SMART EDU : the transformation of education. Strategies to prepare the jobs of the future
SMART EDU : THE TRANSFORMATION OF EDUCATION
STRATEGIES TO PREPARE THE JOBS OF THE FUTURE
Sylvie FAUCHEUX – Professor of Economics, CNAM (Paris).
(Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherches en sciences de l’action - LIRSA)
Email: Sylvie.Faucheux@cnam.fr Blog: http://sylviefaucheux.fr/
THE TRANSFORMATION OF EDUCATION STRATEGIES TO PREPARE THE JOBS OF THE FUTURE – PROFESSOR SYLVIE
FAUCHEUX (CNAM, FRANCE)
The « SMART CITY » offers a solution to climate change challenges (and, more generally, for the transition towards
sustainability), via the radical innovation processes that it engages and that touch all sectors and all types of jobs. As a global
transition strategy, it appeals as one of the “greatest opportunities of the 21st century” which, in rapid take-off around the
world, is likely to reach an annual value of more than $ 1000 billion in 2016.
The challenges in terms of existing jobs and, even more, future employment opportunities, are simply huge. The ILO
(International Labour Office, 2012) has estimated around 60 million new jobs world-wide, and the EU (2014) estimates about
20 million new jobs in Europe, between now and 2030. However, at the same time, the transition process will destroy
millions of existing jobs, which for many will spell disaster if there is not foresight and adaptation of skills.
Taking up the challenge of skills for future jobs requires, among other things, radical changes in education priorities and
procedures. In particular, a pragmatic “open” model of education is called for (with accent on pluridisciplinarity and
transversal skills, learning-by-doing, and collaborative structures including distance learning), and this becomes feasible as a
vision of “smart education”.
This education strategy will require radical changes in the physical spaces of teaching and learning, with the emergence of
hybrids of physical proximity and “virtual” environments - the “smart community campus”. In this talk, examples are given
from around the world to illustrate the ineluctable directions of change. To conclude, three innovative programmes are
mentioned, implemented by the CNAM (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers) and its partners, each of which aims at
the transformation of educational practices in anticipation of the jobs and skills of the future Smart City.
The “Smart City” - a response strategy
for the challenges of climate change
and transition towards sustainability
The “smart city” as a response strategy….
• Half of the world’s population lives in cities that, in direct terms, occupy only
2% of the Earth’s land area but contribute 65% of growth in world economic
• Between 1995 and 2015, world emissions of CO2 have increased by 45%, due
mainly to urban growth because it is cities that generate more than ¾ of CO2
• According to a variety of international forward studies exercises, advances in
applications of « smart systems », in all sectors, are the single most important
class of innovations in support of sustainability. These innovations will be
initiated, in large part, in the context of the « Smart City ».
• GESI,BCG (2012) « GESI SMARter 2020 : the role of ICT in Driving a Sustainable Future »
• BCG (2009), Green IT-France 2020
• UN/ITU “Measuring the Information Society”
• DESC China (2010), The ICT contribution to low carbon development in China.
• EICT, (2009), Prospects and Opportunities of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and media
- International Delphi Study 2030.
Source: Siemens AG; Siemens One, Copyright: Siemens AG
The different sectors of the eco-city of the future
• The sectors the most directly concerned
by « smart » innovations, are also those
with high impact in terms of CO2
emissions - transport, energy, buildings
• Applications of “smart systems” in cities,
have the potential to bring reductions of
up to 15% in world-wide greenhouse gas
emissions, between now and 2020.
• Equally, they can help to reduce the
overall environmental footprint, being
associated with structural changes
enabling the well-known « decoupling »
between economic growth and
environmental pressures (including
• Silicon Valley has, in recent years, moved
heavily in the direction of “Cleantech”;
• … the term 3rd Industrial Revolution is
increasingly employed to characterise
the interface between “sustainability”
and the applications of “smart”
technologies in urban systems and
territorial development (Rifkin, 2008).
• It is thus not surprising to see, since
2005, a flurry of government, inter-
governmental, sectoral and academic
reports making the connexion between
“smart systems” and “sustainability”
and, more particularly, their applications
for the emergence of “Smart Cities”
Sylvie Faucheux, Christelle Hue, Isabelle Nicolaï (2010), TIC et Développement durable: Les conditions du succès.
Antony Townsend (2013), Smart Cities : Big data, civil hackers and the quest for a new utopia.
§1. The “Smart City”
- A CHALLENGE FOR
THE JOBS OF THE FUTURE
1.1 - The “smart city” at the heart of
• What sorts of innovations?
• “Integrated” eco-innovations
• “Radical” eco-innovations
• Substitutions of products by services
• Fundamental organisational changes.
• The potential of eco-innovation in
the “smart city” extends to every
sector of activity and all skill
• The Smart City is “one of the
greatest economic opportunities of
the 21st century” …
• Currently in rapid take-off, the flow
of value worldwide is likely to rise
beyond $ 1000 billion in 2016.
(Pike Research, 2012)
1.2 - The challenges
in terms of current and future jobs
• Investments in “smart city”
developments are already
creating a strong demand for
specific human resources.
• For example, in the USA: around
280 000 jobs have been created,
and 140 000 jobs have been
preserved through re-skilling, in
the ‘smart grid’ sector alone.
• This market will also be the
principal source of the “Jobs of
the future” -
• The International Labour Office
(ILO, 2012) projects the
emergence of more than 60
million new jobs, worldwide, in
• For the European Union (EU
2014), the projections are for
around 20 million new jobs within
Europe, between now and 2030.
