; various sea-layed seamines including both for launching via torpedo tubes for all thesubmarines as well as for dropping via simple mechanisms for ships always with high-explosivecharges. AppendixUniforms The Wehrmacht possessed a unified network of uniforms for its whole personnel consisting ofbasically two basic shapes of uniforms: the official basic shape of uniforms and the unofficial basicshape of uniforms. The official basic shape of uniforms was basically the same for the total of theWehrmacht independently of arms of service or ranks and supplied all the men of theWehrmacht,while, differed basically only in the colour which was the field green for the Heer, thelight blue for the Luftwaffe, the heavy blue for the Seewaffe and the black for the SS. The unofficialbasic shape of uniforms was basically the same for the total of the Wehrmacht independently ofarms of service or ranks and supplied all the men of the Wehrmacht although it was rarely used bythe high officers or high officer equivalents, while, differed basically only in the colour which was thefield green for the majority of the Heer, the white-field green-light brown tiger camouflage for themoutain-hunters troops of the Heer, the light blue-field green-light brown tiger camouflage for theairborne-hunters troops of the Heer, the heavy blue-field green-light brown tiger camouflage for theseaborne-hunters troops of the Heer, the light blue for the Luftwaffe, the heavy blue for theSeewaffe, the black for the majority of the SS and the black-field green-light brown tiger camouflagefor the combat SS of the SS. The helmets, accompanied both the official basic shape of uniforms andthe unofficial basic shape of uniforms being found in the colours of the official basic shape ofuniforms to become a part of the official basic shape of uniforms and in addition usually with a clothcover in the colours of the unofficial basic shape of uniforms as well as sometimes additionally with ablack belt for plant additional camouflage to become a part of the unofficial basic shape of uniforms.In addition indeed there were various specialised uniform items for men who could face extremewinter weather conditions, for men who constituted crews of aircrafts etc.Command-control-communications and intelligence The Wehrmacht was the first total of armed forces in the world which possessed a unifiedcomplete network of command-control-communications and intelligence. This network, wasoperationally deployed into the total of the Wehrmacht, and, included wireless communicationsdevices in various categories of frequencies, wire communications subnetworks, teletypewriters,cryptographic devices, interception systems against the enemy wireless communications etc. A largepart of this network was being installed into fortifications including permanent such and an equallylarge part of this network was protected into armoured vehicles.Fortifications The Wehrmacht possessed endless fortifications which were divided into two basic categories. Theone category, concerned the temporary fortifications with little or no constructions under theground and in addition with little or no protection against the chemical and biological weaponswhich fortifications were used mainly by the Heer. The other category concerned the permanentfortifications with their majorities under the ground and in addition with major levels of protectionagainst the chemical and biological weapons which were used by the total of the Wehrmacht butmainly by the independent agencies, the Luftwaffe and the Seewaffe. As concerns the natures of
  14. 14. these fortifications, they were headquarters bases, command-control-communications andintelligence stations, elements of anti-aircraft defence, elements of anti-vessel defence, and, otherinstallations of the armed forces.PicturesThe flag of the German UnionOfficers of the SS in their official uniformsMen of the Heer in their official uniforms
  15. 15. The basic helmet of the Wehrmacht a model of 1916here without a brow plate as almost alwaysOfficers of various arms of service of the Wehrmacht in their official uniformsMen of the SS in their official uniforms
  16. 16. Men of the Heer in their unofficial uniformsMen of the Heer in their official uniformsThe G34 7.9mm rifle of 7.9 mm here with an accuracy scope and no bayonet or gun grenades shownThe MG34 7.9mm machine gun of 7.9 mm in its light form
  17. 17. The P35 7.65mm pistol of 7.65 mmThe MP35 7.65mm submachine gun of 7.65 mmThe PzKpfw III light fighting armoured vehicleThe PzKpfw IV heavy fighting armoured vehicleThe sFH35 15cm L/30 field howitzer of 150 mm/30 cal
  18. 18. The Focke-Wulf Fw 186 light pursuit aircraftThe Focke-Wulf Fw 187 heavy pursuit aircraftThe Junkers Ju 287 light bomber aircraftThe Junkers Ju 52/3 transport aircraftThe class of battleships Bismarck
  19. 19. The class of submarines U5The class of heavy cruisers Admiral Hipper

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