1.3 - Creation or destruction of jobs :
the thorny question of skills and (re)training
• It is not only a question of new domains
or sectors of activity, but of the complete
transformation of trades and skills in
• … with a huge impact on today’s jobs and
workforce, and on the place of
“traditional” occupations – that is,
characteristic of the past 50 years.
• During the transition phases “towards”
Smart Cities and sustainability, millions of
jobs could be lost, if there is not adequate
foresight and investment in new training
and adaptation of skills.
• A belated awakening of international
awareness…. For example:
• “Public policy measures are necessary to support and
accompany these changes” - Achim Steiner (the
Executive Director of the United Nations
Environmental Programme UNEP), at the launch of
the report Tendances mondiales de l’emploi 2014
(World Employment Tendancies 2014) published on
the 20 January 2014.
• The Report by the CEREQ in November 2014 on “La
prise en compte des mutations induites par la
transition écologique dans les formations
professionnelles” - Taking stock of the mutations in
professional training provoked by the ecological
• The report “Evolution Compétences Emplois Climat”,
- Evolution of Skills Jobs Climate, prepared by the
Région Ile de France in late 2014.
§2. The necessary
transformation in education
THE JOBS OF THE FUTURE
2.1 – Towards a new “open education” paradigm
• With emphasis on pluridisciplinarity and transversality….
• The so-called “smart” or “connected” technologies applied in the “Smart City”, require collective and
complex competencies, having their origins in many different sectors of activity and not traditionally in
close association . For example, in the case of smart grids, it is necessary to bring together computer
programmers and technicians, energy system engineers, and building specialists whose skill sets are very
different and, in the past, quite unrelated. In other words, radically new skill interfaces and team building
processes are required.
• A smart city does not only depend on technology, but also – and above all – on services and on the relations
amongst its inhabitants - hence the notion of the “smart collaborative city”. So-called “connected objects”
are pretty useless without human intelligence and accompaniment. Hence, the need to factor the human
and sciences into training and skill acquisition.
• …. And the accent on learning-by-doing (pédagogie par le projet)
• The new domains of knowledge and their linkages not being stabilised, training must be possible on-the-
job, learning-by-doing in real time.
• This accent on real-world context means, also, a heightened role for the territory as a vehicle in support of
initial and life-long learning opportunities.
(continued) 2.1 – Towards a new “open education” paradigm
• With the accent on collaborative learning processes….
• Between different ‘actors’ in the teaching and training process;
• Between education actors and business partners;
• Between learning partners, the research community, technologists and local
• …. And the full integration of multimedia “distance learning” into
• Confronting the vast needs and opportunities for life-long-learning;
• And the wide range of skills needing to be mobilised and developed.
2.2 From the smart city to the Smart Campus
• A transformation in education – an “old old” model made feasible through new
digital technologies – the vision of “smart education” -
• The accent is placed on learning processes (active, collaborative, and relatively autonomous),
relative to prevailing ‘top down’ models of teaching (where the students are often passive and
irresponsible for their learning environment and process).
• So-called “hybrid” learning models, with the opportunity to study alone or in groups, in
physical proximity or at a distance, notably by exploitation of on-line resources (e.g., MOOCs)
and of “inverted classroom” structures.
• Learning centred on collaborative projects and problem solving (Problem-based Learning) and
Blended Learning (Viau, 2004) , characterised by autonomy, teamwork and responsibility for
• The teacher has for their mission, to be everything that the computer isn’t - that is, a guide, a
facilitator, a mentor and a coach, capable of making emerge skills and confidence rather than
simply transmitting knowledge in a one-way sense.
(continued) 2.2 From the smart city to the Smart Campus
• The essential transformation of teaching spaces
• In the future, the number of large amphitheatres will diminish – partly as a result of MOOCs and
distance access with smart-screen technologies, but also through the development of “horizontal”
collaborative learning process, such as the “inverted classroom”. For example, the City University of
London ; (DGSIP, 2015).
• The traditional classroom organised with the teacher facing the students, will evolve or be replaced
by spatial arrangements more conducive to reciprocal exchanges and reflecting multiple time frames
of learning activity, individually or in small groups, with digital technologies permitting a spectrum of
formats for presentation, interaction and appropriation. (E.g., the University of Singapore).
• Collaborative and problem-based learning will require the availability of large numbers of rooms for
collaborative work where the students, outside of formal courses, work together in small teams – this
is the concept of Learning Centers, which are for collaborative work in the digital age, what the
Library was for individual study. For example:
• Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU), Écosse et le Saltire Centre Learning Grid.
• Le Learning Grid de l’University of Warwick, Angleterre,
• Le Rolex Learning Center de l’Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
• Key words: Dissolving barriers
Educational establishments in
future must become evolving
« Smart Community Campus »
The French Ministère de
l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la
Recherche (DGESIP) has recently
published a highly pertinent
report, whose title in translation is:
Campuses of the future :
The conception of
teaching/learning spaces in
the digital age.
Three examples of programmes involving the
CNAM in France, responding to these
challenges of education transformation
…. In line with the three core missions of the CNAM
- life-long education ;
- research ;
- diffusion of scientific and technological culture
• The International Symposium « The COP-21 Challenges – Transforming Jobs and
Skills », on the 13th November 2015 in the Amphithéatre Abbé Grégoire at the
CNAM in Paris, in collaboration with the IJSD, EURAM and Orange.
• A Skills Certificate (CERTIFICAT DE COMPÉTENCES TRANSVERSAL) in the field of
“Management of Smart and Sustainable Cities”, opening in February 2016.
• The SMART-Y-CAMPUS project for Jobs & Skills for Smart Territories being
implemented in partnership with the Yvelines District Council.